Minah Suh

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Minah Suh?

Claim your profile

Publications (48)152.2 Total impact

  • Yejin Ha · Jeongeun Sim · Youngmi Lee · Minah Suh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the fabrication of an insertable amperometric dual microsensor and its application for the simultaneous and fast sensing of NO and CO during acutely induced seizures of living rat brain cortex. NO and CO are important signaling mediators, controlling cerebrovascular tone. The dual NO/CO sensor is prepared based on a dual microelectrode having Au-deposited Pt microdisk (WE1, 76-μm diameter) and Pt black-deposited Pt disk (WE2, 50-μm diameter). The different deposited metals for WE1 and WE2 allow the selective anodic detection of CO at WE1 (+0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and that of NO at WE2 (+0.75 V vs. Ag/AgCl) with sufficient sensitivity. Fluorinated xerogel coating on this dual electrode provides exclusive selectivity over common biological interferents, along with fast response time. The miniaturized size (end plane diameter < 300 μm), and tapered needle-like sensor geometry make the sensor become insertable into biological tissues. The sensor is applied to simultaneously monitor dynamic changes of NO and CO levels in a living rat brain under acute seizure condition induced by 4-aminopyridine in cortical tissue near the area of seizure induction. In-tissue measurement shows clearly defined patterns of NO/CO changes, directly correlated with observed LFP signal. Current study verifies the feasibility of a newly developed NO/CO dual sensor for real-time fast monitoring of intimately connected NO and CO dynamics.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Analytical Chemistry
  • Source
    Dataset: c5an01804h1

