R Somvanshi

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Barelī, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Publications (43)33.48 Total impact

  • R. Somvanshi · K. Dhama

    No preview · Book · Jan 2015
  • Sonia Pathania · Pawan Kumar · M. Hoque · Ramesh Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: To ascertain the status of urinary bladder tumors (UBTs) in clinical cases of Enzootic Bovine Haematuria (EBH), the cystosonographic examination was evaluated as an aid in diagnosis. The urinary bladder of EBH affected animals showed thick bladder wall along with presence of some space occupying lesions suggestive of tumors. It also showed anechoic images indicating distended urinary bladder. The ecogenicity of urine content was not homogenous in some cases revealing swirling material. These findings were correlated with urinalysis which revealed that EBH affected animals were either microhaematuric or macrohaematuric. On necropsy, multiple hanging cauliflower-like growths or nodular thickenings in urinary bladders in EBH affected animals were observed. Histopathologically, majority of UBTs were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma-papillary type. Post-sonographic urinalysis, necropsy and histopathological diagnosis of these cases confirmed sonographic findings. This technique was found simple, accurate and reliable and can be applied in diagnosis and prognosis of UBTs in EBH cases.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    Jyotsna Mishra · Ayan Dey · Niti Singh · Ramesh Somvanshi · Sarman Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: Current therapy for leishmaniasis is limited and unsatisfactory. Amphotericin B, a second-line treatment is gradually replacing antimonials, the first-line treatment and is used as the preferred treatments in some regions. Though, presently it is the only drug with highest cure rate, its use is severely restricted by its acute toxicity. In the present study novel lipid-amphotericin B formulations with lower toxicity than the parent drug were evaluated for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a mouse model. Methods: The toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of a new amphiphilic formulation of amphotericin B (Kalsome™10) was compared to that of amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone) in a mouse model of VL using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: The toxicity of amphotericin B was significantly less with liposomal formulation as compared to the deoxycholate form, evidenced by reduced nephrotoxicity and higher tolerated dose in BALB/c mice. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by quantitative real time (RT) PCR using primers highly specific for the ITS region of Leishmania donovani. There was reduction in parasite load by 2 log unit after 7 days of treatment and finally resulting in complete clearance of parasite from infected mice after 30 days of treatment with Kalsome™10. Interpretation & conclusions: This new formulation showed a favourable safety profile and better efficacy when compared to conventional amphotericin B. If production cost is kept low, it may prove to be a feasible alternative to conventional amphotericin B.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
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    P Kumar · BL Jangir · G Saikumar · R Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the involvement of different bovine papillomaviruses in the teat warts of cattle. A total of 11 teat wart samples showing rice grain-like and small, sessile elevated greyish or flesh-like growths were collected from dairy cattle. DNA was extracted from these teat wart samples and PCR and real time PCR techniques were applied using specific primers for BPV-1 and -10 to detect the presence of viral nucleic acid. PCR revealed the presence of viral DNA of BPV-1 and -10 in three and seven samples, respectively. Quantification using real time PCR revealed that the copy numbers of the viral DNA of BPV-1 and -10 DNA varied from 1.12E + 04 to 2.99E + 04 and 3.56E + 02 to 5.23E + 06, respectively. From the present study it can be concluded that BPV-1 and -10 are involved in production of rice grain-like and sessile elevated growths on the teats of cattle.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Veterinární medicína
