[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known whether there are positive or negative interactions on ventricular function when a calcium-sensitizing inotrope is added to a phosphodiesterase inhibitor in the clinical setting of acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that when levosimendan is added to milrinone treatment, there will be synergetic inotropic and lusitropic effects. This was tested in an anesthetized porcine postischemic global LV injury model, where ventricular pressures and volumes (conductance volumetry) were measured. A global ischemic injury was induced by repetitive left main stem coronary artery occlusions. Load-independent indices of LV function were assessed before and after ventricular injury, after milrinone treatment, and finally after addition of levosimendan to the milrinone treatment. Nonparametric, within-group comparisons were made. The protocol was completed in 12 pigs, 7 of which received the inotrope treatment and 5 of which served as controls. Milrinone led to positive lusitropic effects seen by improvement in tau after myocardial stunning. The addition of levosimendan to milrinone further increased lusitropic state. The latter effect could however not be attributed solely to levosimendan, since lusitropic state also improved spontaneously in time-matched controls at the same rate during the corresponding period. When levosimendan was added to milrinone infusion, there was no increase in systolic function (preload recruitable stroke work) compared to milrinone treatment alone. We conclude that in this model of postischemic LV dysfunction, there appears to be no clear improvement in systolic or diastolic function after addition of levosimendan to established milrinone treatment but also no negative effects of levosimendan in this context.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial dysfunction is recognized in sepsis. We hypothesized that mechanical left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function analysed using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a cohort of early severe sepsis or septic shock patients, would be different to that of a group of critically ill, non-septic patients.
Critically ill adult patients with early, severe sepsis/septic shock (n = 48) and major trauma patients with no sepsis (n = 24) were included retrospectively, as well as healthy controls (n = 16). Standard echocardiographic examinations, including right (RV) left (LV) volumes and mitral, aortic and pulmonary vein Doppler flow profiles, were retrospectively identified and the studies were then reanalysed for assessment of myocardial strain using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Endocardial tracing of the LV was performed in apical four-chamber (4-Ch), two-chamber (2-Ch), apical long-axis (3-Ch) and apical views of RV determining the longitudinal LV and RV free wall strain in each subject.
In septic patients, heart rate was significantly higher (p = 0.009) and systolic (p < 0.001) and mean arterial pressures (p < 0.001), as well as systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.001) were significantly lower when compared to the non-septic trauma group. Ninety-three per cent of the septic patients and 50 % of the trauma patients were treated with norepinephrine (p < 0.001). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower in the septic patients (p = 0.019). In septic patients with preserved LVEF (>50 %, n = 34), seventeen patients (50 %) had a depressed LV global longitudinal function, defined as a LV global strain > −15 %, compared to two patients (8.7 %) in the non-septic group (p = 0.0014). In septic patients with preserved LVEF, LV global and RV free wall strain were 14 % (p = 0.014) and 17 % lower (p = 0.008), respectively, compared to the non-septic group with preserved LVEF. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to LV end-diastolic or end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, or cardiac output. There were no signs of diastolic dysfunction from the mitral or pulmonary vein Doppler profiles in the septic patients.
