[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) functions as an isomerase to catalyze thiol:disulfide exchange, as a chaperone to assist protein folding, and as a subunit of prolyl-4-hydroxylase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. At a lower concentration of 0.2 microm, PDI facilitated the aggregation of unfolded rabbit muscle creatine kinase (CK) and exhibited anti-chaperone activity, which was shown to be mainly due to the hydrophobic interactions between PDI and CK and was independent of the cross-linking of disulfide bonds. At concentrations above 1 microm, PDI acted as a protector against aggregation but an inhibitor of reactivation during CK refolding. The inhibition effect of PDI on CK reactivation was further characterized as due to the formation of PDI-CK complexes through intermolecular disulfide bonds, a process involving Cys-36 and Cys-295 of PDI. Two disulfide-linked complexes containing both PDI and CK were obtained, and the large, soluble aggregates around 400 kDa were composed of 1 molecule of tetrameric PDI and 2 molecules of inactive intermediate dimeric CK, whereas the smaller one, around 200 kDa, was formed by 1 dimeric PDI and 1 dimeric CK. To our knowledge this is the first study revealing that PDI could switch its conformation from dimer to tetramer in its functions as a foldase. According to the observations in this research and our previous study of the folding pathways of CK, a working model was proposed for the molecular mechanism of CK refolding catalyzed by PDI.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The refolding of aminoacylase denatured in 6M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) has been studied by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, ANS fluorescence spectra and far-UV circular dichroism spectra. The results showed that GdnHCl-denatured aminoacylase could be refolded and reactivated by dilution. A refolding intermediate was observed for low concentrations of GdnHCl (between 0.5 and 1.2M). This refolding intermediate was characterized by an increased fluorescence emission intensity, a blue-shifted emission maximum, and by increased binding of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS). The secondary structure of the intermediate was similar to that of the native enzyme, and was therefore quite similar to the molten globule state often found in the protein folding pathway. Combined with the previous evidence of existence of an intermediate during unfolding process, we therefore proposed that the unfolding and refolding of aminoacylase might share the same pathway. A comparison of the Apo-enzyme and Holo-enzyme showed that there was little effect of the zinc ion on the refolding of the aminoacylase. Our study, the first successful report of the refolding of this metalloenzyme, also showed that lowering the concentration and the temperature of the enzyme improved the refolding rate of aminoacylase. The system therefore provides a useful model to study the refolding of proteins with prosthetic groups.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoacylase is a dimeric enzyme containing one Zn(2+) ion per subunit. The arginine (Arg)-induced unfolding of Holo-aminoacylase and Apo-aminoacylase has been studied by measurement of enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence spectra. Besides being the most alkaline amino acid, the arginine molecule contains a positively charged guanidine group, similar to guanidine hydrochloride, and has been used in many refolding systems to suppress protein aggregation. Our results showed that arginine caused the inactivation and unfolding of aminoacylase, with no aggregation during denaturation. A comparison between the unfolding of aminoacylase in aqueous and HCl (pH 7.5) arginine solutions indicated that the guanidine group of arginine had protein-denaturing effects similar to those of guanidine hydrochloride, which might help us understand the mechanism by which arginine suppresses incorrect refolding. The results showed that arginine-denatured aminoacylase could be reactivated and refolded correctly, indicating that arginine is as good a denaturant as the guanidine or urea for study of protein unfolding and refolding. Both the intrinsic fluorescence and the ANS fluorescence spectra showed that the arginine-unfolded aminoacylase formed a molten globule state in the presence of KCl, suggesting that intermediates exist during aminoacylase refolding. The results for the Apo-aminoacylase followed were similar to those for the Holo-enzyme, suggesting that Holo- and Apo-aminoacylase might have a similar unfolding and refolding pathway.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of aggregation, by lowering temperature and protein concentrations, can enhance the extent of successful refolding. The low temperature has been used in protein folding studies, as undesired aggregations often occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is very important to study the effects of low temperature on the native enzyme to help understand the factors that affect the structure of the proteins. In this paper, aminoacylase was studied at different temperatures by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, and ultraviolet difference spectra. The results show that aminoacylase conformation changes as the temperature changes, becoming more compact at low temperatures, and having more secondary structural content. However, the activity is very low at low temperature, and totally diminishes at 4°C. Aminoacylase tends therefore to be more condense, with less residues exposed and low enzyme activities at low temperature. This observation might explain the self-protection of organisms under conditions of extreme temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspartate is an osmolyte found in some marine invertebrates and cyclostome fish. The aspartate-induced unfolding of N-acylamino acid amido hydrolase (aminoacylase) has been studied by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence spectra and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The results showed that aspartate caused the inactivation and unfolding of aminoacylase. Surprisingly, increasing concentration of aspartate showed the "acid-induced folding", which used to be seen only in strong acids or salts at much lower pH. Although aspartate has the pI of 2.77 that is the lowest among all the free amino acids, it is actually a weak acid. It is thus of great interest why it causes this phenomenon to happen. The relative change of intrinsic fluorescence and ANS binding spectra have shown that there existed a stable molten globule state of aminoacylase with slightly disrupted tertiary structure and more hydrophobic surface. The molten globule state indicates that intermediates existed during aminoacylase refolding process. Unlike the other acids, such as trichloroacetic acid, there is no precipitation observed as the aspartate concentrations increased. It suggests the aspartate anions have an osmotic effect for the molten globule formed during unfolding process. Binding of aspartate anion to the protonated protein, which minimizes the intramolecular repulsion, might explain the osmotic effect of this amino acid in the nature. The results also showed the Apo-aminoacylase followed similar rules as Holo-enzyme, which suggested the zinc ion may play more important roles on activity other than structure.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced unfolding of aminoacylase was investigated by measurement of aggregation, enzyme activity, intrinsic fluorescence, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding, circular dichroism, and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that TCA caused inactivation and unfolding of aminoacylase. Intrinsic fluorescence results demonstrated that the TCA-induced transition of aminoacylase was characterized by two distinct stages during which the fluorescence emission maxima first redshifted to 338 nm and then blueshifted to 332 nm, close to that of native protein. ANS binding measurements revealed that TCA-denatured aminoacylase had a large hydrophobic area for TCA concentration near 2 mM. Comparison of the relative changes in wavelength shift and in the ANS intensity suggested the formation of a stable molten globule state of aminoacylase with a slightly disrupted tertiary structure and more hydrophobic surface than the native protein. Far-UV circular dichroism results provided further support that TCA induced the formation of two partially folded intermediates each with an enhanced native-like secondary structure. The results collectively suggest that a TCA-induced molten globule state is formed and stabilized during unfolding of aminoacylase and that association of the molten globule state may account for precipitation of the protein when denatured by TCA.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Protein Chemistry