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    ABSTRACT: A preliminary therapeutic vaccine trial was conducted in hill cows to evaluate the therapeutic potential of binary ethylenimine (BEI) inactivated and saponized bovine papillomavirus-2 (BPV-2) for enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH). Although the vaccine failed to show favorable clinical vaccine results in treatment of EBH affected cows at 120 days post-vaccination but immunopathological responses were encouraging. A significant difference was observed in humoral (against Brucella abortus strain 19S) and cell-mediated (in vivo phytohaemagglutination delayed type hypersensitivity (PHA DTH) test and CD4+/CD8+ T-cells ratio by FACS analysis) immune responses following vaccination. The vaccinated animals grossly failed to show regression of bladder tumours but microscopically engorgement and marked perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells was observed which are indicative of the induction of initial stages of tumour regression. Overall results indicated that the therapeutic vaccine developed can have potentials for treating EBH in cows, for which further modifications in vaccine dose and field trial is required.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Vaccine
  • S Pathania · K Dhama · G Saikumar · S Shahi · R Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted with the objectives of detecting bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in urine samples and urinary bladder lesions in bovines using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR-based molecular diagnostic tests, and quantifying BPV-2 in urinary bladder lesions especially in enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH)-affected animals. BPV-2 viral DNA was detected in urine samples (50%) and urinary bladder tissue (68.6%). Cloning and sequencing results showed a close homology with other Indian BPV-2 sequences. Quantitative real-time PCR (SYBR Green assay) showed that the BPV-2 load was low and similar irrespective of inflammatory or neoplastic lesions in the bladder. It was concluded that BPV-2 DNA is frequently present in urine and urinary bladder lesions in cows in an EBH endemic region and virus load was low in urinary bladder lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
  • R. Goswami · S.M. Singh · M. Kataria · R. Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: Out of 78 adult laboratory and wild rats investigated for parasitic diseases, 19.23% were diagnosed positive for spontaneous Hymenolepis diminuta infection. Infection was more in laboratory rats (24%) than wild rats (10.71%). Sex wise distribution of H. diminuta infection was also higher male laboratory rats than females while wild rat females were found free from this tapeworm. Value of hemoglobin was significantly decreased in H. diminuta infected laboratory rats than controls. Significant increased plasma protein values in H. diminuta infected wild rats than uninfected wild rats were observed. Serum values of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT were significantly increased in H. diminuta infected wild rats than uninfected wild rats and other groups. Tissue enzyme studies revealed that although there were alterations of different enzymes in non-target organs of H. diminuta infected rats, but only lipid peroxidation, acetylcholinesterase and catalase were altered in target organ intestine. On SEM, the segments of H. diminuta showed width from 1120 to 1160 μm while length ranged from 120 to 150 μm. Most of segments had vertical lining and raised border on its each side of circumference. On necropsy examination, intestines were found to contain 25-40 mm long and about 1 mm wide, 3-4 or more tapeworms in each rat. Relative weight of intestine was significantly increased in H. diminuta laboratory rats than controls. Histopathologically, intestinal lumina showed varying number of H. diminuta segments with serrated borders. Occasionally, scolex of tapeworm attached with intestinal mucosa was also seen. H. diminuta infection caused pressure atrophy, compressed and atrophied villi, degeneration and desquamation of lining epithelium cells and excessive mucin secretion in intestinal mucosa and lumina. Occasionally, eosinophilic cellular infiltration was also observed. High prevalence of H. diminuta infection in rats is matter of concern as zoonosis in contact human beings.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011
  • K. Pangty · N. Punetha · D.R. Lauren · D.J. Jensen · R. Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of fern flora of certain parts of the districts of Champawat and Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand (India) was undertaken and the specimens collected were analyzed for the fern toxin, ptaquiloside (Pta) a carcinogen. Of the investigated 17 samples of 13 species, 8 samples (5 species) were found containing Pta and Pta with pterosin B (Pta + Pta B). The highest concentration of Pta (175.4 μg/g dmb) was found in the samples of Pteris aspercaulis from Barakote (Champawat) followed by P. wallichiana (89.1 μg/g) from Swala (Champawat), P. aspercaulis (86.3 μg/g) from Kumalgaon (Pithoragarh), P. biaurita (66.1 μg/g) from Lohaghat (Champawat), Emodiopteris appendiculata (17.3 μg/g) from Munsyari (Pithoragarh), (11.3 μg/g) from Ratapani (Munsyari), 8.6 μg/g) from Balati bend (Munsyari) and Pteris aspercaulis (5.8μg/g) from Patalthora (Munsyari), respectively. The samples of Christella dentata, Dicranopteris linearis, Diplazium esculentum, Dryopteris cochleata, D. juxtaposita, Polystichum squarossum, Pteridium revolutum and Pteris vittata failed to show the presence of Pta. However, the samples of Onychium cryptogrammoides from Munsyari (Pithoragarh) did contain Pterosin B (Pt B), a breakdown product of Pta. Pteris aspercaulis, P. biaurita, P. wallichiana and Emodiopteris appendiculata were identified for the first time to contain low to moderate level of Pta in India. These ferns may be contributing to the etiology of enzootic bovine haematuria, along with bracken, other ferns and bovine papillomavirus-2, as some of these areas are enzootic for this chronic ailment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences
  • K. Pangty · S. Dey · R. Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to study the preliminary therapeutic effects of anti-tumour WCS peptide in bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1&2)-induced hamster dermal fibroma tumour model. Gross and microscopic changes in peptide treatment at early interval fibroma indicated that growth was arrested while in wellgrown tumours, effect of treatment was not much appreciable. Vascular changes, vacuolar degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltration and inflammatory changes were seen in tumour stroma. Ultrastructural features included presence of fibroblasts and fibrocytes, abundance of banded collagen fibres, enlarged pleomorphic nuclei, marked heterochromatin and abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Certain nuclear and cytoplasmic organelle changes were indicative of therapeutic effects. It may be stated that anti-cancer WCS peptide had better therapeutic effects in early cases of experimentally-induced BPV tumours in hamsters.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
  • R Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: Scant information is available on papillomatosis in buffaloes, and it is an almost unknown disease. It has been described from India, Italy and Turkey. Buffalo papillomatosis occurs in cutaneous and mucosal forms. Cutaneous papillomatosis is manifested as cutaneous wart (CW) and teat papilloma types. The condition is known to be caused by bovine papillomaviruses (BPV)-1 and 2 and their mixed infections. Buffalo CWs are experimentally transmissible to hamsters, cattle as well as buffaloes. Once BPV establishes infection in buffaloes, infection spreads from buffalo to buffalo, without cattle intermediary. Histologically, CWs are mostly diagnosed as fibropapillomas. The mucosal form occurs as urinary bladder tumours similar to enzootic bovine haematuria which is also associated with bracken fern infested areas. BPVs are yet to be demonstrated in teat papillomas and urinary bladder tumours of buffalo cases. Papillomatosis in buffaloes is a little-known disease, but it is a separate infectious ailment of buffaloes and deserves more attention by researchers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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    Gaurava K Rai · Meeta Saxena · Vidya Singh · Ramesh Somvanshi · Bhaskar Sharma
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    ABSTRACT: Papilloma viruses are detected and identified by PCR with consensus primers designed from human papilloma virus sequences. These and other primers could not detect papilloma virus in bovine teat wart samples despite repeated attempts. DNase-SISPA, a metagenomic method for identifying viruses, could identify bovine papilloma virus type 10 in bovine teat warts. The sequence comparison between consensus primers and bovine papilloma virus type 10 sequences revealed many differences between consensus primers and BPV-10 sequences. We suggest, DNase-SISPA may be used as an alternate method for papilloma virus diagnosis, in cases where PCR fails to identify papilloma viruses.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Veterinary Microbiology
  • Pathania S · Kumar P · Devi LG · Kumar D · Dhama K · Somvanshi R.
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    ABSTRACT: A preliminary therapeutic vaccine trial was conducted in hill cows to evaluate the therapeutic potential of binary ethylenimine (BEI) inactivated and saponized bovine papillomavirus-2 (BPV-2) for enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH). Although the vaccine failed to show favorable clinical vaccine results in treatment of EBH affected cows at 120 days post-vaccination but immunopathological responses were encouraging. A significant difference was observed in humoral (against Brucella abortus strain 19S) and cell-mediated (in vivo phytohaemagglutination delayed type hypersensitivity (PHA DTH) test and CD4+/CD8+ T-cells ratio by FACS analysis) immune responses following vaccination. The vaccinated animals grossly failed to show regression of bladder tumours but microscopically engorgement and marked perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells was observed which are indicative of the induction of initial stages of tumour regression. Overall results indicated that the therapeutic vaccine developed can have potentials for treating EBH in cows, for which further modifications in vaccine dose and field trial is required.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Vaccine
  • K Dhama · SD Singh · R Somvanshi · JM Kataria

    No preview · Technical Report · Jan 2011
  • M K Tripathi · D Mondal · R Somvanshi · S A Karim
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment assessed the effect of feeding genetically modified cottonseed (Bt) containing an insect controlling protein (Cry1Ac) on haematology, blood biochemistry and histopathology of lambs. Haemato-biochemicals were estimated at periodic intervals, and histopathology at termination of experiment. Thirty three weaner lambs were fed a composite feed mixture (CFM) ad libitum individually, in three groups for 123 days. The isonitrogenous CFM had roughage (Perl Millet Stover) and concentrate ratio of 350:650. Diet fed to control lambs contained groundnut oil meal as protein source while other two groups received diet containing either whole cottonseed (N-Bt) or Bt-cottonseed (Bt-CS). Daily feed intake and average daily gain were similar among lambs of three groups. Lambs fed N-Bt diet had higher (p < 0.05) serum protein and globulin compared to control and Bt diets, while albumin content was higher (p = 0.018) in Bt diet fed lambs. Serum urea and creatinin content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activities were not different among lamb groups, while urea and creatinin content and ALP activities increased linearly (p < 0.001) with increased feeding period. Blood haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hc), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) ranged from 11.1% to 11.2%, 31.8% to 32.8%, 7.0 to 8.3 (× 10(3) /μl), 19.1 to 22.5 fl and 33.2% to 35.5%, respectively, were similar among lamb groups. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p = 0.008) and red blood cell counts (p = 0.006) were higher in Bt diet fed lambs. Control and N-Bt diet fed lambs had mild fatty infiltration in liver and/or micro-calculi in renal cortex, and such lesions were not seen in Bt diet fed lambs. Growth, haemato-biochemical and histopathology did not change by Bt-CS feeding in growing lamb. However, before recommending the use of Bt-CS in routine feed formulations prolonged feeding experiments of Bt-cotton seed require.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-bacterial drug resistance is one of the most critical concerns among the scientist worldwide. The novel antimicrobial decapeptide SD-8 is designed and its minimal inhibitory concentration and therapeutic index (TI) was found in the range of 1–8 μg/ml and 45–360, respectively, against major group of Gram positive pathogens (GPP). The peptide was also found to be least hemolytic at a concentration of 180 μg/ml, i.e., nearly 77 times higher than its average effective concentration. The kinetics assay showed that the killing time is 120 min for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 90 min for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Membrane permeabilization is the cause of peptide antimicrobial activity as shown by the transmission electron microscopy studies. The peptide showed the anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting COX-2 with a K D and K i values of 2.36 × 10−9 and 4.8 × 10−8 M, respectively. The peptide was also found to be effective in vivo as derived from histopathological observations in a Staphylococcal skin infection rat model with MRSA as causative organism.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Amino Acids
  • Vidya Singh · R. Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty cases of cutaneous warts (CWs) were recorded. Grossly and microscopically these were similar to those described in cattle as cauliflower-like or dome shaped and diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. These were characterized by presence of koilocytes, keratohyaline granules and inclusion bodies. BPV-like particles were demonstrated by negative staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). BPV-2 was detected from CWs by PCR and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. CWs were successfully transmitted to hamsters, cattle and buffaloes. Lesions produced in hamsters were early fibromatosis to fibromas and those in cattle and buffaloes were identical to those in natural cases. This is the first confirmed report of BPV-2 associated papillomatosis in Indian water buffaloes and its transmission.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
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    ABSTRACT: With the emergence of a new reassortant influenza A H1N1 virus that caused the 2009 pandemic it was felt necessary that pigs should be closely monitored for early detection of any influenza virus infection. Therefore, we investigated disease outbreaks with clinical history suggestive for swine influenza reported to our laboratory by owners of affected pig farms in Uttar Pradesh. Detection of swine influenza A virus (SIV) was attempted by isolation in embryonated chicken eggs. Presence of virus was detected by haemagglutination (HA) test and RT-PCR for amplification of different gene segments, cloning and sequencing. BLAST analysis of sequence data, phylogenetic analysis and mutation analysis based on HA, NA and matrix genes was done. SIV could be isolated from one farm and all eight gene segments amplified by RT-PCR. BLAST analysis of partial nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequence of HA (601 nt), NA (671 nt) and M (1031 nt) genes indicated close genetic relationship of the Indian swine isolate (A/Sw/UP-India-IVRI01/2009) with human pandemic 2009 (H1N1). The HA gene showed close relationship with the viruses of "North American Swine" lineage, whereas the NA and M genes clustered with the viruses of "Eurasian Swine" lineage, indicating a novel HA-NA reassortant. The remaining of 5 genes (NP, PA, PB1, PB2 and NS) belonged to "North American Swine" lineage. This is perhaps the first report describing swine influenza among Indian pigs caused by an influenza A H1N1 virus sharing close homology with the human pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Further reassortment with circulating influenza viruses must be closely monitored.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to investigate the incidence and establish etiopathology of cutaneous warts (CWs) in Indian water buffaloes of the Murrah breed in parts of Uttar Pradesh district of India. Twenty cases of CWs were recorded. Grossly and microscopically they were cauliflower-like or dome-shaped and were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/ papilloma. They were characterized by presence of koilocytes, keratohyaline granules and inclusion bodies. Negative staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed bovine papilloma virus (BPV) like particles. BPV-2 was detected from CWs by PCR and was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Further, CWs were successfully transmitted to hamsters, cattle and buffaloes. Lesions produced in hamsters were early fibromatosis to fibromas and those in cattle and buffaloes were identical to those in natural cases in buffaloes. This is the first confirmed report about the incidence of CWs in Indian water buffaloes, its association with BPV-2, and its successful transmission in the laboratory as well as natural hosts.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Buffalo Bulletin
  • K. Dhama · R. Somvanshi

    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2010
  • K Pangty · S Singh · R Goswami · G Saikumar · R Somvanshi
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine cutaneous warts (CWs) were investigated in Northern India. Of 49 cases, 44 were recorded in cattle and 5 in buffaloes. These animals had mild to moderate grade infections. Grossly, cases of CWs appeared to be of exophytic type, however, different types of growth patterns were observed. A total of 26 biopsies (cattle 21 and buffaloes 5) from CWs-affected animals studied histopathologically were diagnosed as exophytic and cauliflower-like fibropapilloma 13, exophytic and dome-shaped fibropapilloma 5, occult and/or fibroblastic type papilloma 3, cauliflower-like papilloma 3, endophytic fibropapilloma 1 and fibroma 1. On PCR analysis, 11 CWs and 2 normal skin samples showed BPV-1, -2 mixed infections. A rapid, sensitive and reliable real-time SYBR Green PCR test to detect BPV-1, BPV-2 and to quantify BPV-1 was developed. Results of amplification and dissociation plot of real-time PCR revealed that six samples were BPV-1 positive, eight were BPV-2 positive and six were positive for both BPV-1 and -2. CWs samples from different dairy farms testing positive for BPV-1 by PCR assay were also positive using Quantitative real-time SYBR Green PCR assay. For the first time, mixed infection of BPV-1 and -2 was detected in India and BPV-1 load was quantified by real-time SYBR Green PCR assay.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Transboundary and Emerging Diseases