LV and RV systolic function is impaired in critically ill patients with early septic shock and preserved LVEF, as detected by Speckle-tracking 2D echocardiography. Strain imaging may be useful in the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are thought to exert protective effects after ischemic and remote ischemic preconditioning. It is not well understood which EV content factors are most relevant for protective effects. We hypothesize that ischemic preconditioning leads to qualitative changes in EV mRNA content and quantitative changes in EV size and number. Methods: Using an in vivo porcine ischemic preconditioning model, EVs were collected from coronary venous blood, and isolated by differential ultracentrifugations. The presence and purity of EV were verified by electron microscopy and Western blot, and EV number was assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis. The mRNA EV was identified by microarray. Results: Gene ontology analysis showed enrichment of EV mRNA coding for proteins associated with regulation of transcription, translation, extracellular matrix, morphogenic development and feeding behavior. There were 11,678 different mRNA transcripts detected in EV, where a total of 1103 was significantly increased or decreased after preconditioning, of which 638 mRNA sequences were up-regulated and/or emerged due to preconditioning. Several of them have known association with ischemic preconditioning. There was no significant difference in EV quantity or size before and after preconditioning. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate in an in vivo model that myocardial ischemic preconditioning influences the composition of mRNA in EV, including gene transcripts for proteins associated with the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The finding that preconditioned parental cells release EV containing mRNA that is qualitatively different from those released by non-preconditioned cells shows the importance of the external milieu on parental cell EV production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The expression of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene appears to be under epigenetic control and can be affected by histone deacetylation inhibition. The study aimed to test if histone deacetalyase inhibitor treatment lead to increased t-PA release or reduced exhaustion in t-PA release in response to stimulation, as well as change in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in subjects with coronary disease. In this clinical study, 16 post-myocardial infarction subjects, the perfused forearm model was used with isoprenaline provocation during 20 minutes, to stimulate local t-PA release. Each subject was measured twice on the same day (repeated stimuli sequences) as well as on two different occasions, without treatment and after four weeks of treatment with valproic acid (500 mg, twice daily). Net forearm release for t-PA in response to isoprenaline at minutes 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 was measured, allowing assessment of cumulative t-PA release. There was a reduction in the exhaustion of cumulative t-PA release during repeated and prolonged stimulation with valproic acid treatment compared to non-treatment. Plasma PAI-1 antigen was decreased following treatment compared to non-treatment (18.4 ± 10.0 vs. 11.0 ± 7.1 nanograms/ml respectively, mean with 95% confidence interval). These findings demonstrate that histone deacetylation inhibition increases the capacity for endogenous t-PA release in subjects with vascular disease. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic balance is favored with suppressed PAI-1 levels. More studies are needed to establish the clinical relevance of these findings.
EU Clinical Trials Register 2012-004950-27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The task force on Acute Circulatory Failure of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine produced this guideline with recommendations concerning the use of crystalloid vs. colloid solutions in adult critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure.Methods
Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to grade the quality of evidence and to determine the strengths of the recommendations. As efficacy and harm may vary in different subpopulations of patients with acute circulatory failure, we produced recommendations for general intensive care unit (ICU) patients and those with sepsis, trauma and burn injury.ResultsFor general ICU patients and those with sepsis, we recommend using crystalloids for resuscitation rather than hydroxyethyl starch and we suggest using crystalloids rather than gelatin and albumin. For patients with trauma we recommend to use crystalloids for resuscitation rather than colloid solutions. For patients with burn injury we provide no recommendations as there are very limited data from randomised trials on fluid resuscitation in this patient population.Conclusions
We recommend using crystalloid solutions rather than colloid solutions for resuscitation in the majority of critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used in air ambulances to treat patients with impaired oxygenation. Differences in mechanical principles between CPAP devices may affect their performance at different ambient air pressures, as will occur in an air ambulance during flight.
Two different CPAP systems, a threshold resistor device and a flow resistor device, at settings of 5 and 10 cm H₂O were examined. Static pressure, static airflow, and pressure during simulated breathing were measured at ground level and at three different altitudes [2400 m (7874 ft), 3000 m (9843 ft), and 10,700 m (35,105 ft)].
When altitude increased, the performance of the two CPAP systems differed during both static and simulated breathing pressure measurements. With the threshold resistor CPAP, measured pressure levels were close to the preset CPAP level. Static pressure decreased 0.71 ± 0.35 cm H₂O at CPAP 10 cm H₂O compared to ground level and 35,105 ft (10,700 m). With the flow resistor CPAP, as the altitude increased, CPAP produced pressure levels increased. At 35,105 ft (10,700 m), the increase was 5.13 ± 0.33 cm H₂O at CPAP 10 cm H₂O.
The velocity of airflow through the flow resistor CPAP device is strongly influenced by reduced ambient air pressure, leading to a higher delivered CPAP effect than the preset CPAP level. Threshold resistor CPAP devices seem to have robust performance regardless of altitude. Thus, the threshold resistor CPAP device is probably more appropriate for CPAP treatment in an air ambulance cabin, where ambient pressure will vary during patient transport.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely employed method for assessment of regional cerebral oxygenation (RcStO2). RcStO2 values are expected to vary with changes in the relative amount of oxyhaemoglobin. The present experimental study aimed to assess the response of RcStO2 to controlled alterations of carotid blood flow (CQ). Landrace pigs were anesthetized followed by surgical preparation. Cyclic variations in cardiac output were accomplished by intermittently occluding the main stem of the left coronary artery. A flow measurement probe for assessing CQ was placed around the left carotid artery. One NIRS probe was placed on the left ipsilateral forehead to assess regional cerebral oximetry. Simultaneous registration of CQ and RcStO2 was conducted. There was a strong correlation for variation in CQ and RcStO2 signal values. Based on coherence analysis the fraction of power of the RcStO2 that was coherent with the CQ signal reached 0.84 ± 0.12 (P < 0.05) for frequencies lower than 0.1 Hz. The agreement of the sample-to-sample co-variation, as assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient, was 0.83 ± 0.08 (P < 0.05). One explanatory component for variations in cerebral oxygenation verified by NIRS should be attributed to variations in the cerebral blood flow.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Physiological Measurement
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this.
