Nicholas Scott

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Are you Nicholas Scott?

Claim your profile

Publications (85)330.06 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The identification of galaxies with `overly massive' black holes requires two measurements: a black hole mass (M_bh) and a host spheroid mass (M_sph,*). Here we provide our measurements for NGC 1277. Our structural decomposition reveals that NGC 1277 is dominated by a `classical' spheroid with a Sersic index n=5.3, a half-light radius R_e=2.1 kpc, and a stellar mass of 2.7x10^{11} M_sun (using M_*/L_V=11.65, Martin-Navarro et al.). This mass is an order of magnitude greater than originally reported. Using the latest (M_bh)-n, (M_bh)-(M_sph,*) and (M_bh)-sigma relations, the expected black hole mass is respectively (0.57^{+1.29}_{-0.40})x10^9 M_sun, (1.58^{+4.04}_{-1.13})x10^9 M_sun, and (2.27^{+4.04}_{-1.44})x10^9 M_sun (using sigma=300 km/s) for which the `sphere-of-influence' is 0".31. Our new kinematical maps obtained from laser guide star assisted, adaptive optics on the Keck I Telescope reaffirm the presence of the inner, nearly edge-on, disk seen and modelled in the galaxy image. This disk produces a large velocity shear (~400 km/s) across the inner 0".2 (70 pc) plus elevated values of sqrt{sigma^2+(V_rot)^2} across the inner 3".8x0".6 region of the galaxy. Unfortunately, this disk also resulted in our new multi-Gaussian expansion (MGE) models and Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) analysis struggling to match this component. Our optimal black hole mass, albeit a probable upper limit, is 1.2x10^9 M_sun (M/L_V=12.3). This is an order of magnitude smaller than originally reported and 4 times smaller than recently reported. It gives an M_bh/M_sph,* ratio of 0.45% in agreement with the median (~0.5%) and range (0.1 to 5.0%) observed in non-dwarf, early-type galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the SAMI Pilot Survey, consisting of integral field spectroscopy of 106 galaxies across three galaxy clusters, Abell 85, Abell 168 and Abell 2399. The galaxies were selected by absolute magnitude to have $M_r<-20.25$ mag. The survey, using the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI), comprises observations of galaxies of all morphological types with 75\% of the sample being early-type galaxies (ETGs) and 25\% being late-type galaxies (LTGs). Stellar velocity and velocity dispersion maps are derived for all 106 galaxies in the sample. The $\lambda_{R}$ parameter, a proxy for the specific stellar angular momentum, is calculated for each galaxy in the sample. We find a trend between $\lambda_{R}$ and galaxy concentration such that LTGs are less concentrated higher angular momentum systems, with the fast-rotating ETGs (FRs) more concentrated and lower in angular momentum. This suggests that some dynamical processes are involved in transforming LTGs to FRs, though a significant overlap between the $\lambda_{R}$ distributions of these classes of galaxies implies that this is just one piece of a more complicated picture. We measure the kinematic misalignment angle, $\Psi$, for the ETGs in the sample, to probe the intrinsic shapes of the galaxies. We find the majority of FRs (83\%) to be aligned, consistent with them being oblate spheroids (i.e. disks). The slow rotating ETGs (SRs), on the other hand, are significantly more likely to show kinematic misalignment (only 38\% are aligned). This confirms previous results that SRs are likely to be mildly triaxial systems.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In around ≈25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is quite different than that in spiral galaxies however, with harsher radiation fields, deeper potentials and high metallicity and alpha-element abundances. Here we report on one element of our multi-faceted programme to understand the similarities and differences between the gas reservoirs in spirals and ETGs. We use spatially resolved observations from the CARMA mm-wave interferometer to investigate the size of the molecular reservoirs in the the CO-rich ATLAS3D ETGs (survey described in Alatalo et al. 2012, submitted). We find that the molecular gas extent is smaller in absolute terms in ETGs than in late-type galaxies, but that the size distributions are similar once scaled by the galaxies optical/stellar characteristic scale-lengths (Fig 1, left). Amongst ETGs, we find that the extent of the molecular gas is independent of the kinematic misalignment, despite the many reasons why misaligned gas might have a smaller extent. The extent of the molecular gas does depend on environment, with Virgo cluster ETGs having less extended molecular gas reservoirs (Fig 1, right). Whatever the cause, this further emphases that cluster ETGs follow different evolutionary pathways from those in the field. Full details of this work will be presented in Davis et al. (2012), submitted.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the data archive and database for the SAMI Galaxy Survey, an ongoing observational program that will cover ≈3400 galaxies with integral-field (spatially-resolved) spectroscopy. Amounting to some three million spectra, this is the largest sample of its kind to date. The data archive and built-in query engine use the versatile Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5), which precludes the need for external metadata tables and hence the setup and maintenance overhead those carry. The code produces simple outputs that can easily be translated to plots and tables, and the combination of these tools makes for a light system that can handle heavy data. This article acts as a contextual companion to the SAMI Survey Database source code repository, samiDB, which is freely available online and written entirely in Python. We also discuss the decisions related to the selection of tools and the creation of data visualisation modules. It is our aim that the work presented in this article–descriptions, rationale, and source code–will be of use to scientists looking to set up a maintenance-light data archive for a Big Science data load.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Computing
