[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Both18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status are prognostic variables of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between 18F-FDG uptake on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and EGFR status in primary CRC. Materials and Methods: Records of 132 patients (66 men and 66 women; mean age=67.1±11.1 years) who underwent18F-FDG PET/CT for CRC staging and subsequent bowel resection were reviewed. In primary lesions,18F-FDG uptake was semiquantitatively evaluated in terms of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and EGFR status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Associations of clinicopathological parameters and EGFR status were analyzed by Pearson’s chi-square test, multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Eighty-six patients (65.2%) showed EGFR expression. SUVmax was significantly lower in EGFR-negative tumors than in EGFR-expressing tumors (10.0±4.2 vs. 12.1±2.1; p=0.012). It was the only significant parameter correlated with EGFR expression (odds ratio=2.457; relative risk=2.013; p=0.038). At the SUVmax threshold of 7.5, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting EGFR expression were 84.9% and 40.4%, respectively (area under the curve=0.624; p=0.019). Conclusion: Preoperative 18F-FDG uptake is slightly correlated with EGFR status in primary CRC. Preoperative SUVmax of 18F-FDG may have a limited role in predicting EGFR expression in such tumors because of its poor specificity.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GATA3 and fascin proteins are known prognostic markers in several cancers. GATA3 is a key regulator of mammary gland morphogenesis and luminal cell differentiation, whereas fascin is a pro-metastatic actin-bundling protein. In this study, we analyzed and compared the predictive abilities of GATA3 and fascin for clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer. The combined expression pattern based on GATA3-/+ and fascin-/+ was evaluated by immunostaining using a tissue microarray, and relationships between protein expression and several clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. GATA3 expression was associated with good prognostic parameters, but fascin was correlated with poor prognostic parameters. On comparing GATA3 and fascin, we found an inverse relationship between fascin and GATA3 expressions. On analysis of combined markers, GATA3+/fascin- was correlated with improved clinical outcomes compared to GATA3-/fascin+. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in relapse-free and overall survival between GATA3+/fascin- and GATA3-/fascin+. Combined marker analysis of GATA3/fascin showed an inverse association and improved prognostic information for patients with breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) are rare malignancies with considerable importance because of their high curable resection rate and improved survival rate among periampullary cancers. RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is involved in the development of A-ACs and is a potential therapeutic target. However, molecular profiles of A-ACs and their prognostic impact are poorly understood. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated polymerase chain reaction clamping and Mutyper were used to detect KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in 62 paraffinized samples of A-ACs. 30.6% of 62 A-ACs had KRAS mutations but no BRAF mutations and low frequency (1.6%) of PIK3CA mutation were detected. KRAS mutation was correlated with poor tumor differentiation and was a predictor of shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) period in overall A-ACs, whereas the prognosis according to the histologic subtypes was not affected by KRAS mutation. Lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor of poor overall survival (OS). Intestinal- and pancreatobiliary-type A-ACs had similar prognosis. Intestinal- and pancreatobiliary-type A-ACs had different prognostic factors; tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis strongly predicted OS and RFS in pancreatobiliary-type tumors, respectively, whereas no independent prognostic factors were demonstrated for intestinal-type tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis is a benign neoplastic condition characterized by disseminated, intramural, or transmural proliferation of neural elements involving the enteric plexuses, sometimes associated with von Recklinghausen's disease and other multiple tumor syndromes. Colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis is usually large, ranging from 1 to 17 cm, and thus can distort the surrounding tissue architecture as well as infiltrate the adjacent bowel wall. However, colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis is an exceptional finding in adults and only individual cases are reported in the literature. Herein, we report two unusual cases of adult patients with colonic diffuse transmural ganglioneuromatosis presenting as a large subepithelial tumor.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is responsible for a DNA damage response, centrally regulating p53. The aberrant HIPK2 expression is known to be involved in carcinogenesis in several malignancies. However, the correlation of HIPK2 expression along with progression of cutaneous epithelial neoplasm has not been investigated.Methods
Using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, we examined the correlation between HIPK2 and HIPK2-related protein expressions and the progression of some cutaneous epithelial neoplasms (i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, keratoacanthoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma).ResultsHIPK2 expression was distinct between preinvasive and invasive lesions: the expression decreased in keratoacanthoma (none of eight) and squamous cell carcinoma (five of 35) compared to actinic keratosis (12 of 19) and Bowen's disease (10 of 23) (P < 0.001). HIPK2 expression was also negatively correlated with aggressiveness of basal cell carcinoma; high-risk subtypes showed lower HIPK2 expression than did low-risk subtypes (P < 0.001). HIPK2 mRNA expression of each tumor group was significantly higher than that of normal skin. HIPK2 mRNA expression of each tumor group was not correlated with the relevant HIPK2 protein expression, which was consistent with previous studies.ConclusionsHIPK2 expression tends to be decreased along tumor progression and may be involved with the invasive potential, suggesting a possible tumor suppressor role for HIPK2.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · International journal of dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low prevalence and prognostic relevance of KRAS mutations in Korean pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) need to be validated with sensitive detection method.
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping was used to precisely detect KRAS mutation in 72 paraffinized tumor samples and was validated by pancreatic cell lines to compare the efficiency of direct sequencing.
The PNA-mediated PCR clamping detected mutant allele proportions of as low as 0.5% against a background of wild-type DNA and was 20-fold more sensitive than direct sequencing through the validation of pancreatic cell lines. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping detected KRAS mutations in 47.2% of 72 PDACs. Low tumor cellularity and low PCR amplification efficiency led to be undetected or failed by direct sequencing in pancreatic paraffinized samples.KRAS mutations were an independent worse prognostic factor predicting a reduced progression-free survival rate in the postoperative chemotherapy group.
Peptide nucleic acid clamp real-time PCR was a sensitive method for detecting KRAS status in paraffinized PDAC samples. We identified a low KRAS mutation rate among the Korean PDAC patients using PNA clamp real-time PCR, potentially implicating epidemiological characteristics. The low KRAS mutation rate and its prognostic role may suggest the further survival benefit in Korean PDAC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA deacetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important mechanism involved in the oncogenic tumorigenesis of breast cancer. Previous studies have reported an association of the estrogen receptor (ER) with HDACs and demonstrated the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancers via in vitro experiments. In this study, we examined the association of HDAC expression with clinicopathological parameters and disease-specific survival.
Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC6 was performed using tissue microarrays in 300 invasive ductal carcinomas. IHC scoring was determined by multiplication of the intensity (0 to 3) and the proportion (0 to 4) of staining, and we classified tumors into low- and high-HDAC expression groups.
High expression of HDAC1 was correlated with the molecular subtype (p=0.001) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) amplification (p=0.012). High expression of HDAC6 was correlated with a younger age (p<0.001), ER expression (p=0.025), progesterone receptor expression (p=0.034), molecular subtype (p=0.023), and HER2 amplification (p=0.011). High HDAC1 expression was correlated with luminal A tumors (p=0.001), while high HDAC6 expression was more common in luminal B tumors (p=0.023). Although the expression of HDACs did not exhibit prognostic significance in the entire cohort, high expression of HDAC1 and HDAC6 was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in patients with ER-positive tumors (p=0.017 and p=0.029, respectively), and high expression of HDAC2 was correlated with improved OS in ER-negative tumors (p=0.048) on univariate analysis. Furthermore, high HDAC6 expression was associated with improved disease-free survival (p=0.048) on multivariate analysis.
HDAC1 expression is significantly correlated with the molecular subtypes of tumors, with the highest expression being observed in luminal A tumors. HDAC6 is a significantly correlated with ER expression and the molecular subtype, thereby supporting the estrogen regulatory property of HDAC6. HDAC1 and HDAC6 expression are good prognostic factors for ER-positive tumors.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Breast Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eyelid sebaceous carcinoma (SC) represents a highly aggressive malignancy. Despite the poor prognosis, genetic alterations as potential molecular targets are not available. KRAS mutation and HER2 gene amplification may be candidates related to their genetic alterations. We examined the HER2 and KRAS alteration status in eyelid SCs and compared it with that in other eyelid tumors. The controversial topics of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and p16 expression were also investigated. HER2 amplification was determined by silver in situ hybridization, while immunohistochemistry was performed to study protein expressions in 14 SCs and controls, including 23 other eyelid malignancies and 14 benign tumors. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping and direct sequencing were used to detect KRAS mutations. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 85.7% (12/14) of the SCs, of which two-thirds showed HER2 gene amplification. HER2 protein overexpression and HER2 amplification were found more frequently in eyelid SCs than in other eyelid tumors. All SCs harbored wild type KRAS genes. No HPV infections were identified in the SCs. Nevertheless, p16 overexpression was found in 71.4% (10/14) of SCs, irrespective of the status of HPV infection. Furthermore, p16 overexpression in eyelid SCs was also significantly higher than that in other eyelid tumors. HER2 protein overexpression, HER2 gene amplifications, and wild type KRAS genes are common in eyelid SCs. HER2 gene amplification may represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of eyelid SCs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Pathology - Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present here a case of extrathyroid CASTLE (the third case reported in the English literature) treated with excision and neck dissection without radiotherapy. Also, we reviewed the literature and analyzed the therapeutic results of each treatment modality for CASTLE. A 27-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, right neck mass for 2 months. Computed tomography of the neck showed a 3.8 x 3.2 x 3.8 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass at right level IIa, and no definite thyroid lesion was found. An excisional biopsy was done and the pathologic diagnosis was CASTLE. Then we performed a right modified radical neck dissection and right thyroid lobectomy. After three years, no evidence of tumor recurrence was noted. Total excision followed by neck dissection could be a sufficient surgical treatment option for CASTLE. Postoperative radiotherapy might be an alternative treatment option for neck dissection in patients with positive nodal status.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to the development of gastric cancer. H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation is considered to be the first important step in the histogenesis of such neoplasia. However, studies that compare proteome of gastric mucosa infected with or without H. pylori are lacking.
We employed proteomics analysis on the endoscopic biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa obtained from two groups (30 cases): healthy subjects without H. pylori infection (15 cases), and gastritis patients with H. pylori infection (15 cases). The pooled proteins obtained from gastric mucosa infected with or without H. pylori were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by a computer-aided program. The altered protein expressions were then identified by mass spectrometry and validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
On mass spectrometry using MALDI TOF™ Analyzer, the up-regulation of Keratin 1, ezrin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase subunit alpha mitochondrial isoform c, Keratin type I cytoskeletal 19, and Keratin type I cytoskeletal 9 were identified; in contrast, 71 kd heat shock cognate protein, ATP synthase subunit alpha mitochondrial precursor, and annexin IV were down-regulated. Among them, membrane cytoskeleton linker ezrin was validated using Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
Expression of ezrin was significantly different between the gastric mucosa with and without H. pylori infection. Therefore, ezrin could be considered a promising potential molecular marker for detecting H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa.
Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important prognostic factor for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCCs are considered distinct in terms of prognosis and sensitivity to chemo/radiotherapy. However, to date, no study has thoroughly evaluated the individual prognostic factors for these two disease subgroups. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Met signaling pathway can be a predictive marker for prognosis or therapy response, especially in HPV-negative TSCC. We therefore investigated the prognostic values of HGF and c-Met expression in TSCC according to HPV status. Immunohistochemical analyses of HGF and c-Met protein expression and silver in situ hybridization of c-Met gene copy number were performed in 79 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. In HPV-negative TSCC, HGF overexpression, regional lymph node category, and ipsilateral cervical nodal metastasis predicted decreased overall survival (OS) (P = .017, P = .024, and P = .003, respectively). The latter two were also independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) (P = .023 and P = .002, respectively). In HPV-positive TSCC, heavy alcohol consumption and advanced primary tumor category were predictive of PFS, whereas no independent prognostic factor for OS was identified. HGF overexpression had a significant effect on OS in HPV-negative TSCC, but not in HPV-positive TSCC. HPV-negative/HGF-high expression tumors exhibited the worst survival outcomes, whereas HPV-positive/HGF-low expression tumors had the most favorable prognosis. c-Met expression and c-Met gene amplification were not associated with survival outcomes in TSCC patients. In conclusion, HGF may be a potential prognostic marker in HPV-negative TSCC, whereas c-Met exhibited limited clinical significance in TSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MET, a cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is involved in the development of triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer (TNBC/BLBC). However, its utility as a therapeutic target in this subtype of breast cancer is poorly understood. To evaluate MET fully as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC/BLBC, we investigated the relationship between MET expression and clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer and the functional effect of MET inhibition. Using automated immunohistochemistry (Ventana), we analyzed MET expression in 924 breast cancer patients with relevant clinicopathologic parameters. BLBC showed the strongest relationship with MET expression (57.5%, p < 0.001). High expression of MET in breast cancer resulted in poor overall survival (p = 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.010). MET expression was relatively high in TNBC cell lines, and the silencing of MET via small interfering RNA reduced cell proliferation and migration. We observed reduced TNBC cell viability after treatment with the MET inhibitor PHA-665752. In the most drug-resistant cell line, MDA-MB-468, which showed elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, silencing of EGFR resulted in increased sensitivity to PHA-665752 treatment. We confirmed that PHA-665752 synergizes with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib to decrease the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells. TNBC patients coexpressing MET and EGFR showed significantly worse DFS than that in patients expressing EGFR alone (p = 0.021). Our findings strongly suggest that MET may be a therapeutic target in TNBC and that the combined therapy targeting MET and EGFR may be beneficial for the treatment of TNBC/BLBC patients.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
KRAS is one of commonly mutated genetic "drivers" in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Recent studies indicate that patients with KRAS-mutated tumors do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, so there is now a focus on targeting KRAS-mutated NSCLCs. A feasible mutation detection method is required in order to accurately test for KRAS status.
We compared direct Sanger sequencing and the peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping method in 134 NSCLCs and explored associations with clinicopathological factors. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to validate the results of discordant cases. To increase the resolution of low-level somatic mutant molecules, PNA-mediated PCR clamping was used for mutant enrichment prior to NGS.
Twenty-one (15.7%) cases were found to have the KRAS mutations using direct sequencing, with two additional cases by the PNA-mediated PCR clamping method. The frequencies of KRAS mutant alleles were 2% and 4%, respectively, using conventional NGS, increasing up to 90% and 89%, using mutant-enriched NGS. The KRAS mutation occurs more frequently in the tumors of smokers (p=.012) and in stage IV tumors (p=.032).
Direct sequencing can accurately detect mutations, but, it is not always possible to obtain a tumor sample with sufficient volume. The PNA-mediated PCR clamping can rapidly provide results with sufficient sensitivity.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at investigating the relation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) expression with the clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT).
We examined 170 patients (84, PTC with HT; 86, PTC without HT). P2X7R expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods. The staining intensity and patterns were evaluated and scored using a semi-quantitative method.
The PTC with HT group was more likely to contain women and had less extrathyroid extension, lymph node (LN) metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and recurrence than the PTC without HT group. Patients positive for P2X7R had significantly higher frequencies of lymphovascular invasion, extrathyroid extension, LN metastasis, and absence of HT. As shown by multivariate analysis, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher if HT was absent and extrathyroid extension was present. In the PTC with HT group, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher in patients with tumor multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroid extension. In the PTC without HT group, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher in women and those having tumor multifocality.
Coexistence of PTC with HT is associated with good prognostic factors, and P2X7R expression in PTC was correlated with poor prognostic factors and the absence of HT.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canaliculocele is a rare cause of eyelid mass which is formed by dilation of the canaliculus. We introduce a case of canaliculocele treated with punctoplasty and marsupialization.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (n = 30), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), bowenoid papulosis (n = 9), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), actinic keratosis (n = 5), and basal cell carcinoma (n = 5). We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease (n = 5) nor those with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3) showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (n = 3), while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7%) of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.