Publications (111)427.26 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present invention relates to a cell and mammal in which GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase is knocked-out. The cell and mammal are useful for the production of an antibody molecule having high antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic activity, such as an antibody useful for treating various diseases. The cell and mammal are also useful for the production of a fragment of the antibody, and a fusion protein having the Fc region of the antibody.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a clinically significant and practical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of MxA protein in human whole blood, a biological marker of viral infection. A sandwich ELISA suitable for the measurement of human MxA protein in whole blood was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against the GTP-binding domain of human MxA protein. Prior to the assay, the whole blood sample was treated with special buffer to extract the MxA protein, improve its stability, and avoid interference from hemoglobin. This ELISA meets all the requirements for use in routine clinical assays, especially in terms of sensitivity (detection limit: 1.3 ng/ml whole blood), accuracy (recovery: 93.0-100.0%), and rapidity (<1.5 h). The present ELISA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for viral infection when compared to samples from healthy control and 87.1% and 90.9% when compared to samples from the bacterial infection group. We have developed a new ELISA for measuring MxA protein in human whole blood using mAbs specific for the GTP-binding domain of MxA. This ELISA has analytical performance enough for routine clinical assay and can be used in detecting the possibility of viral infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th e disappointing clinical effi cacy of anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in asthma has been attributed to an incomplete depletion of eosinophils in lung tissue. These data have raised the possibility that more efficient strategies to deplete resident eosinophils may translate to greater clinical efficacy. MEDI-563, which has also been known as BIW- 8405, is a humanized anti-human IL-5 receptor α (IL-5Rα) antibody that not only inhibits the interaction of IL-5 with its high-affi nity receptor, but also depletes IL-5Rα-expressing cells through enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. IL-5Rα expression in humans is restricted to eosinophils and basophils and their progenitors in the bone marrow. Th erefore, quantitative depletion of eosinophils and basophils in bone marrow, blood and lung tissue by MEDI-563 might result in enhanced clinical effi cacy in diseases characterized by eosinophilic and/or basophilic inflammation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, more than 20 therapeutic antibodies have been approved for clinical use and many others are now at the clinical and preclinical stage of development. Fragment crystallizable (Fc)-dependent antibody functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and a long half-life, have been suggested as important clinical mechanisms of therapeutic antibodies. These functions are primarily triggered through direct interaction of the Fc domain with its corresponding receptors: FcgammaRIIIa for ADCC, C1q for CDC, and neonatal Fc receptor for prolongation of the clearance rate. However, current antibody therapy still faces the critical issues of insufficient efficacy and the high cost of the therapeutic agents. A possible solution to these issues could be to engineer antibody molecules to enhance their antitumor activity, leading to improved therapeutic outcomes and reduced doses. Here, we review advanced Fc engineering approaches for the enhancement of effector functions, some of which are now ready for evaluation of their effectiveness in clinical trials.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human interleukin-5 is the key cytokine involved in regulating the production and function of human eosinophils. IL-5 binds to its specific receptor composed of two heterogeneous alpha and beta polypeptide chains (hIL-5Ralpha and betac) that are expressed on the cell surface. The hIL-5Ralpha specifically binds IL-5 without involvement of the betac. It has been suggested that neutralizing antibodies to hIL-5Ralpha could serve as a therapeutic agent in eosinophil-associated diseases. We describe here the creation and biologic activities of a mouse monoclonal antibody against hIL-5Ralpha that blocks the following IL-5 dependent activities (a) binding of the IL-5 ligand to its receptor, (b) IL-5 dependent growth of hIL-5R expressing cells, and (c) IL-5-induced adhesion of human eosinophils. We also describe the process for humanization of the mouse Mab towards