  • Nicholas Scott
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey we measure azimuthally averaged stellar age and metallicity profiles for ∼ 500 galaxies, using both luminosity-weighted Lick indices and mass-weighted full spectral fitting. We find a weak trend for steeper (i.e. more negative) metallicity gradients in more massive galaxies, however, below stellar masses ∼ 1010.5 M⊙, the scatter in metallicity gradient increases dramatically.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using new integral field observations of 106 galaxies in three nearby clusters, we investigate how the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane depends on the way in which the velocity dispersion and effective radius are measured. Our spatially resolved spectroscopy, combined with a cluster sample with negligible relative distance errors, allows us to derive a Fundamental Plane with minimal systematic uncertainties. From the apertures we tested, we find that velocity dispersions measured within a circular aperture with radius equal to one effective radius minimizes the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane. Using simple yet powerful Jeans dynamical models, we determine dynamical masses for our galaxies. Replacing luminosity in the Fundamental Plane with dynamical mass, we demonstrate that the resulting Mass Plane has further reduced scatter, consistent with zero intrinsic scatter. Using these dynamical models, we also find evidence for a possibly non-linear relationship between dynamical mass-to-light ratio and velocity dispersion.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have observed two kinematically offset active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose ionized gas is at a different line-of-sight velocity to their host galaxies, with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI). One of the galaxies shows gas kinematics very different from the stellar kinematics, indicating a recent merger or accretion event. We demonstrate that the star formation associated with this event was triggered within the last 100 Myr. The other galaxy shows simple disc rotation in both gas and stellar kinematics, aligned with each other, but in the central region has signatures of an outflow driven by the AGN. Other than the outflow, neither galaxy shows any discontinuity in the ionized gas kinematics at the galaxy's centre. We conclude that in these two cases there is no direct evidence of the AGN being in a supermassive black hole binary system. Our study demonstrates that selecting kinematically offset AGN from single-fibre spectroscopy provides, by definition, samples of kinematically peculiar objects, but integral field spectroscopy or other data are required to determine their true nature.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the Atlas3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star-formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation timescales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically-determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (M_JAM, Sigma_e, R_maj), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star-formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50% of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>10^10.5 M_sun), which themselves formed 90% of their stars by z~2. The lower-mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest-density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced and have shorter star-formation histories with respect to lower density regions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    Alister W. Graham · Nicholas Scott
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) containing under-massive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M_bh) and host spheroid stellar mass (M_sph,*). Dramatic revisions to the M_bh-M_sph,* and M_bh-L_sph relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have however recently identified a new steeper relation at M_bh < (2-10)x10^8 M_Sun, roughly corresponding to M_sph,* < (0.3-1)x10^{11} M_Sun. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M_bh-M_sph,* relation defined by the Sersic galaxies, i.e. galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 10^5 < M_bh/M_Sun < 0.5x10^8. That is, these AGN are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (non-linear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M_bh-M_sph,* relation defined by the Sersic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGN. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and over-massive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<10^5 M_Sun), and the new steep (black hole)--(nuclear star cluster) relation, M_bh ~ (M_nc)^{2.7+/-0.7}, are also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Alister W. Graham · Nicholas Scott · JAMES M. SCHOMBERT
