Publications (89)362.46 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMMNewton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the largescale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of $3\times 10^{14}\,\mathrm{erg \,s^{1}cm^{2}}$ on the source flux within a 1$^{\prime}$ aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic followup provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate Xray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were selfconsistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results. The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between $M_{500}=7\times 10^{13}$ and $3\times 10^{14} M_\odot$, mostly located between $z=0.1$ and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the predictions from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of $\sigma_8$ and/or $\Omega_m$ appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to $z\sim1$. We also find strong evidence for the presence of largescale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg2 each at a pointsource sensitivity of ~ 5E15 erg/sec/cm2 in the [0.52] keV band (completeness limit). The survey's main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the spacetime distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, widearea Xray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and largescale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 followup programmes. We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multilambda and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the Xray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the Xray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multilambda associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. The XXL multilambda data set will have a unique lasting legacy value for cosmological and extragalactic studies and will serve as a calibration resource for future dark energy studies with clusters and other Xray selected sources. With the present article, we release the XMM XXL photon and smoothed images along with the corresponding exposure maps. The XMM XXL observation list (Table B.1) is available in electronic form at the CDS. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXLXMM survey.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe Kmouflage models of modified gravity using the effective field theory of dark energy. We show how the Lagrangian density $K$ defining the Kmouflage models appears in the effective field theory framework, at both the exact fully nonlinear level and at the quadratic order of the effective action. We find that Kmouflage scenarios only generate the operator $(\delta g^{00}_{(u)})^n$ at each order $n$. We also reverse engineer Kmouflage models by reconstructing the whole effective field theory, and the full cosmological behaviour, from two functions of the Jordanframe scale factor in a tomographic manner. This parameterisation is directly related to the implementation of the Kmouflage screening mechanism: screening occurs when $ K'$ is large in a dense environment such as the deep matter and radiation eras. In this way, Kmouflage can be easily implemented as a calculable subclass of models described by the effective field theory of dark energy which could be probed by future surveys.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study Modified Gravity (MG) theories by modelling the redshifted matter power spectrum in a spherical Fourier–Bessel basis. We use a fully nonlinear description of the realspace matter power spectrum and include the lowest order redshiftspace correction (Kaiser effect), taking into account some additional nonlinear contributions. Ignoring relativistic corrections, which are not expected to play an important role for a shallow survey, we analyse two different MG scenarios, namely the generalized Dilaton scalar–tensor theories and the f (R) models in the large curvature regime. We compute the 3D power spectrum ${\cal C}^{\rm s}_{\ell }(k_1,k_2)$ for various such MG theories with and without redshiftspace distortions, assuming precise knowledge of background cosmological parameters. Using an allsky spectroscopic survey with Gaussian selection function $\varphi (r)\propto \exp ({r^2/r^2_0}), r_0=150h^{1}\,$Mpc, and number density of galaxies $\bar{\it N} =10^{4}\;{\rm Mpc}^{3}$, we use a χ2 analysis, and find that the lower order (ℓ ≤ 25) multipoles of ${\cal C}^{\rm s}_\ell (k,k^{\prime })$ (with radial modes restricted to k < 0.2 h Mpc−1) can constraint the parameter $f_{R_0}$ at a level of 2 × 10−5(3 × 10−5) with 3σ confidence for n = 1(2). Combining constraints from higher ℓ > 25 modes can further reduce the error bars and thus in principle make cosmological gravity constraints competitive with Solar system tests. However this will require an accurate modelling of nonlinear redshiftspace distortions. Using a tomographic β(a)–m(a) parametrization we also derive constraints on specific parameters describing the Dilaton models of MG.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the nonlinear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario occurs at k ∼ 1 h Mpc−1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ξ± quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) $\lbrace f_{R_0} = 10^{4}, n = 1\rbrace$ model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ΛCDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the $\lbrace f_{R_0} = 10^{4}, n = 2\rbrace$ model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data. 
Article: Kmouflaging Clusters of Galaxies
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of a Kmouflage modification of gravity on the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. We extend the description of Kmouflage to situations where the scalar field responsible for the modification of gravity is coupled to a perfect fluid with pressure. We describe the coupled system at both the background cosmology and cosmological perturbations levels, focusing on cases where the pressure emanates from smallscale nonlinear physics. We derive these properties in both the Einstein and Jordan frames, as these two frames already differ by a few percents at the background level for Kmouflage scenarios, and next compute cluster properties in the Jordan frame that is better suited to these observations. Galaxy clusters are not screened by the Kmouflage mechanism and therefore feel the modification of gravity in a maximal way. This implies that the halo mass function deviates from $\Lambda$CDM by a factor of order one for masses $M\gtrsim 10^{14} \ h^{1} M_\odot$. We then consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of gases embedded in galaxy clusters and the consequences of Kmouflage on the Xray cluster luminosity, the gas temperature and the SunyaevZel'dovich effect. We find that the cluster temperature function, and more generally number counts, are largely affected by Kmouflage, mainly due to the increased cluster abundance in these models. Other scaling relations such as the masstemperature and the temperatureluminosity relations are only modified at the percent level due to the constraints on Kmouflage from local Solar System tests.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We show that Solar System tests can place very strong constraints on Kmouflage models of gravity, which are coupled scalar field models with nontrivial kinetic terms that screen the fifth force in regions of large gravitational acceleration. In particular, the bounds on the anomalous perihelion of the Moon imposes stringent restrictions on the Kmouflage Lagrangian density, which can be met when the contributions of higher order operators in the static regime are sufficiently small. The bound on the rate of change of the gravitational strength in the Solar System constrains the coupling strength $\beta$ to be smaller than $0.1$. These two bounds impose tighter constraints than the results from the Cassini satellite and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Despite the Solar System restrictions, we show that it is possible to construct viable models with interesting cosmological predictions. In particular, relative to $\Lambda$CDM, such models predict percent level deviations for the clustering of matter and the number density of dark matter haloes. This makes these models predictive and testable by forthcoming observational missions. 
Article: Redshiftspace equaltime angularaveraged consistency relations of the gravitational dynamics
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ABSTRACT: We present the redshiftspace generalization of the equaltime angularaveraged consistency relations between $(\ell+n)$ and $n$point polyspectra of the cosmological matter density field. Focusing on the case of $\ell=1$ largescale mode and $n$ smallscale modes, we use an approximate symmetry of the gravitational dynamics to derive explicit expressions that hold beyond the perturbative regime, including both the largescale Kaiser effect and the smallscale fingersofgod effects. We explicitly check these relations, both perturbatively, for the lowestorder version that applies to the bispectrum, and nonperturbatively, for all orders but for the onedimensional dynamics. Using a large ensemble of $N$body simulations, we find that our squeezed bispectrum relation is valid to better than $20\%$ up to $1h$Mpc$^{1}$, for both the monopole and quadrupole at $z=0.35$, in a $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. Additional simulations done for the Einsteinde Sitter background suggest that these discrepancies mainly come from the breakdown of the approximate symmetry of the gravitational dynamics. For practical applications, we introduce a simple ansatz to estimate the new derivative terms in the relation using only observables. Although the relation holds worse after using this ansatz, we can still recover it within $20\%$ up to $1h$Mpc$^{1}$, at $z=0.35$ for the monopole. On larger scales, $k = 0.2 h\mathrm{Mpc}^{1}$, it still holds within the statistical accuracy of idealized simulations of volume $\sim8h^{3}\mathrm{Gpc}^3$ without shotnoise error.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive derivation of linear perturbation equations for different matter species, including photons, baryons, cold dark matter, scalar fields, massless and massive neutrinos, in the presence of a generic conformal coupling. Starting from the Lagrangians, we show how the conformal transformation affects the dynamics. In particular, we discuss how to incorporate consistently the scalar coupling in the equations of the Boltzmann hierarchy for massive neutrinos and the subsequent fluid approximations. We use the recently proposed Kmouflage model as an example to demonstrate the numerical implementation of our linear perturbation equations. Kmouflage is a new mechanism to suppress the fifth force between matter particles induced by the scalar coupling, but in the linear regime the fifth force is unsuppressed and can change the clustering of different matter species in different ways. We show how the CMB, lensing potential and matter power spectra are affected by the fifth force, and find ranges of Kmouflage parameters whose effects could be seen observationally. We also find that the scalar coupling can have the nontrivial effect of shifting the amplitude of the power spectra of the lensing potential and density fluctuations in opposite directions, although both probe the overall clustering of matter. This paper can serve as a reference for those who work on generic coupled scalar field cosmology, or those who are interested in the cosmological behaviour of the Kmouflage model.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents 52 Xray bright galaxy clusters selected within the 11 deg2 XMMLSS survey. 51 of them have spectroscopic redshifts (0.05 < z < 1.06), one is identified at zphot = 1.9, and all together make the highpurity ‘Class 1’ (C1) cluster sample of the XMMLSS, the highest density sample of Xrayselected clusters with a monitored selection function. Their Xray fluxes, averaged gas temperatures (median TX = 2 keV), luminosities (median LX, 500 = 5 × 1043 erg s−1) and total mass estimates (median 5 × 1013 h−1 M⊙) are measured, adapting to the specific signaltonoise regime of XMMLSS observations. Particular care is taken in deriving the sample selection function by means of realistic simulations reproducing the main characteristics of XMM observations. The redshift distribution of clusters shows a deficit of sources when compared to the cosmological expectations, regardless of whether Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe9 or Planck2013 cosmic microwave background parameters are assumed. This lack of sources is particularly noticeable at 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 0.9. However, after quantifying uncertainties due to small number statistics and sample variance, we are not able to put firm (i.e. >3σ) constraints on the presence of a large void in the cluster distribution. We work out alternative hypotheses and demonstrate that a negative redshift evolution in the normalization of the LXTX relation (with respect to a selfsimilar evolution) is a plausible explanation for the observed deficit. We confirm this evolutionary trend by directly studying how C1 clusters populate the LXTXz space, properly accounting for selection biases. We also point out that a systematically evolving, unresolved, central component in clusters and groups (AGN contamination or cool core) can impact the classification as extended sources and be partly responsible for the observed redshift distribution. We provide in a table the catalogue of 52 clusters together with their measured properties.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigate the smallscale static configurations of Kmouflage models defined by a general function $K(\chi)$ of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear Kmouflage mechanism if $K'(\chi)$ grows sufficiently fast for large negative $\chi$. In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, the results depend on the potential function $W_{}(y) = y K'(y^2/2)$, which must be monotonically increasing to $+\infty$ for $y \geq 0$ to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Starting from vanishing initial conditions or from nearby profiles, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If $W_{}$ is bounded, for highdensity objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If $W_{}$ is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there are an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions but these are not physical and those models are not theoretically sound. Such Kmouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small scale configurations. This shows the importance of smallscale nonlinear analysis of screening models.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clustering ratio $\eta$, a largescale structure observable originally devised to constrain the shape of the power spectrum of matter density fluctuations, is shown to provide a sensitive and model independent probe of the nature of gravity in the cosmological regime. We apply this analysis to $F(R)$ theories of gravity using the luminous red galaxy sample extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the absolute amplitude of deviations from GR, $f_{R_0 }$, is constrained to be smaller than $3 \times 10^{6}$ at the 1$\sigma$ confidence level. This bound, improving by an order of magnitude on current constraints, makes cosmological probes of gravity competitive with Solar system tests.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study the cosmology of Kmouflage theories at the background level. We show that the effects of the scalar field are suppressed at high matter density in the early Universe and only play a role in the late time Universe where the deviations of the Hubble rate from its $\Lambda$CDM counterpart can be of order five percent for redshifts $1 \lesssim z \lesssim 5$. Similarly, we find that the equation of state can cross the phantom divide in the recent past and even diverge when the effective scalar energy density goes negative and subdominant compared to matter, preserving the positivity of the squared Hubble rate. These features are present in models for which Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is not affected. We analyse the fate of Kmouflage when the nonlinear kinetic terms give rise to ghosts, particle excitations with negative energy. In this case, we find that the Kmouflage theories can only be considered as an effective description of the Universe at low energy below $1$ keV. In the safe ghostfree models, we find that the equation of state always diverges in the past and changes significantly by a few percent since $z\lesssim 1$.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study structure formation in Kmouflage cosmology whose main feature is the absence of screening effect on quasilinear scales. We show that the growth of structure at the linear level is both affected by a new time dependent Newton constant and a friction term which depend on the background evolution. These combine with the modified background evolution to change the growth rate by up to ten percent since $z\sim 2$. At the one loop level, we find that the nonlinearities of the Kmouflage models are mostly due to the matter dynamics and that the scalar perturbations can be treated at tree level. We also study the spherical collapse in Kmouflage models and show that the critical density contrast deviates from its $\Lambda$CDM value and that, as a result, the halo mass function is modified for large masses by an order one factor. Finally we consider the deviation of the matter spectrum from $\Lambda$CDM on nonlinear scales where a halo model is utilised. We find that the discrepancy peaks around $1\ h{\rm Mpc}^{1}$ with a relative difference which can reach fifty percent. Importantly, these features are still true at larger redshifts, contrary to models of the chameleon$f(R)$ and Galileon types.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We explicitly test the equaltime consistency relation between the angularaveraged bispectrum and the power spectrum of the matter density field, employing a large suite of cosmological $N$body simulations. This is the lowestorder version of the relations between $(\ell+n)$point and $n$point polyspectra, where one averages over the angles of $\ell$ soft modes. This relation depends on two wave numbers, $k'$ in the soft domain and $k$ in the hard domain. We show that it holds up to a good accuracy, when $k'/k\ll 1$ and $k'$ is in the linear regime, while the hard mode $k$ goes from linear ($0.1\,h\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{1}$) to nonlinear ($1.0\,h\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{1}$) scales. On scales $k\lesssim 0.4\,h\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{1}$, we confirm the relation within a $\sim 5\%$ accuracy, even though the bispectrum can already deviate from leadingorder perturbation theory by more than $30\%$. We further show that the relation extends up to nonlinear scales, $k \sim 1.0\,h\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{1}$, within an accuracy of $\sim 10\%$.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aims: We estimate the amplitude of the sourcelens clustering bias and of the intrinsicalignment bias of weaklensing estimators of the twopoint and threepoint convergence and cosmicshear correlation functions. Methods: We use a linear galaxy bias model for the galaxydensity correlations, as well as a linear intrinsicalignment model. For the threepoint and fourpoint density correlations, we use analytical or semianalytical models, based on a hierarchical ansatz or a combination of oneloop perturbation theory with a halo model. Results: For twopoint statistics, we find that the sourcelens clustering bias is typically several orders of magnitude below the weaklensing signal, except when we correlate a very lowredshift galaxy (z2 ≲ 0.05) with a higher redshift galaxy (z1 ≳ 0.5), where it can reach 10% of the signal for the shear. For threepoint statistics, the sourcelens clustering bias is typically on the order of 10% of the signal, as soon as the three galaxy source redshifts are not identical. The intrinsicalignment bias is typically about 10% of the signal for both twopoint and threepoint statistics. Thus, both sourcelens clustering bias and intrinsicalignment bias must be taken into account for threepoint estimators aiming at a better than 10% accuracy. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cosmological dynamics of gravitational clustering satisfies an approximate invariance with respect to the cosmological parameters that is often used to simplify analytical computations. We describe how this approximate symmetry gives rise to angular averaged consistency relations for the matter density correlations. This allows one to write the $(\ell+n)$ density correlation, with $\ell$ largescale linear wave numbers that are integrated over angles, and $n$ fixed smallscale nonlinear wave numbers, in terms of the smallscale $n$point density correlation and $\ell$ prefactors that involve the linear power spectra at the largescale wave numbers. These relations, which do not vanish for equaltime statistics, go beyond the already known kinematic consistency relations. They could be used to detect primordial nonGaussianities, modifications of gravity, limitations of galaxy biasing schemes, or to help designing analytical models of gravitational clustering.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe how the kinematic consistency relations satisfied by density correlations of the largescale structures of the Universe can be derived within the usual Newtonian framework. These relations express a kinematic effect and show how the $(\ell+n)$density correlation factors in terms of the $n$point correlation and $\ell$ linear power spectrum factors, in the limit where the $\ell$ soft wave numbers become linear and much smaller than the $n$ other wave numbers. We show how these relations extend to multifluid cases. These consistency relations are not equivalent to the Galilean invariance nor to the equivalence principle, as both can be violated and the relations remain valid. We describe how these relations are due to a weak form of scale separation and that a detection of their violation would indicate nonGaussian initial conditions or a modification of gravity that does not converge to General Relativity on large scales.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigate the possible accuracy that can be reached by analytical models for the matter density power spectrum and correlation function. Using a realistic description of the power spectrum that combines perturbation theory with a halo model, we study the convergence rate of several perturbative expansion schemes and the impact of nonperturbative effects, as well as the sensitivity to phenomenological halo parameters. We check that the simple reorganization of the standard perturbative expansion, with a Gaussian damping prefactor, provides a wellordered convergence and a finite correlation function that yields a percent accuracy at the BAO peak (as soon as one goes to second order). Lagrangianspace expansions are somewhat more efficient, when truncated at low orders, but may diverge at high orders. We find that whereas the uncertainty on the haloprofile massconcentration relation is not a strong limitation, the uncertainty on the halo mass function can severely limit the accuracy of theoretical predictions for $P(k)$. The realspace correlation function provides a better separation between perturbative and nonperturbative effects, which are restricted to $x \lesssim 10 h^{1}$Mpc at all redshifts.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study the effects of screened modified gravity of the $f(R)$, dilaton and symmetron types on structure formation, from the quasilinear to the nonlinear regime, using semianalytical methods. For such models, where the range of the new scalar field is typically within the Mpc range and below in the cosmological context, nonlinear techniques are required to understand the deviations of the power spectrum of the matter density contrast compared to the $\Lambda$CDM template. This is nowadays commonly tackled using extensive Nbody simulations. Here we present new results combining exact perturbation theory at the one loop level (and a partial resummation of the perturbative series) with a halo model. The former allows one to extend the linear perturbative analysis up to $k\lesssim 0.15{\rm h Mpc}^{1}$ at the perturbative level while the latter leads to a reasonable, up to a few percent, agreement with numerical simulations for $k\lesssim 3{\rm h Mpc}^{1}$ for large curvature $f(R)$ models, and $k\lesssim 1{\rm h Mpc}^{1}$ for dilatons and symmetrons, at $z=0$. We also discuss how the behaviors of the perturbative expansions and of the spherical collapse differ for $f(R)$, dilaton, and symmetron models.
Publication Stats
1k  Citations  
362.46  Total Impact Points  
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Institutions

20112014

French National Centre for Scientific Research
 Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
Lutetia Parisorum, ÎledeFrance, France


2012

Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration
Peping, Beijing, China


19992010

Cea Leti
Grenoble, RhôneAlpes, France 
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California, United States
