[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is widely used to perform mediastinal lymph node sampling. However, little information is available on polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with intrathoracic granulomatous lymphadenopathy (IGL). Methods A retrospective study using a prospectively collected database was performed from January 2010 to December 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the TB-PCR test using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with IGL. During the study period, 87 consecutive patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who received EBUS-TBNA were registered and 46 patients with IGL were included. Results Of the 46 patients with IGL, tuberculous lymphadenitis and sarcoidosis were diagnosed in 16 and 30 patients, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of TB-PCR for tuberculous lymphadenitis were 56, 100, 100, and 81 %, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of TB-PCR for tuberculous lymphadenitis was 85 %. In addition, seven (17 %) patients had non-diagnostic results from a histological examination and all of them had non-diagnostic microbiological results of an acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Four (57 %) of the seven patients with non-diagnostic results had positive TB-PCR results, and anti-tuberculosis treatment led to clinical and radiological improvement in all of the patients. Conclusions TB-PCR using EBUS-TBNA samples is a useful laboratory test for diagnosing IGL. Moreover, this technique can prevent further invasive evaluation in patients whose histological and microbiological tests are non-diagnostic.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
We evaluated the clinical utility of rapid identification of microorganisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in terms of the clinical outcomes of ventilated patients with pneumonia.
Patients for whom microorganisms were identified via MALDI-TOF MS (from March 2013 to February 2014; post-intervention group) were compared with patients for whom microorganisms were identified using conventional methods (from March 2012 to February 2013; pre-intervention group). All pneumonia types (community-acquired, hospital-acquired, healthcare-associated and ventilator-associated pneumonia) were included in the analysis.
In total, 77 patients (50 men, mean age 67.2 ± 12.5 years) were included (40 patients in the pre-intervention group and 37 in the post-intervention group). The time from BAL fluid collection to microorganism identification and the availability of antimicrobial susceptibility results was shorter in the post- compared with the pre-intervention group (51.9 ± 11.3 vs 67.3 ± 17.4 h, P < 0.001). Also, the time from BAL fluid collection to adjustment of antibiotic therapy was shorter in the post-intervention group (56.5 ± 10.9 vs 73.2 ± 18.5 h, P < 0.001). Microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF MS was independently associated with a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay after BAL fluid was drawn (hazard ratio = 2.324, P = 0.007).
Rapid identification of microorganisms in BAL fluid via MALDI-TOF MS was associated with adjustment of antibiotic therapy and a shorter ICU stay after BAL fluid was collected from ventilated patients with pneumonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There have been various results from studies concerning the predictors of recurrence in early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, an accurate assessment is needed to guide effective adjuvant therapy. We investigated the predictors of a recurrence in patients with resected, early-stage NSCLC and the risk factors associated with locoregional or distant recurrence.
This retrospective study was conducted on patients at the Pusan National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011. Patients with pathological stages I or II were included in this study, as based on the seventh edition TNM staging system. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with recurrence.
Two hundred and forty-nine patients were included. Among them, 180 patients were stage I, and 69 were stage II. Overall, by multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with a 5-year total recurrence were the presence of visceral pleural invasion (VPI) (p=0.018) and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVs) of tumors on positron emission tomography (PET) >4.5 (p=0.037). The VPI was the only independent risk factor associated with both locoregional and distant recurrence, in the analysis of the patterns of tumor recurrence and their risk factors. In the subgroup analysis of stage I patients, three variables (male, VPI and resection margin positive) were significantly associated with a 5-year recurrence.
The independent factors associated with postoperative recurrence in early-stage NSCLC were as follows: PET SUV >4.5 and the presence of VPI. For patients with those factors adjuvant therapy should be recommended as a more efficacious treatment.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We presented a case of unusual endobronchial inflammatory polyps as a complication following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a patient with tuberculous lymphadenitis. EBUS-TBNA of the right hilar lymph node was performed in a 29-year-old, previously healthy man. The patient was confirmed with tuberculous lymphadenitis and received antituberculosis medication over the course of 6 months. Chest computed tomography, after 6 months of antituberculosis therapy following the EBUS-TBNA showed nodular bronchial wall thickening of the right main bronchus. Histological and microbiological examinations revealed inflammatory polyps. After 7 months, the inflammatory polyps regressed almost completely without need for removal.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Previous studies have shown that plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles are altered in cancer patients compared with healthy controls. A multivariate index based on PFAAs was generated from a Japanese dataset and has been previously demonstrated to be clinically valuable for discriminating patients in the early stages of lung cancer. However, it remains unclear whether similar PFAA profile changes occur in cancer patients from other populations. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the performance of this index in discriminating lung cancer patients from controls in the Korean population.
Samples were collected from a total of 142 Korean subjects (72 lung cancer/70 controls) for this study. PFAAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and the clinical performance characteristics of the amino acid multivariate index were evaluated across cancer stages and histological types.
The concentrations of several PFAAs were significantly decreased in the Korean lung cancer patients compared with the controls. Significant decreases in threonine, citrulline, histidine and tryptophan and increases in proline, isoleucine, phenylalanine and ornithine were observed, which are similar to the PFAA changes reported by a previous Japanese study. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC of the ROC) for the index was 0.80, and similar performances were demonstrated for the different histological types.
These results suggest that the amino acid multivariate index previously developed from a Japanese dataset has the potential to aid in the early detection of lung cancers of different histological types in Korean patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design and the assembly of the quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and half-wave resonator (HWR) cryomodules for RAON are shown. The cryomodule is optimized for heat loads due to superfluid helium at 2 K, supercritical helium at 4.5 K and the thermal shield at 40 K. The cryomodule consists of a vacuum chamber, a magnetic shield, a thermal shield, a cryogenic pipe line and a support bar.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal- Korean Physical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is an oxygen delivery system. However, evidence regarding the clinical applications of HFNC is still emerging. We herein evaluated the clinical predictors of HFNC therapy success for adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the subjects with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure supported by HFNC therapy in the medical intensive care unit between July 2011 and March 2013. Therapy success was defined as the avoidance of intubation. The patients' baseline characteristics and the serial changes in the respiratory parameters after HFNC therapy at 1 and 24 hours were measured. Results Of the 75 eligible patients, 62.7% successfully avoided intubation. Overall, HFNC therapy significantly improved the physiologic parameters, such as partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), saturation of arterial oxygen (SaO2), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR), throughout the first 24 hours. After the adjustment for the other clinical variables, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and PaO2 improvement at 1 and 24 hours were associated with therapy success. The overall intensive care unit (ICU) mortality was 25.3%. However, out of 37.3% of the patients who required intubation, the ICU mortality in this proportion of patients was 67.9%. The ICU mortality in the therapy failure group was associated with the use of a vasopressor and a limited PaO2 improvement at 1 hour. Conclusion HFNC therapy showed a good compliance and the improvement of the physiologic parameters in an adult population. The failure to improve oxygenation within 24 hours was a useful predictor of intubation. Among the failure group, the vasopressor use and failed oxygenation improvement were associated with ICU mortality.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of systemic pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) after lung resection in patients with lung cancer.
Forty-one patients undergoing lung resection were enrolled and classified into the experimental (n=31) and control groups (n=10). The experimental group underwent post-operative systemic PR which was conducted 30 min/day on every hospitalization day by an expert physical therapist. The control group received the same education about the PR exercises and were encouraged to self-exercise without supervision of the physical therapist. The PR group was taught a self-PR program and feedback was provided regularly until 6 months after surgery. We conducted pulmonary function testing (PFT) and used a visual analog scale (VAS) to evaluate pain, and the modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (mBS) to measure perceived respiratory exertion shortly before and 2 weeks, 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery.
A significant improvement on the VAS was observed in patients who received systemic PR >3 months. Significant improvements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and mBS score were observed in patients who received systemic PR >6 months (p<0.05). Other PFT results were not different compared with those in the control group.
Patients who received lung resection suffered a significant decline in functional reserve and increases in pain and subjective dyspnea deteriorating quality of life (QoL). Systemic PR supervised by a therapist helped improve reduced pulmonary FVC and QoL and minimized discomfort during the postoperative periods in patients who underwent lung resection.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Evidence regarding the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in predicting the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer is increasing. However, data on small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic parameters measured using 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with SCLC.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective review of 114 patients with pathologically proven SCLC (26 cases of limited disease and 88 cases of extensive disease) who underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT. The maximal SUV (SUVmax) was used quantitatively for determination of FDG PET activity. The SUVmax of the primary tumor (primary SUVmax), the sum of SUVmax values of malignant lesions (SUVsum), and the mean SUVmax of malignant lesions were calculated.
The patient population was subdivided using a median SUVsum value of 24.6. High SUVsum showed a significant association with known factors for poor prognosis, including higher neuron-specific enolase (p=0.010), CYFRA 21-1 (p=0.014), and extensive disease status (p=0.007). Patients with high SUVsum had significantly shorter median overall survival (6.6 months vs. 13.0 months, p<0.001) and progression-free survival (5.2 months vs. 8.0 months, p<0.001) than patients with low SUVsum. Results of multivariate analysis showed that SUVsum, chemotherapy cycles, and the response to first-line treatment were significant prognostic factors of survival. In contrast, mean SUVmax and primary SUVmax were not significant predictors of survival.
In this study, metabolic burden represented by SUVsum from pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with SCLC.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is predicted to be the third most common cause of death worldwide by 2020, often suffer from depression, one of the most common and modifiable comorbidities of COPD. This study assessed the prevalence of depression in patients with COPD and the association of depression with disease severity.
This was a multicenter, prospective cross-sectional study of 245 patients with stable COPD. Disease severity was assessed using two scales: the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) stage and BODE index. Depression was measured using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scales. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation, and multivariate logistic regression.
Depression defined as a CES-D score of 24 and higher was observed in 17.6 % of patients with COPD. The prevalence of depression increased with disease severity based on the BODE quartile (r = 0.16; P = 0.014). By contrast, no difference was observed in the prevalence of depression among the severity groups using the GOLD staging system (r = - 0.01; P = 0.898). Elementary school graduates were more likely to experience depression than graduates of high school and above [odds ratio (OR) = 3.67; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.37-9.85] and patients in BODE quartile II were more likely to experience depression than those with BODE quartile I (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI 1.04-6.06).
Depression was associated with disease severity according to the BODE quartile in patients with COPD. BODE quartile II was a significant predictor of depression. Screening patients with a high risk of depression and proactive intervention for those patients are needed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical course and outcome of patients who were diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by scrub typhus and who received ventilator care in the intensive care units (ICU) of two university hospitals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma among the elderly has increased in the aging society. However, limited studies have been conducted regarding the characteristics of elderly asthmatics. In this study, we aimed to evaluate control of asthma, comorbidities, depression and anxiety state, and quality of life in elderly asthmatics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a rare case of sarcoidosis that developed after chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and mimicked a cancer metastasis. A 52-year-old female diagnosed with stage III ovarian cancer underwent curative surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Four months later, her whole-body positron emission tomography and computed tomography (CT) scan showed high uptake in the mediastinal lymph nodes, and ovarian cancer recurrence was suspected. Biopsy of the mediastinal lymph nodes and subcutaneous nodules revealed noncaseating granulomas. These lesions resolved spontaneously without treatment; however, newly developed perilymphatic and centrilobular nodules were observed on follow-up chest CT. Surgical biopsy of these lesions also showed noncaseating granulomas. She was finally diagnosed with sarcoidosis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The NSCLC patients who experienced good clinical responses to an EGFR-TKI will inevitably develop acquired resistance. A great deal of research is being carried out to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance. In comparison, few studies have been conducted to find out about the clinical characteristics of acquired resistance in the patients who had responded to an EGFR-TKI. Herein we investigated clinical characteristics of NSCLC patients who experienced acquired resistance during gefitinib therapy.
Patients and methods:
We reviewed NSCLC patients who showed a clinical benefit from initial gefitinib therapy. All clinical data were obtained from 11 centers of Korean Molecular Lung Cancer Group (KMLCG). The clinical manifestations of acquired resistance, time to progression (TTP), and post-progression survival (PPS) after gefitinib failure were analyzed retrospectively.
A total of 417 patients were recruited. Median TTP was 10.2 months (95% CI, 9.5-10.9). TTP showed a significant longer duration in female, non-smoker, and patients with adenocarcinoma. At the time of acquired resistance, 63.3% of the patients showed symptomatic deterioration. Sites of disease progression were as follows: primary lung lesion in 58.4%, previous metastasis in 38.3%, and new metastasis in 54.2%. Patients with EGFR wild type showed a tendency of higher frequency in symptomatic deterioration and newly development of CNS metastasis compared with patients with EGFR mutation. There was a significant difference in newly development of lung metastasis between patients with exon 19 deletion and those with L858R mutation (41.4% vs. 6.3%, p=0.02). PPS was 8.9 months (95% CI, 7.4-10.4). Smoking history, PS, new CNS lesion and subsequent chemotherapy were independent factors for PPS.
This study suggests that clinical manifestations of acquired resistance may be different according to EGFR mutation status and EGFR mutation genotype. In addition, subsequent chemotherapy confers clinical benefit in terms of PPS in NSCLC patients who experienced acquired resistance after gefitinib therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)