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using black hole masses which span 10^5 to 10^(10) solar masses, the distribution of galaxies in the (host spheroid stellar mass)-(black hole mass) diagram is shown to be strongly bent. While the core-Sersic galaxies follow a near-linear relation, having a mean M_(bh)/M_(sph) mass ratio of ~0.5%, the Sersic galaxies follow a near-quadratic relation: M_bh~M_sph^(2.22+\-0.58). This is not due to offset pseudobulges, but is instead an expected result arising from the long-known bend in the M_(sph)-sigma relation and the log-linear M_(bh)-sigma relation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We take advantage of the first data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field (SAMI) Galaxy Survey to investigate the relation between the kinematics of gas and stars, and stellar mass in a comprehensive sample of nearby galaxies. We find that all 235 objects in our sample, regardless of their morphology, lie on a tight relation linking stellar mass ($M_{*}$) to internal velocity quantified by the $S_{0.5}$ parameter, which combines the contribution of both dispersion ($\sigma$) and rotational velocity ($V_{rot}$) to the dynamical support of a galaxy ($S_{0.5}=\sqrt{0.5V_{rot}^{2}+\sigma^{2}}$). Our results are independent of the baryonic component from which $\sigma$ and $V_{rot}$ are estimated, as the $S_{0.5}$ of stars and gas agree remarkably well. This represents a significant improvement compared to the canonical $M_{*}$ vs. $V_{rot}$ and $M_{*}$ vs. $\sigma$ relations. Not only is no sample pruning necessary, but also stellar and gas kinematics can be used simultaneously, as the effect of asymmetric drift is taken into account once $V_{rot}$ and $\sigma$ are combined. Our findings illustrate how the combination of dispersion and rotational velocities for both gas and stars can provide us with a single dynamical scaling relation valid for galaxies of all morphologies across at least the stellar mass range 8.5$<log(M_{*}/M_{\odot})<$11. Such relation appears to be more general and at least as tight as any other dynamical scaling relation, representing a unique tool for investigating the link between galaxy kinematics and baryonic content, and a less biased comparison with theoretical models.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Galactic archeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data-reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the Atlas3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multi--band, images of nearby early-type galaxies. We present here a catalog of 92 galaxies from the Atlas3D sample, that are located in low to medium density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, that achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey is compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB--optimized surveys at detecting new prominent structures that change the apparent morphology of galaxies. The intrinsic limitations of deep imaging observations are also discussed, among those, the contamination of the stellar halos of galaxies by extended ghost reflections, and the cirrus emission from Galactic dust. The detection and systematic census of fine structures that trace the present and past mass assembly of ETGs is one of the prime goals of the project. We provide specific examples of each type of observed structures -- tidal tails, stellar streams and shells --, and explain how they were identified and classified. We give an overview of the initial results. The detailed statistical analysis will be presented in future papers.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS(3D) project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization alpha(dyn) equivalent to (M/L)(stars)/(M/L)(Salp) and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [alpha/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of alpha(dyn) at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak alpha(dyn)-[alpha/Fe] and alpha(dyn)-Age correlations and no significant alpha(dyn)-[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
  • Source
    Nicholas Scott · Alister W. Graham · James Schombert

    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the Atlas3D project. We study trends between our dynamically-derived IMF normalisation and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population- (SSP-) equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [alpha/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalisation of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of normalisation at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak IMF-[alpha/Fe] and IMF-age correlations, and no significant IMF-[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalisation via low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use the Atlas3D sample to perform a study of the intrinsic shapes of early-type galaxies, taking advantage of the available combined photometric and kinematic data. Based on our ellipticity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and additional imaging from the Isaac Newton Telescope, we first invert the shape distribution of fast and slow rotators under the assumption of axisymmetry. The so-obtained intrinsic shape distribution for the fast rotators can be described with a Gaussian with a mean flattening of q=0.25 and standard deviation sigma_q = 0.14, and an additional tail towards rounder shapes. The slow rotators are much rounder, and are well described with a Gaussian with mean q = 0.63 and sigma_q =0.09. We then checked that our results were consistent when applying a different and independent method to obtain intrinsic shape distributions, by fitting the observed ellipticity distributions directly using Gaussian parametrisations for the intrinsic axis ratios. Although both fast and slow rotators are identified as early-type galaxies in morphological studies, and in many previous shape studies are therefore grouped together, their shape distributions are significantly different, hinting at different formation scenarios. The intrinsic shape distribution of the fast rotators shows similarities with the spiral galaxy population. Including the observed kinematic misalignment in our intrinsic shape study shows that the fast rotators are predominantly axisymmetric, with only very little room for triaxiality. For the slow rotators though there are very strong indications that they are (mildly) triaxial.