We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system.
Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles).
In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the tissue plasminogen activator gene can be affected by histone deacetylation inhibition and thus appears to be under epigenetic control.
The study aimed to test if in vivo pharmacological intervention by valproic acid treatment would lead to increase in tissue plasminogen activator release capacity.
In an anaesthetized pig model, a controlled transient coronary occlusion was used to stimulate coronary tissue plasminogen activator release in a valproic acid treated (one week) and a non-treated group. Coronary venous blood samples from the ischemic region were collected, great cardiac vein thermodilution flow measurements were performed, and trans-coronary tissue plasminogen activator fluxes were calculated. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was also measured.
Adequate sampling from the affected area after the 10 minute ischemic period was confirmed by lactate measurements. Fluxes for tissue plasminogen activator at minutes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 were measured and then used to present cumulative net tissue plasminogen activator release for the whole measurement period for both groups. Area under the curve was higher for the valproic acid treated group at 10 minutes; 932±173 nanograms (n = 12) compared to the non-treated group, 451±78 nanograms (n = 10, p = 0.023). There was no difference in levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 between groups.
These findings support a proof of concept for histone deacetylation inhibition positive effect on tissue plasminogen activator expression in an in vivo setting. Further studies are needed to find an optimal way to implement histone deacetylation inhibition to achieve desired clinical changes in tissue plasminogen activator expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region.
In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32[degree sign]C), moderate (31.9 - 28[degree sign]C) and severe (<28[degree sign]C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning.
From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12 percent, the lowest documented core temperature was 35 [degree sign]C or higher, for 4 per cent there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis.
The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although inotropic stimulation is considered harmful in the presence of myocardial ischaemia, both calcium sensitisers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may offer cardioprotection. We hypothesise that these cardioprotective effects are related to an acute alteration of myocardial metabolism. We studied in vivo effects of milrinone and levosimendan on calcium overload and ischaemic markers using left ventricular microdialysis in pigs with acute myocardial ischaemia.
Anaesthetised juvenile pigs, average weight 36 kg, were randomised to one of three intravenous treatment groups: milrinone 50 μg/kg bolus plus infusion 0.5 μg/kg/min (n = 7), levosimendan 24 μg/kg plus infusion 0.2 μg/kg/min (n = 7), or placebo (n = 6) for 60 min prior to and during a 45 min acute regional coronary occlusion. Systemic and myocardial haemodynamics were assessed, and microdialysis was performed with catheters positioned in the left ventricular wall. 45Ca2+ was included in the microperfusate in order to assess local calcium uptake into myocardial cells. The microdialysate was analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and for 45Ca2+ recovery.
During ischaemia, there were no differences in microdialysate-measured parameters between control animals and milrinone- or levosimendan-treated groups.
In the pre-ischaemic period, arterial blood pressure decreased in all groups while myocardial oxygen consumption remained stable.
These findings reject the hypothesis of an immediate energy-conserving effect of milrinone and levosimendan during acute myocardial ischaemia. On the other hand, the data show that inotropic support with milrinone and levosimendan does not worsen the metabolic parameters that were measured in the ischaemic myocardium.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Left ventricular rotation and twist can be assessed noninvasively by speckle tracking echocardiography. We sought to characterize the effects of acute load change and change in inotropic state on rotation parameters as a measure of left ventricular (LV) contractility.
Seven anesthetised juvenile pigs were studied, using direct measurement of left ventricular pressure and volume and simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. Transient inflation of an inferior vena cava balloon (IVCB) catheter produced controlled load reduction. First and last beats in the sequence of eight were analysed with speckle tracking (STE) during the load alteration and analysed for change in rotation/twist during controlled load alteration at same contractile status. Two pharmacological inotropic interventions were also included to examine the same hypothesis in additionally conditions of increased and decreased myocardial contractility in each animal. Paired comparisons were made for different load states using the Wilcoxon’s Signed Rank test.