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After three weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report the fabrication of a dual microsensor for sensing nitric oxide (NO) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and its application for simultaneous NO/Ca(2+) measurements in living rat kidney tissue. NO and Ca(2+) have very important physiological functions and are both intricately involved in many biological processes. The dual NO/Ca(2+) sensor is prepared based on a dual recessed electrode possessing Pt (diameter, 25 μm) and Ag (diameter, 76 μm) microdisks. The Pt disk surface (WE1) is electrodeposited with porous Pt black and then coated with fluorinated xerogel; and used for amperometric sensing of NO. The Ag disk surface (WE2) is chloridated to AgCl, followed by silanization and then Ca(2+) selective membrane loading; and used for potentiometric sensing of Ca(2+). The dual sensor exhibits high sensitivity of WE1 to NO (40.8 ± 6.5 pA μM(-1), n = 10) and reliable Nerntian response of WE2 to Ca(2+) changes (25.7 ± 0.5 mV pCa(-1), n = 10) with excellent selectivity to only NO and Ca(2+) over common interferents and reliable stability (up to ∼4 h tissue experiment). The prepared sensor is employed for real-time monitoring of the dynamic changes of NO and Ca(2+) levels of a rat kidney, which is induced by the administration of 10 mM l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor). Due to the small sensor dimension, location-dependent analyses of NO and Ca(2+) are carried out at two different regions of a kidney (renal medulla and cortex). Higher NO and Ca(2+) levels are observed at the medulla than at the cortex. This study verifies the feasibility for real-time monitoring of intimately connected Ca(2+) and endogenous NO production; and also for localized concentration assessments of both NO and Ca(2+).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Analyst
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating effector T cells play critical roles in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, current drugs for MS are very limited due to the difficulty of delivering drugs into the CNS. Here we identify a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, which efficiently delivers proteins into mouse and human T cells, as well as various tissues. Moreover, it enters the brain tissue and resident cells through blood vessels by penetrating the tightly organized blood-brain barrier. The dNP2-conjugated cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (dNP2-ctCTLA-4) negatively regulates activated T cells and shows inhibitory effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in both preventive and therapeutic mouse models, resulting in the reduction of demyelination and CNS-infiltrating T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells. Thus, this study demonstrates that dNP2 is a blood-brain barrier-permeable peptide and dNP2-ctCTLA-4 could be an effective agent for treating CNS inflammatory diseases such as MS.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe a toolkit of components for mathematical models of the relationship between cortical neural activity and space-resolved and time-resolved flows and volumes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin motivated by optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI). Both blood flow and blood volume and both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are accounted for. Flow and volume are described by including analogies to both resistive and capacitive electrical circuit elements. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are described by generalization of Kirchhoff's laws based on well-mixed compartments. Mathematical models built from this toolkit are able to reproduce experimental single-stimulus OISI results that are described in papers from other research groups and are able to describe the response to multiple-stimuli experiments as a sublinear superposition of responses to the individual stimuli. The same assembly of tools from the toolkit but with different parameter values is able to describe effects that are considered distinctive, such as the presence or absence of an initial decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, indicating that the differences might be due to unique parameter values in a subject rather than different fundamental mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Neural Engineering
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study reports real-time, in vivo functional measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), two gaseous mediators in controlling cerebral blood flow. A dual electrochemical NO/CO microsensor enables us to probe the complex relationship between NO and CO in regulating cerebrovascular tone. Utilizing this dual sensor, we monitor in vivo change of NO and CO simultaneously during direct epidural electrical stimulation of a living rat brain cortex. Both NO and CO respond quickly to meet physiological needs. The neural system instantaneously increases the released amounts of NO and CO to compensate the abrupt, yet transient hypoxia that results from epidural electrical stimulation. Intrinsic-signal optical imaging confirms that direct electrical stimulation elicits robust, dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow, which must accompany NO and CO signaling. The addition of l-arginine (a substrate for NO synthase, NOS) results in increased NO generation and decreased CO production compared to control stimulation. On the other hand, application of the NOS inhibitor, l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME), results in decreased NO release but increased CO production of greater magnitude. This observation suggests that the interaction between NO and CO release is likely not linear and yet, they are tightly linked vasodilators.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Analyst
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemia (MI) induces many changes in the body, including pH decrease and electrolyte imbalance. No obvious symptoms of MI appear until irreversible cellular injuries occur. Since early treatment is critical for recovery from ischemia, the development of reliable diagnostic tool is demanded to detect the early ischemic status. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), formed by cleavage of the last two amino acids of the human serum albumin (HSA) N-terminus, has been considered so far as the most trustworthy and accurate marker for the investigation of ischemia. IMA levels are elevated in plasma within a few minutes of ischemic onset, and may last for up to 6 h. In the present study, we developed a novel assay for the examination of IMA levels to ameliorate the known albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test established previously. We observed a stronger copper ion bound to the HSA N-terminal peptide than cobalt ion by HPLC and ESI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses. The copper ion was employed with lucifer yellow (LY), a copper-specific reagent to develop a new albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay. The parameters capable of affecting the assay results were optimized, and the finally-optimized ACuB assay was validated. The result of the IMA level measurement in normal versus stroke rat serum suggests that the ACuB assay is likely to be a reliable and sensitive method for the detection of ischemic states.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Analytical Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells exposed to iron with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM). The hyperspectral fluorescence signal of iron was examined using a high-resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/near infrared spectral range. The 6-h group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the 1-h group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small particulate form, whereas the extracellular iron was aggregated. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN. This direct iron imaging could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving metals, such as copper, manganese, or zinc.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cytomorphological consequences of microhemorrhagic brain injury induced by a nanoscale iron injection. Of particular interest were the etiology, development, and treatment of epilepsy associated with this injury. We developed an animal model of chronic epilepsy using nanoscale injection into the adult mouse cortex. Although injection of nanoamounts of iron did not cause clear cell death or damage in the cortex, it elicited varying degrees of spontaneous epileptiform events that could be recorded under anesthesia 3 months postinjection. The influence of these chronic epileptiform events on neurovascular coupling was probed by directly stimulating the cortex ipsilateral to the epileptic focus and by measuring cerebral blood volume simultaneously in both hemispheres using intrinsic signal optical imaging. The ipsilateral hemodynamic response was dramatically lower in animals that exhibited longer, more frequent epileptiform events, but it was unchanged in animals displaying infrequent, short events. In contrast, the contralateral hemodynamic response was augmented in all iron-injected animals compared with the control group. These abnormal hemodynamic responses in chronically epileptic animals were correlated with the degree of reduction in the number of GABAergic interneurons. Therefore, nanoscale iron injection, which mimics some aspects of microhemorrhagic brain injury, generated chronic, yet varying, degrees of spontaneous epileptiform events. Moreover, the severity of the epileptiform events corresponded to the degree of reduction in GABAergic interneurons in the iron-injected hemisphere and the level of autoregulatory dysfunction of cerebral blood flow. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in biotechnology and imaging technology have provided great opportunities to investigate cellular dynamics. Conventional imaging methods such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are powerful techniques for cellular imaging, even at the nanoscale level. However, these techniques have limitations applications in live cell imaging because of the experimental preparation required, namely cell fixation, and the innately small field of view. In this study, we developed a nanoscale optical imaging (NOI) system that combines a conventional optical microscope with a high resolution dark-field condenser (Cytoviva, Inc.) and halogen illuminator. The NOI system's maximum resolution for live cell imaging is around 100 nm. We utilized NOI to investigate the dynamics of intracellular microvesicles of neural cells without immunocytological analysis. In particular, we studied direct, active random, and moderate random dynamic motions of intracellular microvesicles and visualized lysosomal vesicle changes after treatment of cells with a lysosomal inhibitor (NH4Cl). Our results indicate that the NOI system is a feasible, high-resolution optical imaging system for live small organelles that does not require complicated optics or immunocytological staining processes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the application of an optical microscope equipped with a high-resolution dark-field condenser for detecting dynamic responses of cellular nanostructures in real time. Our system provides an easy-to-use technique to visualize biological specimens without any staining. This system can visualize the dynamic behavior of nanospheres and nanofibers, such as F-actin, at the leading edges of adjacent neuronal cells. We confirmed that the nanofibers imaged with this high-resolution optical microscopic technique are F-actin by using fluorescence microscopy after immunostaining the F-actin of fixed cells. Furthermore, cellular dynamics are enhanced by applying noncontact electric field stimulation through a transparent graphene electric field stimulator. High-resolution label-free optical microscopy enables the visualization of nanofiber dynamics initiated by filopodial nanofiber contacts. In conclusion, our optical microscopy system allows the visualization of nanoscale cellular dynamics under various external stimuli in real time without specific staining.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electrical stimulation affects cellular behaviors including division, migration and wound healing [1-3]. Cellular injury often occurs due to the imbalance of the endogenous electric field [3]. In order to recover from the injury, wound healing process requires various cellular changes such as regeneration, migration, and the enhancement of cytoskeletal proteins and growth factors. In previous reports, a weak non-contact electric field stimulation (nEFS) accelerates the cell migration as well as cell-to-cell coupling between neuronal cell junction which are accompanied by increasing of cytoskeletal proteins [4, 5]. In this paper, we further investigated the wound healing effect of the nEFS in the neuronal cells (SHSY5Y cells) with live cell optical imaging. Cells were cultured over the optically transparent graphenen EF stimulator. Cellular behavioral changes upon nEFS were recorded with live optical imaging during stimulation of 120 minutes. The ability of wound healing was significantly enhanced with the nEFS. In particular, nEFS significantly shorten the duration of wound healing process. Moreover, after treating cells with cytochalasin D, a block polymerization of the actin filaments, the nEFS significantly enhanced wound healing process of cytochalasin D treated neural cells as compared to the control neural cells. This study suggests that nEFS may provide an effective way to control neural cells repairing process from cellular injury. Further mechanism study about the effect of nEFS on the wound healing may shed new light on cellular behavior.
    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enhancing cerebral blood volume (CBV) of a targeted area without causing side effects is a primary strategy for treating cerebral hypoperfusion. Here, we report a new non-pharmaceutical, and non-vascular surgical method to increase CBV. A flexible, transparent, and skin-like biocompatible graphene electrical field stimulator (GEFS) was placed directly onto the cortical brain and a non-contact electric field was applied at a specific local blood vessel. Effective CBV increases in the blood vessels of mouse brains were directly observed from in vivo optical recordings of intrinsic signal (ORIS) imaging. The CBV was significantly increased in arteries of the stimulated area, but neither tissue damage nor unnecessary neuronal activation was observed. No transient hypoxia was observed. This technique provides a new method to treat cerebral blood circulation deficiencies at local vessels and can be applied to brain regeneration and rehabilitation.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · ACS Nano