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The SAMI Galaxy Survey will observe 3400 galaxies with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope in a 3-yr survey which began in 2013. We present the throughput of the SAMI system, the science basis and specifications for the target selection, the survey observation plan and the combined properties of the selected galaxies. The survey includes four volume-limited galaxy samples based on cuts in a proxy for stellar mass, along with low-stellar-mass dwarf galaxies all selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA regions were selected because of the vast array of ancillary data available, including ultraviolet through to radio bands. These fields are on the celestial equator at 9, 12 and 14.5 h, and cover a total of 144 deg2 (in GAMA-I). Higher density environments are also included with the addition of eight clusters. The clusters have spectroscopy from 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometry in regions covered by the SDSS and/or VLT Survey Telescope/ATLAS. The aim is to cover a broad range in stellar mass and environment, and therefore the primary survey targets cover redshifts 0.004 < z < 0.095, magnitudes rpet < 19.4, stellar masses 107–1012 M⊙, and environments from isolated field galaxies through groups to clusters of ∼1015 M⊙.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney–AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ∼3400 low-redshift (z < 0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated data cubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All data cubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated data cubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals in the continuum of 0.9–1.2 per cent, a relative flux calibration uncertainty of 4.1 per cent (systematic) plus 4.3 per cent (statistical), and atmospheric dispersion removed with an accuracy of 0.09 arcsec, less than a fifth of a spaxel.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a methodology for the regularization and combination of sparse sampled and irregularly gridded observations from fibre-optic multiobject integral field spectroscopy. The approach minimizes interpolation and retains image resolution on combining subpixel dithered data. We discuss the methodology in the context of the Sydney–AAO multiobject integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey underway at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The SAMI instrument uses 13 fibre bundles to perform high-multiplex integral field spectroscopy across a 1° diameter field of view. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is targeting ∼3000 galaxies drawn from the full range of galaxy environments. We demonstrate the subcritical sampling of the seeing and incomplete fill factor for the integral field bundles results in only a 10 per cent degradation in the final image resolution recovered. We also implement a new methodology for tracking covariance between elements of the resulting data cubes which retains 90 per cent of the covariance information while incurring only a modest increase in the survey data volume.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examine the kinematic morphology of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in three galaxy clusters Abell 85, 168 and 2399. Using data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) we measured spatially-resolved kinematics for 79 ETGs in these clusters. We calculate $\lambda_{R}$, a proxy for the projected specific stellar angular momentum, for each galaxy and classify the 79 ETGs in our samples as fast or slow rotators. We calculate the fraction of slow rotators in the ETG populations ($f_{SR}$) of the clusters to be $0.21\pm0.08$, $0.08\pm0.08$ and $0.12\pm0.06$ for Abell 85, 168 and 2399 respectively, with an overall fraction of $0.15\pm0.04$. These numbers are broadly consistent with the values found in the literature, confirming recent work asserting that the fraction of slow rotators in the ETG population is constant across many orders of magnitude in global environment. We examine the distribution of kinematic classes in each cluster as a function of environment using the projected density of galaxies: the kinematic morphology-density relation. We find that in Abell 85 $f_{SR}$ increases in higher density regions but in Abell 168 and Abell 2399 this trend is not seen. We examine the differences between the individual clusters to explain this. In addition, we find slow rotators on the outskirts of two of the clusters studied, Abell 85 and 2399. These galaxies reside in intermediate to low density regions and have clearly not formed at the centre of a cluster environment. We hypothesise that they formed at the centres of groups and are falling into the clusters for the first time.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

2k Citations
330.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • University of Sydney
      • Sydney Institute of Astronomy (SIfA)
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011-2015
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009-2012
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom