[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Correlations between instruments measuring the same construct reflect their concurrent validity. Little is known about changes in correlations between such instruments employed in studies with repeated assessment. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the changes in correlations between depression instruments in the course of longitudinal studies.
A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PsycINFO for the period from 1960 to 2013. The total number of collected articles was 3723, of which 61 were included. Three meta-analyses were performed for the changes in correlations between each pair of the three depression scales: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The effect size in these meta-analyses was obtained by the z-transformation of correlation coefficients.
Correlations between depression scales increased over time in 52 studies. Significant changes in correlation coefficients were found for correlations between HAMD and BDI (p<0.001) and for correlations between HAMD and MADRS (p<0.001). An increase in correlations between the scales was associated with a decrease in depression scores and increase in their variability.
Univariable and multivariable meta-regression models were not obtained in all three meta-analyses because of the lack of data.
A finding that correlations between depression instruments tended to increase over time has significant implications for assessment of the concurrent validity of these instruments. In longitudinal designs it is important to estimate correlations between depression scales over time because different thresholds for scale correlations indicate acceptable concurrent validity at different times.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX score) is the 10-year estimated risk calculation tool for bone fracture that includes clinical data and hip bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate the ability of the FRAX score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism.
The bone mineral density (by DXA), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free thyroxine (fT4) level, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) titre, osteocalcin and beta-cross-laps were measured in 27 pre- and postmenopausal women with newly discovered subclinical hyperthyroidism [age 58.85 +/- 7.83 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.89 +/- 3.46 kg/m2, menopause onset in 46.88 +/- 10.21 years] and 51 matched euthyroid controls (age 59.69 +/- 5.72 years, BMI 27.68 +/- 4.66 kg/m2, menopause onset in 48.53 +/- 4.58 years). The etiology of subclinical hyperthyroisims was autoimmune thyroid disease or toxic goiter. FRAX score calculation was performed in both groups.
In the group with subclinical hyperthyroidism the main FRAX score was significantly higher than in the controls (6.50 +/- 1.58 vs. 4.35 +/- 1.56 respectively; p = 0.015). The FRAX score for hip was also higher in the evaluated group than in the controls (1.33 +/- 3.92 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.46 respectively; p = 0.022). There was no correlations between low TSH and fracture risk (P > 0.05). The ability of the FRAX score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and postmenopausal female subjects (p < 0.001) is presented by the area under the curve (AUC) plotted via ROC analysis. The determined FRAX score cut-off value by this analysis was 6%, with estimated sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 75.9%, respectively.
Pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism have higher FRAX scores and thus greater risk for low-trauma hip fracture than euthyroid premenopausal women. Our results point to the use of FRAX calculator in monitoring pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism to detect subjects with high fracture risk in order to prevent further fractures.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Vojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Figures in scientific publications are critically important because they often show the data supporting key findings. Our systematic review of research articles published in top physiology journals (n = 703) suggests that, as scientists, we urgently need to change our practices for presenting continuous data in small sample size studies. Papers rarely included scatterplots, box plots, and histograms that allow readers to critically evaluate continuous data. Most papers presented continuous data in bar and line graphs. This is problematic, as many different data distributions can lead to the same bar or line graph. The full data may suggest different conclusions from the summary statistics. We recommend training investigators in data presentation, encouraging a more complete presentation of data, and changing journal editorial policies. Investigators can quickly make univariate scatterplots for small sample size studies using our Excel templates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal structural alterations have been partially uncovered in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Patients with CRS may have evidence of tubular damage, but markers of glomerular damage other than proteinuria have not been thoroughly investigated. The nature of renal damage in CRS may have therapeutic implications, as glomerular damage requires tight blood pressure control and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition. The present investigation evaluates patients with CRS type 2 (CRS-2) for direct evidence of glomerular damage as evidenced by the presence of urinary podocin.
The presence of glomerular damage was assessed in acutely decompensated patients with CRS-2 and healthy controls. Urinary podocin was determined by quantification of a tryptic peptide of podocin with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Morning urine samples were collected for podocin, creatinine (Cr), and protein. Urinary podocin was expressed in femtomoles of podocin/milligram of Cr.
The urinary podocin/Cr ratio was greater in patients than in controls (0.37 ± 0.77 vs. 0.06 ± 0.05 fmol podocin/mg Cr, p = 0.04). A total of 40% of the patients had a urinary podocin/Cr ratio greater than the upper limit of normal (>0.2 fmol podocin/mg Cr). Patients with an elevated podocin/Cr ratio were more likely to have received ≤50% of the maximum dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.04) than patients with a podocin/Cr ratio in the normal range.
CRS-2 may be associated with glomerular damage as evidenced by an elevated urinary podocin/Cr ratio. Modulators of RAAS may have a protective effect on urinary podocin loss.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · CardioRenal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard risk stratification for overall survival (OS) in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) is based on advanced age and history of thrombotic events. Recently, International Prognostic Score for ET (IPSET) incorporated also leukocytosis in prognostic model. The aim of this study was to establish additional risk factors for OS in ET patients.
After the median follow up of 7 years, in 244 consecutive ET patients, 32 deaths were documented (13.2%). The 5- and 10- years OS was 95.9% and 79.7% respectively. Considered additional risk factors at diagnosis of ET were the presence of arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and smoking attitude.
The main cause of death in 75% of patients was cardiovascular (CV) comorbidity. Patients with CV risk factors had increased risk of death (HR=2.33). Cox regression model identified age, leukocytosis, presence of CV risk factors and previous thrombosis as unfavorable predictors of survival. Based on these parameters, four risk groups were defined, with significantly different survivals (p<0.001). Improved prognostic model displayed a better hazard ratio profile compared to the standard risk stratification and IPSET.
The addition of CV risk factors allows better prognostic assessment by delineating the intermediate risk category and improved identification of the high-risk patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS) in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context.
The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency.
Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8), and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort). Values for fit indices TLI (0.940) and CFI (0.961) were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078) was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender.
Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the Serbian educational context.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current widely accepted stratification defined by age and previous thrombosis in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) probably deserves deeper analysis. The aim of our study was to identify additional factors at the time of diagnosis, which have an impact on the thrombosis prediction. We conducted a study of 244 consecutive ET patients with median follow-up of 83 months. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, laboratory parameters, history of previous thrombosis, spleen size, JAK2 mutation as well as cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes, active tobacco use and hyperlipidemia in the terms of thrombosis. The most important predictors of thrombosis in multivariate Cox regression model were the presence of CV risk factors (p = 0.004) and previous thrombosis (p = 0.038). Accordingly, we assigned risk scores based on multivariable analysis-derived hazard ratios (HR) to the presence of 1 CV risk factor (HR = 3.5; 1 point), >1 CV risk factors (HR = 8.3; 2 points) and previous thrombosis (HR = 2.0; 1 point). A final three-tiered prognostic model for thrombosis prediction was developed as low (score 0), intermediate (score 1 or 2) and high risk (score 3) (p < 0.001). The hazard of thrombosis was 3.8 % in low-risk group, 16.7 % in the intermediate-risk group and 60 % in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications during the follow-up had a significantly shorter survival (p = 0.018). The new score based on CV risk factors and previous thrombotic events allows a better patient selection within prognostic-risk groups and improved identification of the high-risk patients for thrombosis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Medical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The goal of this study was to compare the validity of two laboratory assays, rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), in monitoring and evaluating different prophylactic treatment regimens in patients with severe haemophilia.
Twenty adult patients with severe haemophilia were divided into three groups according to treatment regimen with concentrate of factor (F) VIII/IX: full-dose prophylaxis (5 patients), intermediate-dose prophylaxis (5 patients), and on demand treatment (10 patients).
The ROTEM for the group treated with full-dose prophylaxis was significantly lower than ROTEM for the group treated with intermediate-dose prophylaxis (p = 0.025). Among the patients given full-dose prophylaxis, 40% (2 patients) had prolonged ROTEM after 3 months of treatment, while among those given intermediate-dose prophylaxis all patients (100%, 5 patients) had prolonged ROTEM (p = 0.038). The ETP was significantly improved after 3 months of full-dose in comparison with intermediate-dose prophylaxis (p = 0.042).
ROTEM and ETP are useful laboratory assays for monitoring efficacy of different prophylaxis regimens with concentrate of FVIII/IX in patients with severe haemophilia, helping in making decisions regarding optimal dose-regimen prophylaxis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical laboratory