The inferior vena cava balloon occlusion (IVCBO) load change compared for first to last beat resulted in LV twist increase (11.67° ±2.65° vs. 16.17° ±3.56° respectively, p < 0.004) during the load alteration and under adrenaline stimulation LV twist increase 12.56° ±5.1° vs. 16.57° ±4.6° (p < 0.013), and though increased, didn’t reach significance in negative inotropic condition. Untwisting rate increased significantly at baseline from −41.7°/s ±41.6°/s vs.−122.6°/s ±55.8°/s (P < 0.039) and under adrenaline stimulation untwisting rate increased (−55.3°/s ±3.8°/s vs.−111.4°/s ±24.0°/s (p < 0.05), but did not systematically changed in negative inotropic condition.
Peak systolic LV twist and peak early diastolic untwisting rate are load dependent. Differences in LV load should be included in the interpretation when serial measures of twist are compared.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Cardiovascular Ultrasound
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Tissue velocity echocardiography is increasingly used to evaluate global and regional cardiac function. Previous studies have suggested that the quantitative measurements obtained during ejection are reliable indices of contractility, though their load-sensitivity has been studied in different settings, but still remains a matter of controversy. We sought to characterize the effects of acute load change (both preload and afterload) and change in inotropic state on peak systolic velocity and strain as a measure of LV contractility.
Thirteen anesthetized juvenile pigs were studied, using direct measurement of left ventricular pressure and volume and transthoracic echocardiography. Transient inflation of a vena cava balloon catheter produced controlled load alterations. At least eight consecutive beats in the sequence were analyzed with tissue velocity echocardiography during the load alteration and analyzed for change in peak systolic velocities and strain during same contractile status with a controlled load alteration. Two pharmacological inotropic interventions were also included to generate several myocardial contractile conditions in each animal.
Peak systolic velocities reflected the drug-induced changes in contractility in both radial and longitudinal axis. During the acute load change, the peak systolic velocities remain stable when derived from signal in the longitudinal axis and from the radial axis. The peak systolic velocity parameter demonstrated no strong relation to either load or inotropic intervention, that is, it remained unchanged when load was systematically and progressively varied (peak systolic velocity, longitudinal axis, control group beat 1-5.72 ± 1.36 with beat 8–6.49 ± 1.28 cm/sec, 95% confidence interval), with the single exception of the negative inotropic intervention group where peak systolic velocity decreased a small amount during load reduction (beat 1–3.98 ± 0.92 with beat 8–2.72 ± 0.89 cm/sec). Systolic strain, however, showed a clear degree of load-dependence.
Peak systolic velocity appears to be load-independent as tested by beat-to-beat load reduction, while peak systolic strain appears to be load-dependent in this model. Peak systolic velocity, in a controlled experimental model where successive beats during load alteration are assessed, has a strong relation to contractility. Peak systolic velocity, but not peak strain rate, is largely independent of load, in this model. More study is needed to confirm this finding in the clinical setting.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Cardiovascular Ultrasound
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence as well as contributing factors to fatal hypothermia.
Retrospective, registry-based analysis.
Cases of fatal hypothermia were identified in the database of the National Board of Forensic Medicine for the 4 northernmost counties of Sweden and for the study period 1992-2008. Police reports, medical records and autopsy protocols were studied.
A total of 207 cases of fatal hypothermia were noted during the study period, giving an annual incidence of 1.35 per 100,000 inhabitants. Seventy-two percent occurred in rural areas, and 93% outdoors. Many (40%) were found within approximately 100 meters of a building. The majority (75%) occurred during the colder season (October to March). Some degree of paradoxical undressing was documented in 30%. Ethanol was detected in femoral vein blood in 43% of the victims. Contributing co-morbidity was common and included heart disease, earlier stroke, dementia, psychiatric disease, alcoholism, and recent trauma.
With the identification of groups at high risk for fatal hypothermia, it should be possible to reduce risk through thoughtful interventions, particularly related to the highest risk subjects (rural, living alone, alcohol-imbibing, and psychiatric diagnosis-carrying) citizens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Differences among individuals concerning susceptibility to local cold injury following acute cold exposure may be related to function of the autonomic nervous system. We hypothesized that there are differences in heart rate variability (HRV) between individuals with normal or more pronounced vasoconstriction following cold exposure and that there is an adaptation related to prolonged cold exposure in autonomic nervous system response to cold stimuli.
Seventy-seven young men performed a cold provocation test, where HRV was recorded during cold hand immersion and recovery. Forty-three subjects were re-examined 15 months later, with many months of cold weather training between the tests. Subjects were analyzed as ‘slow’ and ‘normal’ rewarmers according to their thermographic rewarming pattern.
For the ‘pre-training’ test, before cold climate exposure, normal rewarmers had higher power for low-frequency (PLF) and high-frequency (PHF) HRV components during the cold provocation test (ANOVA for groups: p = 0.04 and p = 0.005, respectively). There was an approximately 25 % higher PHF at the start in normal rewarmers, in the logarithmic scale. Low frequency-to-high frequency ratio (PLF/PHF) showed lower levels for normal rewarmers (ANOVA for groups: p = 0.04). During the ‘post-training’ cold provocation test, both groups lacked the marked increase in heart rate that occurred during cold exposure at the ‘pre-training’ setting. After cold acclimatization (post-training), normal rewarmers showed lower resting power values for the low-frequency and high-frequency HRV components. After winter training, the slow rewarmers showed reduced low-frequency power for some of the cold provocation measurements but not all (average total PLF, ANOVA p = 0.05), which was not present before winter training.
These HRV results support the conclusion that cold adaptation occurred in both groups. We conclude that further prospective study is needed to determine whether cold adaptation provides protection to subjects at higher risk for cold injury, that is, slow rewarmers.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During ischaemia, ATP depletion leads to insufficient fuelling for Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, decreased electrochemical potential and increased influx of calcium ions. This study demonstrated a means to assess the effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IP) on the free intracellular Ca(2+) pool during prolonged ischaemia. In a porcine myocardial ischaemia model, microdialysis (MD) was used for sampling of metabolic and injury markers in IP and non-IP (control) groups. (45) Ca(2+) was delivered in microperfusate locally to ischaemic myocardium, with distribution and uptake assessed by (45) Ca(2+) recovery in microdialysate. Cardiomyocytes in vitro were exposed to a Ca(2+) ionophore and tested for (45) Ca(2+) uptake. An accentuated myocardial calcium ion influx (observed as an increased microdialysate (45) Ca(2+) recovery in the extracellular milieu) was noted in control pigs compared with IP pigs during ischaemia. Suspended cardiomyocytes preincubated with a Ca(2+) ionophore to increase the intracellular calcium ion pool and subsequently incubated with (45) Ca(2+) , displayed lower (45) Ca(2+) uptake in cells compared with control cells not exposed to the ionophore, corroborating the idea of a strong relationship between degree of intracellular calcium overload and microdialysate (45) Ca(2+) recovery. The ischaemic insult was differentially verified by metabolic and injury markers. We introduce an in vivo method for serial assessment of myocardial calcium overload during ischaemia, using a MD technique and (45) Ca(2+) inclusion. IP leads to relatively less calcium overload as assessed by this new method, and we interpret this to mean that reduction in calcium overload is an important part of the IP protective effect.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently have shown that samples from microdialysis (MD) probes placed on the surface of the heart reflect metabolic events in the myocardium. This new interesting observation challenges us to consider whether surface application of MD applies to other parenchymatous organs and their surfaces. In 13 anesthetized pigs, transient liver ischaemia was achieved by occlusion of arterial and venous inflow to the liver. Two probes on liver surface and two in parenchyma were perfused with a flow rate of 1 μl per min (n = 13). An identical set-up was used for probes with a flow rate of 2 μl per min (n = 9). Samples were collected for every 15-min period during 60 min of baseline, 45 min of ischaemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glycerol were analysed in MD samples. We focused on relative changes in the present study. There was a strong agreement in relative lactate and glucose levels between probes placed on liver surface and those on parenchyma. No significant differences in relative changes in lactate and glucose levels were seen between samples from surface probes and probes in liver parenchyma during equilibration, baseline, ischaemia or reperfusion with a flow rate of 1 μl per min. MD sampling applied on the liver surface is a new application area for the MD technique and may be used to monitor liver metabolism during both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging