[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) reduces fibrinolytic resistance through the inhibition of thrombin-mediated activation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Because low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is co-administered with VKA during initiation of anticoagulant treatment, we evaluated the effect of dual anticoagulation on fibrinolytic resistance.
Two groups of patients were studied: 1) patients on stable warfarin; 2) patients starting oral anticoagulant therapy, who were evaluated during dual anticoagulation and after enoxaparin withdrawal. Only samples with an INR between 2 and 3 were compared. The resistance of clots to t-PA-induced fibrinolysis was evaluated in blood and plasma by thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry, respectively.
In patients on dual anticoagulation, blood fibrinolysis time (TEG) was significantly shorter than in patients on warfarin alone and significantly correlated with LMWH level. The profibrinolytic effect was partly ascribable to a reduction of thrombin-dependent TAFI activation: 1) thrombin and TAFIa generation were significantly reduced by dual anticoagulation; 2) the addition of enoxaparin to warfarin-blood reduced TAFI-mediated fibrinolysis inhibition. Patients on dual anticoagulation also displayed a reduction in clot strength, a phenomenon known to reduce fibrinolytic resistance. The profibrinolytic effect of LMWH co-administration was not seen in plasma, likely because TAFIa generation was below the threshold required to inhibit fibrinolysis.
Co-administration of LMWH in patients under VKA reduces the fibrinolytic resistance of blood clots via TAFI-dependent and TAFI-independent mechanisms. Further studies are warranted to assess the clinical implications of these findings.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance of platelet-rich thrombi to fibrinolysis is generally attributed to clot retraction and platelet PAI-1 release. The role of TAFI in platelet-mediated resistance to lysis is unclear. Objective: We investigated the contribution of TAFI to the antifibrinolytic effect of platelets in whole blood by thromboelastography.
Platelet-poor (PP-WB, < 40 × 10(3) μL(-1) ) and platelet-rich (PR-WB, > 400 × 10(3) μL(-1) ) blood samples were obtained from normal human blood (N-WB, 150-220 × 10(3) μL(-1) ). Clot lysis time was measured by thromboelastography in recalcified blood supplemented with t-PA (100 ng mL(-1) ) and tissue factor (1:1000 Recombiplastin).
t-PA-induced lysis time increased in parallel with platelet concentration (up to 3-fold). Neutralization of TAFI, but not of PAI-1, shortened the lysis time by ∼ 50% in PR-WB and by < 10% in PP-WB. Accordingly, prothrombin F1+2 and TAFIa accumulation was greater in PR-WB than in PP-WB. A similar TAFI-dependent inhibition of fibrinolysis was observed when clot retraction was prevented by cytochalasin D or abciximab, or when platelet membranes were tested. Moreover, in blood with an intact contact system, platelet-mediated fibrinolysis resistance was attenuated by an anti-FXI but not by an anti F-XII antibody. Finally, platelets made the clots resistant to the profibrinolytic effect of heparin concentrations displaying a strong anticoagulant activity.
Our data indicate that TAFI activation is one major mechanism whereby platelets make clots resistant to fibrinolysis and underscore the importance of TAFI inhibitors as new antithrombotic agents.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis