[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the effect of experimentally induced hypoxia, in the first 10 days of life, on physiological hearing in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Methods: A prospective, controlled animal study was carried out using 22 male rat pups. The rats in the hypoxic group (n = 12) were reared in hypoxia for the first 10 days of life, and subsequently reared in normoxia, while those in the control group (n = 10) were reared in normoxia for the duration of the experiment. Hearing was assessed using auditory brainstem response testing at approximately 72 days of age. Results: The hypoxia group had higher auditory brainstem response thresholds for all frequencies tested (more pronounced at 16 kHz), compared with controls. Wave I-V inter-peak latencies were more prolonged in the hypoxic rats, while both groups had similar wave I latencies. Conclusion: Chronic postnatal hypoxia induced permanent hearing loss in this Sprague-Dawley rat model. Prolonged wave I-V inter-peak latencies suggested functional abnormality in the central auditory pathway.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2month-old) and older (6.5month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of prolonged hypoxemia in early life on systemic arterial blood pressure at maturity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Animals hypoxic in early life (12 males, 10 females) were raised in hypoxia (FiO₂ = 0.12) for the first 10 days of life and subsequently raised in normoxia, along with age-matched controls (11 males, 9 females). At 2 months of age, arterial blood pressure was recorded intravascularly using telemetry in awake and unrestrained animals over two 12-h night-time (active) and daytime (resting) periods. Aortic pulse wave velocity was assessed in six additional hypoxic pretreated and five control anesthetized 2-month-old male rats.
Systolic, mean, and pulse pressures were significantly greater in the hypoxic pretreated group compared to the control group during resting and active periods in both sexes (P ≤ 0.05). Diastolic pressure and heart rate did not differ between the two groups. Hypoxic pretreated males displayed significantly increased blood pressure variability during the resting period. Aortic pulse wave velocity was also found to be elevated in the hypoxic pretreated rats.
Prolonged hypoxic stress in early life in the rat is associated with increased systolic arterial pressure at maturity very likely due to decreased arterial compliance. These findings suggest that a nutrient-independent, postnatal stress may lead to long-lasting vascular alterations predisposing to increased arterial pressure at maturity. This raises the possibility that adult survivors of congenital cyanotic cardiac disease may be at risk for secondary cardiovascular morbidity unrelated to surgical repair or residual cardiac defects.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · American Journal of Hypertension