  • Source
    Yejin Ha · Misun Kim · Jiseon Nah · Minah Suh · Youngmi Lee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Location-dependent skin surface’s partial nitric oxide pressure (pNO) is studied using highly sensitive amperometric NO microsensor with a small sensing area (diameter = 76 μ m). The pNO level of LI4 (Hegu) acupuncture point is measured and compared with the pNO level of nonacupuncture point. In addition, the mapping of pNO is carried out over the left wrist skin area one- as well as two-dimensionally. Statistically higher pNO levels near the position of acupuncture points than non-acupuncture points are observed consistently, implying tight relationship between the level of NO release of skin and acupuncture points. The amperometric planar NO microsensor successfully monitors the heterogeneity of skin pNO distribution in high spatial resolution due to its advantageous features such as high sensitivity and small sensing dimension. The current study suggests the direct connection between NO and acupuncture points and possibly provides beneficial information to understand physiological roles and basis of the acupuncture points.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The two major circulatory systems, the lymph system and the blood vessel system, play significant roles in controlling embryonic development. The primo-vascular system (PVS) was recently reported as an additional circulatory system in various animals. In this paper, the PVS in a mouse embryo was investigated. The structural characterization of the PVS in the mouse placenta and umbilical cord, which was visualized with the trypan blue staining technique, was focused on. The PVS was well_developed in the mouse placenta area. Using a nanopore-based amperometric oxygen sensor, the oxygen levels at four different areas of the embryonic brain, placenta, blood vessel, and primo-vessel of the PVS were measured. The relatively higher oxygen levels that were measured at the primo-vessels than at the brain and the placenta, while still lower than the oxygen level that was measured at the blood vessels, may suggest a role of PVS in oxygen transport.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mobility is one of the important characteristics of living cells. It also plays a significant role in therapeutic cell transplantation with target location specificity. To enhance cell mobility, a neural cell stimulator was assembled with graphenes, which are two-dimensional nanocarbon materials that form a transparent electrode over the cover glass in a cell culture dish. This transparent stimulator applies electrical field stimulation to the neural cells. The advantages of this new transparent electrical field stimulator (TEFS) with a graphene electrode include transparency, because few layered graphenes are optically transparent, and biocompatibility, because the cover glass is coated with laminin. In this paper, it is reported that constant electric field stimulation, which is at a specific strength, facilitates the mobility of a neural cell and makes the visibility of cellular behavior on the electrode much better than that of any other existing cell stimulator that has metal electrodes. The strength of the electrical field for stimulating cells varies from 4.5 mV/mm to 450 mV/mm. When continuous electric field stimulation was applied for 4 hours at the electric field strength of 45 mV/mm, the mobility of the neural cells was significantly enhanced compared to the control conditions, wherein there was no electric field stimulation. Thus, the feasibility of the TEFS with the nanothickness of graphene was tested to modulate the mobility of neural cells in vitro. The result suggests that electrical field stimulation could enhance neural cell alignment, cell-to-cell coupling, and networks, and may be applied to cell transplantation to boost therapeutic effectiveness.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distribution of partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) is analyzed for the anterior aspect of the left wrist with an amperometric oxygen microsensor composed of a small planar Pt disk-sensing area (diameter = 25 μ m). The pO 2 levels vary depending on the measurement location over the wrist skin, and they are systematically monitored in the analysis for both one-dimensional single line (along the wrist transverse crease) and two-dimensional square area of the wrist region. Relatively higher pO 2 values are observed at certain area in close proximity to the position of acupuncture points with statistical significance, indicating strong relationship between oxygen and acupuncture point. The used oxygen microsensor is sensitive enough to detect the pO 2 variation depending on the location. This study may provide information helpful to understand possible physiological roles of the acupuncture points.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied depth-dependent cerebral hemodynamic responses of rat brain following direct cortical electrical stimulation (DCES) in vivo with optical recording of intrinsic signal (ORIS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). ORIS is used to visualize the immediate hemodynamic changes in cortical areas following the stimulation, whereas NIRS measures the hemodynamic changes originating from subcortical areas. We found strong hemodynamic changes in relation to DCES both in ORIS and NIRS data. In particular, the signals originating from cortical areas exhibited a tri-phasic response, whereas those originating from subcortical regions exhibited multi-phasic responses. In addition, NIRS signals from two different sets of source-detector separation were compared and analyzed to investigate the causality of perfusion, which demonstrated downstream propagation, indicating that the upper brain region reacted faster than the deep region.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Optics Express
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As gaseous nitric oxide (NO), a critical and multifaceted biomarker, diffuses easily once released, identifying the precise sources of NO release is a challenge. This study developed a new technique for real-time in vivo direct NO imaging by coupling an amperometric NO nanosensor with scanning electrochemical microscopy. This technique provides three-dimensional information of the NO releasing sites in an intact living mouse brain with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to confirm the anatomical reliability of the acquired electrochemical NO image. The real-time NO imaging results were well matched with the corresponding immunohistochemical analysis of neuronal NO synthase immunoreactive (nNOS-IR) cells, i.e., NO releasing sites in a living brain. The imaged NO local concentrations were confirmed to be closely related to the location in depth, the size of the nNOS-IR cell, and the intensity of nNOS immunoreactivity. This paper demonstrates the first direct electrochemical NO imaging of a living brain.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Analytical Chemistry

Publication Stats

617 Citations
152.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Biological Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2008
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States