development of a therapeutic MAb. The humanized version of the monoclonal antibody also displayed potent neutralizing activity against IL-5 dependent activities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted an open label dose-escalation phase I trial of chimeric anti-GD3 mAb KM871 in patients with metastatic melanoma. Patients were entered into one of five dose levels (1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/m2) and received three infusions of KM871 at 2-wk intervals. A metastatic melanoma site was biopsied at day 7-10. Pharmacokinetics, immune function, and mechanism of action of KM871 were analysed. A total of 17 patients were entered into the trial; 15 were evaluable. KM871 had a serum half-life (T1/2-beta) based on ELISA of 10.39 +/- 1.12 d (mean +/- SD). Trough levels >1.0 microg/mL KM871 at 2 wk postinfusion were seen with the 10 mg/m2 and higher dose levels. There were no significant changes in white blood cell subsets or serum complement levels during KM871 treatment. KM871 was stable in vivo and maintained binding affinity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) function up to 2 wk postinfusion. No significant trends in CDC or antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in patients were observed during treatment. Analysis of tumour biopsies demonstrated a significant increase in CD4+ T cell infiltrates compared to control patient tumours (P = 0.010), and in patients with either stable disease (2 patients) or a clinical partial response (1 patient) at restaging, a significant increase in CD3 and CD4 infiltrates in tumour over nonresponding patients was observed. The favourable immune properties of KM871, combined with this preliminary clinical data, indicate that KM871 has potential for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human IgG1 antibodies with low fucose contents in their asparagine-linked oligosaccharides have been shown recently to exhibit potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. To additionally investigate the efficacy of the human IgG1 with enhanced ADCC, we generated the defucosylated chimeric anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) IgG1 antibody KM2760. KM2760 exhibited much higher ADCC using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as effector cells compared with the highly fucosylated, but otherwise identical IgG1, KM3060. In addition, KM2760 also exhibited potent ADCC in the presence of lower concentrations of human PBMCs than KM3060. Because CCR4 is a selective marker of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, the effectiveness of KM2760 for T-cell malignancy was evaluated in several mouse models. First, to compare the antitumor activity of KM2760 and KM3060, we constructed a human PBMC-engrafted mouse model to determine ADCC efficacy with human effector cells. In this model, KM2760 showed significantly higher antitumor efficacy than KM3060, indicating that KM2760 retains its high potency in vivo. Second, KM2760 suppressed tumor growth in both syngeneic and xenograft mouse models in which human PBMCs were not engrafted. Although murine effector cells exhibited marginal ADCC mediated by KM2760 and KM3060, KM2760 unexpectedly showed higher efficacy than KM3060 in a syngeneic mouse model, suggesting that KM2760 functions in murine effector system in vivo via an unknown mechanism that differs from that in human. These results indicate that defucosylated antibodies with enhanced ADCC as well as potent antitumor activity in vivo are promising candidates for the novel antibody-based therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease resulting from a block in the hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside, an intermediate in ganglioside catabolism. The mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease (Hexa -/-) has been described as behaviorally indistinguishable from wild type until at least 1 year of age due to a sialidase-mediated bypass of the metabolic defect that reduces the rate of GM2 ganglioside accumulation. In this study, we have followed our mouse model to over 2 years of age and have documented a significant disease phenotype that is reminiscent of the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease. Onset occurs at 11-12 months of age and progresses slowly, in parallel with increasing storage of GM2 ganglioside. The disease is characterized by hind limb spasticity, weight loss, tremors, abnormal posture with lordosis, possible visual impairment, and, late in the disease, muscle weakness, clasping of the limbs, and myoclonic twitches of the head. Immunodetection of GM2 ganglioside showed that storage varies widely in different regions, but is most intense in pyriform cortex, hippocampus (CA3 field, subiculum), amygdala, hypothalamus (paraventricular supraoptic, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, and mammilary body), and the somatosensory cortex (layer V) in 1- to 2-year-old mutant mice. We suggest that the Tay-Sachs mouse model is a phenotypically valid model of disease and may provide for a reliable indicator of the impact of therapeutic strategies, in particular geared to the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which is a potential therapeutic target in treating the peribronchial eosinophilia associated with allergic airway diseases. Bronchial epithelial cells represent an important source of chemokines, and thus we investigated in vitro and in vivo expression of eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in bronchial epithelial cells in comparison with that of eotaxin-1. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of both eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in addition to eotaxin-1 in asthmatics. Considerable amounts of eotaxins were secreted by bronchial epithelial lineage. As with eotaxin-1 production, generation of eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 by bronchial epithelial cells was up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuated by IFN-gamma and glucocorticoids. In addition to eotaxin-1 expression, but also eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 expression in the bronchial epithelium should be taken into consideration when developing the therapeutic strategies to treat eosinophilic airway diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established a new monoclonal antibody (2C9) that reacted with prostate tissue. The immunohistochemical reactivity of this antibody is similar to anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Herein, we report the antigenic determinant of 2C9 antibody. The reactivity of the antibody was characterized by immunohistochemical staining and the antigen target was characterized by amino acid sequencing after immuno-affinity purification from an LNCaP cell lysate and cloning of a cDNA using a mammalian expression cDNA cloning system. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences for the antigen molecule recognized with 2C9 monoclonal antibody demonstrated identity with PSMA. The target molecule of the 2C9 monoclonal antibody is PSMA, pointing to future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclic moiety of an endothelin antagonist peptide RES-701-1, composed of 10 amino acids with an amide bond between alpha-NH(2) of Gly1 and beta-COOH of Asp9, was coupled to some biologically active peptides aiming to improve their activities and stabilities against proteolytic degradation. Coupling of the cyclic peptide to the N-terminal of RGD-peptides, maximally 4-fold improvement of in vitro activity compared to the original peptide has been achieved. Coupling of it to protein farnesyltransferase inhibiting peptides resulted to improve in vitro activity maximally 3-fold. These peptides coupled with the cyclic peptide also showed enhanced stability against some typical proteases. These results indicate that this cyclic peptide can stabilize the conformations of the peptides coupled to its C-terminus. Coupling of our cyclic peptide is anticipated to be a novel conformational stabilizing method for biologically active peptides, results to improve their activity and stability.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined, by immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of aromatase and estrone sulfatase (E1-STS) which are the two major enzymes involved in in situ estrogen synthesis in breast cancer tissue. In the 83 cases examined, E1-STS, which hydrolyses estrone sulfate (E1S) to estrone (E1), was dominantly detected in tumor cells in 43 (59.0%) cases. Aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, was dominantly detected in stromal cells of the tumor. It was detected in 39 (47.0%) of the 83 cases. There was no significant correlation between the expression of these two enzymes and clinicopathological factors. We found a tendency for a correlation between aromatase expression and E1-STS expression in breast tumor (p=0.075). In terms of the possible use of these enzymes as prognostic indicators, patients who had aromatase in their tumor showed longer relapse-free survival than those lacking aromatase (p=0.045). Significant correlations between the expression of aromatase and the angiogenesis regulators, vascular endothelial growth factor and thymidine phosphorylase, were found (p=0.047 and p=0.046, respectively), though the presence of aromatase did not correlate with intratumoral microvessel density. This may indicate that aromatase is involved in vascular permeability and recruitment of endothelial cells rather than neovascularization. It may be useful to study the expression of aromatase and E1-STS using immunocytochemical analysis for understanding the tumor characteristics in breast cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that is essential for DNA synthesis. Its activity is strongly associated with cell proliferation. We assessed the value of immunostaining for RNR in distinguishing between reactive mesothelia (RM), malignant mesotheliomas (MM) and adenocarcinomas (AC) in serous effusions. Cytocentrifuged cell smears of serous effusions from 38 RM, 10 MM and 36 AC were immunostained with the monoclonal antibody KM1054 raised against the R2 subunit of RNR (RNR-R2) using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Quantitative RNR-R2 values were determined by counting the percentages of immunoreactive cells. RNR-R2 immunostaining was confined to the cytoplasm. The median RNR-R2 value was 1.4% (range, 0-7.9%) for RM, 11.2% (4.1-15.3%) for MM and 12.1% (2.0-40.6%) for AC. Significant differences in RNR-R2 values were found for both AC versus RM (P < .001) and MM versus RM (P = .009). There was no difference between AC and MM (P = .26). An RNR-R2 value > or = 7% was found in 30 of 36 AC, 8 of 10 MM and 2 of 38 RM. RNR-R2 immunostaining can be useful as an adjunct for differentiating AC or MM from RM in serous effusions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anti-human interleukin 5 receptor (hIL-5R) humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and an anti-CD20 chimeric IgG1 produced by rat hybridoma YB2/0 cell lines showed more than 50-fold higher antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) using purified human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector than those produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Monosaccharide composition and oligosaccharide profiling analysis showed that low fucose (Fuc) content of complex-type oligosaccharides was characteristic in YB2/0-produced IgG1s compared with high Fuc content of CHO-produced IgG1s. YB2/0-produced anti-hIL-5R IgG1 was subjected to Lens culinaris aggulutin affinity column and fractionated based on the contents of Fuc. The lower Fuc IgG1 had higher ADCC than the IgG1 before separation. In contrast, the content of bisecting GlcNAc of the IgG1 affected ADCC much less than that of Fuc. In addition, the correlation between Gal and ADCC was not observed. When the combined effect of Fuc and bisecting GlcNAc was examined in anti-CD20 IgG1, only a severalfold increase of ADCC was observed by the addition of GlcNAc to highly fucosylated IgG1. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that YB2/0 cells had lower expression level of FUT8 mRNA, which codes alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase, than CHO cells. Overexpression of FUT8 mRNA in YB2/0 cells led to an increase of fucosylated oligosaccharides and decrease of ADCC of the IgG1. These results indicate that the lack of fucosylation of IgG1 has the most critical role in enhancement of ADCC, although several reports have suggested the importance of Gal or bisecting GlcNAc and provide important information to produce the effective therapeutic antibody.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chimeric KM871 monoclonal antibody targets the GD3 disialoganglioside antigen and is under investigation for its immunotherapeutic potential in melanoma. Preclinical and phase I studies have demonstrated the biodistribution and specific tumour targeting of KM871 to metastatic melanoma in vivo, with a long half-life and lack of immunogenicity making it an attractive candidate for further clinical trials. In vitro studies have demonstrated KM871 induces high levels of cytotoxicity in both antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assays. In order to investigate the potential for cytokine upregulation of KM871-mediated ADCC, freshly isolated healthy donor PBMC effector cells were cultured in the presence or absence of the cytokines interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor and the ADCC determined over a 10-day period. In the absence of these cytokines, ADCC activity of 1 micro g/ml KM871 on (51) Cr-labeled SK-MEL-28 target cells could not be detected after 72 hrs of culture of PBMC effector cells in media. In contrast, ADCC mediated by KM871 was significantly enhanced and maintained for the 10-day study period upon culturing PBMCs with media containing IL-2 and/or IL-12, but not with GM-CSF. FACS analysis of the effector cell population indicated CD3-/CD16+56+ NK cells were primarily responsible for the KM871-mediated ADCC activity and a direct correlation was observed between the percentage of NK cells and the level of cytotoxicity mediated by the PBMCs. Furthermore, ADCC was significantly reduced using NK-depleted PBMCs. These results suggest combining IL-2 or IL-12 with KM871 may enhance KM871 immune-mediated cell killing in patients with metastatic melanoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel linker consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dipeptide was used for conjugation of adriamycin with tumor-specific monoclonal antibody, NL-1, to confirm that the linker can be cleaved selectively with the tumor specific enzyme to express cytotoxicity of the anti-tumor agent. Initially, adriamycin-conjugated PEG linkers through different amino acid compositions, alanyl-valine (Ala-Val), alanyl-proline (Ala-Pro), and glycyl-proline (Gly-Pro) sequences, were prepared to confirm selective digestion with model enzymes. Adriamycin was released by particular model endoproteases, thermolysin and proline endopeptidase, from the linkers with different efficiency. When conjugates were prepared using these adriamycin-bound linkers, conjugates had no loss of binding affinity and specificity for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) expressed on the Daudi cell surfaces as the target of NL-1 antibody. In addition, adriamycin release from the conjugates was also confirmed by incubating them with specific proteases. Tumor cell growth was inhibited dose-dependently for the conjugates carrying Ala-Val and Gly-Pro linkers, whereas significant inhibitory effect was abolished for the conjugate carrying Ala-Pro linker, indicating that cytotoxic effect can be controlled by specificity of antibody and composition of linker peptide. IC(50) for Ala-Val linked conjugate was approximately 3.5 microg/ml and that for Gly-Pro linked conjugate was 5.2 microg/ml. PEG-dipeptidyl linker demonstrated here will be an effective tool for the preparation of immunoconjugate, especially specific activation of anti-tumor agents at desired tumor tissues.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KM871 is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the ganglioside antigen GD3, which is highly expressed on melanoma cells. We conducted an open-label, dose escalation phase I trial of KM871 in patients with metastatic melanoma. Seventeen patients were entered onto one of five dose levels (1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/m2). Patients received three infusions of KM871 at 2-week intervals, with the first infusion of KM871 trace-labeled with indium-111 (111In) to enable assessment of biodistribution in vivo. Biopsies of metastatic melanoma sites were performed on days 7 to 10. Fifteen of 17 patients completed a cycle of three infusions of KM871. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed during the trial; the maximum-tolerated dose was therefore not reached. Three patients (at the 1-, 5-, and 40-mg/m2 dose levels) developed pain and/or erythema at tumor sites consistent with an inflammatory response. No normal tissue uptake of 111In-KM871 was observed, and tumor uptake of 111In-KM871 was observed in all lesions greater than 1.5 cm (tumor biopsy 111KM871 uptake results: range, 0.001% to 0.026% injected dose/g). The ratio of maximum tumor to normal tissue was 15:1. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 111In-KM871 terminal half-life of 7.68 +/- 2.94 days. One patient had a clinical partial response that lasted 11 months. There was no serologic evidence of human antichimeric antibody in any patient, including one patient who received 16 infusions over a 12-month period. This study is the first to demonstrate the biodistribution and specific targeting of an anti-GD3 antibody to metastatic melanoma in patients. The long half-life and lack of immunogenicity of KM871 makes this antibody an attractive potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gangliosides GD3, GD2 and GM2, which are the major gangliosides expressed on most human cancers of neuroectodermal and epithelial origin, have been focused on as effective targets for passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies. We previously developed a chimeric anti-GD3 mAb, KM871, and a humanized anti-GM2 mAb, KM8969, which specifically bound to the respective antigen with high affinity and showed potent immune effector functions. Humanization of anti-ganglioside antibody is expected to enhance its use for human cancer therapy. In the present study, we generated a chimeric anti-GD2 mAb, KM1138, and further developed the humanized form of anti-GD2 and anti-GD3 mAbs by the complementarity-determining regions grafting method. The resultant humanized anti-GD2 mAb, KM8138, and anti-GD3 mAb, KM8871, showed binding affinity and specificity similar to those of their chimeric counterparts. In addition, both humanized mAbs had functional potency comparable to the chimeric mAbs in mediating the immune effector functions, consisting of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The production of these humanized anti-ganglioside mAbs, with potent effector functions and low immunogenicity, precedes the evaluation of the therapeutic value of anti-ganglioside mAbs in passive immunotherapy and the target validation for ganglioside-based vaccine therapy.
Kyowa Hakko Kirin