[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KPU-300 is a novel colchicine-type anti-microtubule agent derived from plinabulin (NPI-2358). We characterized the effects of KPU-300 on cell cycle kinetics and radiosensitization using HeLa cells expressing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). Cells treated with 30 nM KPU-300 for 24 h were efficiently synchronized in M phase and contained clearly detectable abnormal Fucci fluorescence. Two-dimensional flow-cytometric analysis revealed a fraction of cells distinct from the normal Fucci fluorescence pattern. Most of these cells were positive for an M phase marker, the phosphorylated form of histone H3. Cells growing in spheroids responded similarly to the drug, and the inner quiescent fraction also responded after recruitment to the growth fraction. When such drug-treated cells were irradiated in monolayer, a remarkable radiosensitization was observed. To determine whether this radiosensitization was truly due to the synchronization in M phase, we compared the radiosensitivity of cells synchronized by KPU-300 treatment and cells in early M phase isolated by a combined method that took advantage of shake-off and the properties of the Fucci system. Following normalization against the surviving fraction of cells treated with KPU-300 alone, the surviving fractions of cells irradiated in early M phase coincided. Taken together with potential vascular disrupting function in vivo, we propose a novel radiosensitizing strategy using KPU-300.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia induces G1 arrest in many cancer cell types. Tumor cells are often exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation, especially under acute hypoxic conditions in vivo. In this study, we investigated cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation in HeLa cells expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). Hypoxic treatment halted cell-cycle progression during mid-S to G2 phase, as determined by the cell cycle-regulated E3 ligase activities of SCF(Skp2) and APC/C(Cdh1), which are regulators of the Fucci probes; however, the DNA content of the arrested cells was equivalent to that in G1 phase. After reoxygenation, time-lapse imaging and DNA content analysis revealed that all cells reached G2 phase, and that Fucci fluorescence was distinctly separated into two fractions 24h after reoxygenation: red cells that released from G2 arrest after repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) exhibited higher clonogenic survival, whereas most cells that stayed green contained many DSBs and exhibited lower survival. We conclude that hypoxia disrupts coordination of DNA synthesis and E3 ligase activities associated with cell-cycle progression, and that DSB repair could greatly influence cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SQAP is a novel and promising anticancer agent that was obtained by structural modifications from a natural compound. SQAP inhibits angiogenesis in vivo resulting in increased hypoxia and reduced tumor volume. In this study, the mechanism by which SQAP modifies the tumor microenvironment was revealed through the application of a T7 phage display screening. This approach identified five SQAP-binding proteins including sterol carrier protein 2, multifunctional enzyme type 2, proteasomal ubiquitin receptor, UV excision repair protein and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). All the interactions were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Since FAK plays an important role in cell turnover and angiogenesis, the influence of SQAP on FAK was the principal goal of this study. SQAP decreased FAK phosphorylation and cell migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and A549 cancer cells. These findings suggest that inhibition of FAK phosphorylation works as the mechanism for the anti-angiogenesis activity of SQAP.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of ionizing radiation on cell cycle kinetics in solid tumors remains largely unknown because of technical limitations and these tumors' complicated structures. In this study, we analyzed intratumoral cell cycle kinetics after X-irradiation of tumor xenografts derived from HeLa cells expressing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), a novel system to visualize cell cycle kinetics in vivo. Cell cycle kinetics after X-irradiation was examined by using tumor sections and in vivo real-time imaging system in tumor xenografts derived from HeLa cells expressing Fucci. We found that G2 arrest was remarkably prolonged, up to 5 days after 10-Gy irradiation, in contrast to monolayer cultures where G2 arrest returned within 24 h. Cells isolated from tumors 5 days after irradiation exhibited a higher surviving fraction than those isolated immediately or one day after irradiation. In this study, we clearly demonstrated unusual post-irradiation cell cycle kinetics in tumor xenografts derived from HeLa-Fucci cells. Our findings imply that prolonged G2 arrest occurring in tumor microenvironments following irradiation may function as a radioresistance mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an asynchronously growing cell population, we investigated how X-irradiation at different stages of the cell cycle influences individual cell-based kinetics. To visualize the cell-cycle phase, we employed the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). After 5 Gy irradiation, HeLa cells no longer entered M phase in an order determined by their previous stage of the cell cycle, primarily because green phase (S and G2) was less prolonged in cells irradiated during the red phase (G1) than in those irradiated during the green phase. Furthermore, prolongation of the green phase in cells irradiated during the red phase gradually increased as the irradiation timing approached late G1 phase. The results revealed that endoreduplication rarely occurs in this cell line under the conditions we studied. We next established a method for classifying the green phase into early S, mid S, late S, and G2 phases at the time of irradiation, and then attempted to estimate the duration of G2 arrest based on certain assumptions. The value was the largest when cells were irradiated in mid or late S phase and the smallest when they were irradiated in G1 phase. In this study, by closely following individual cells irradiated at different cell-cycle phases, we revealed for the first time the unique cell-cycle kinetics in HeLa cells that follow irradiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is highly diverse, even in its early stages. This cancer is classified into three subtypes (superficial, exophytic, and endophytic) based on macroscopic appearance. Of these subtypes, the endophytic tumours have the worst prognosis because of their invasiveness and higher frequency of metastasis.
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the endophytic subtype and to identify biomarkers, we performed a comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of clinical biopsy samples and also confirmed the clinical relevance of differential gene expression.
Expression of the parvin-beta (PARVB) gene and its encoded protein was significantly upregulated in endophytic-type TSCC. PARVB is known to play a critical role in actin reorganization and focal adhesions. Knockdown of PARVB expression in vitro caused apparent decreases in cell migration and wound healing, implying that PARVB has a crucial role in cell motility. Moreover, metastasis-free survival was significantly lower in patients with higher tumour expression of PARVB.
These findings suggest that PARVB overexpression is a candidate biomarker for endophytic tumours and metastasis. This protein may be a clinically useful target for adjuvant TSCC therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new benzophenone-diketopiperazine-type potent antimicrotubule agent was developed by modifying the structure of the clinical candidate plinabulin (1). Although the right-hand imidazole ring with a branched alkyl chain at the 5-position in 1 was critical for the potency of the antimicrotubule activity, we successfully substituted this moiety with a simpler 2-pyridyl structure by converting the left-hand ring from a phenyl to a benzophenone structure without decreasing the potency. The resultant compound 6b (KPU-300) exhibited a potent cytotoxicity, with an IC50 value of 7.0 nM against HT-29 cells, by strongly binding to tubulin (K d = 1.3 μM) and inducing microtubule depolymerization.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chk1 inhibitor acts as a potent radiosensitizer in p53-deficient tumor cells by abrogating the G2/M checkpoint. However, the
effects of Chk1 inhibitor on the duration of G2 arrest have not been precisely analyzed. To address this issue, we utilized
a cell-cycle visualization system, fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (Fucci), to analyze the change in
the first green phase duration (FGPD) after irradiation. In the Fucci system, G1 and S/G2/M cells emit red and green fluorescence,
respectively; therefore, G2 arrest is reflected by an elongated FGPD. The system also allowed us to differentially analyze
cells that received irradiation in the red or green phase. Cells irradiated in the green phase exhibited a significantly elongated
FGPD relative to cells irradiated in the red phase. In cells irradiated in either phase, Chk1 inhibitor reduced FGPD almost
to control levels. The results of this study provide the first clear information regarding the effects of Chk1 inhibition
on radiation-induced G2 arrest, with special focus on the time dimension.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we visualized the effect of tumor microenvironments on radiation-induced tumor cell kinetics. For this purpose, we utilized a multicellular spheroid model, with a diameter of ∼500 m, consisting of HeLa cells expressing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (Fucci). In live spheroids, a confocal laser scanning microscope allowed us to clearly monitor cell kinetics at depths of up to 60 μm. Surprisingly, a remarkable prolongation of G2 arrest was observed in the outer region of the spheroid relative to monolayer-cultured cells. Scale, an aqueous reagent that renders tissues optically transparent, allowed visualization deeper inside spheroids. About 16 h after irradiation, a red fluorescent cell fraction, presumably a quiescent G0 cell fraction, became distinct from the outer fraction consisting of proliferating cells, most of which exhibited green fluorescence indicative of G2 arrest. Thereafter, the red cell fraction began to emit green fluorescence and remained in prolonged G2 arrest. Thus, for the first time, we visualized the prolongation of radiation-induced G2 arrest in spheroids and the differences in cell kinetics between the outer and inner fractions.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions:
The findings of this study demonstrated that the wait-and-watch strategy for neck metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of oral tongue is a reliable option and that salvage by surgical treatment is effective. However, younger patients should be closely monitored for recurrence. Adjuvant therapy may be recommended for patients with pathologically advanced disease.
Metastatic involvement of cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic indicator in patients with oral tongue SCC. With the objective of determining the most appropriate treatment strategy for regional recurrence, we conducted a retrospective review of clinicopathologic factors.
The clinicopathologic features of 103 patients with oral tongue SCC, in whom the local lesions were treated successfully by low-dose interstitial brachytherapy (LD-IBT), but who subsequently developed cervical lymph node metastases and were treated by salvage surgery, were reviewed.
In the patients who underwent surgical treatment at our hospital, 5-year disease-free survival and regional control rates were 69.3% and 85.3%, respectively. The clinicopathologic factors significantly associated with unfavorable disease-free survival were the presence of extracapsular spread (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.005, p = 0.045), multiple and large lymph nodes (HR = 2.850, p = 0.010 and HR = 3.112, p = 0.007, respectively), younger age (HR = 2.429, p = 0.048), and shorter interval from the LD-IBT to detection of neck metastasis (HR = 1.749, p = 0.013).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Acta oto-laryngologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plinabulin (NPI-2358) is a novel microtubule-depolymerizing agent. In HeLa cells, plinabulin arrests the cell-cycle at M phase and subsequently induces mitotic catastrophe. To better understand the effects on this compound on the cell-cycle, we used the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), which normally enables G1 and S/G2/M cells to emit red and green fluorescence, respectively. When HeLa-Fucci cells were treated with 50nM plinabulin, cells began to fluorescence both green and red in an unusual pattern; most cells exhibited the new pattern after 24h of treatment. X-irradiation efficiently induced G2 arrest in plinabulin-treated cells and significantly retarded the emergence of the unusual pattern, suggesting that entering M phase is essential for induction of the pattern. By simultaneously visualizing chromosomes with GFP-histone H2B, we established that the pattern emerges after nuclear envelope breakdown but before metaphase. Pedigree assay revealed a significant relationship between the unusual expression and mitotic catastrophe. Nocodazole, KPU-133 (a more potent derivative of plinabulin), and paclitaxel also exerted similar effects. From these data, we conclude that the unusual pattern may be associated with dysregulation of late M phase-specific E3 ligase activity and mitotic catastrophe following treatment with anti-microtubule agents.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent reports have described that NCSCs (neural crest-derived stem cells) are not only present in the embryonic neural crest but also in the adult tissues. Dental pulp is one of mesenchymal soft tissues origin from cranial neural crest cells, and thought to be a source of adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the existence of NCSC-like cells in apical pulp of human developing tooth. Human impacted third molars with immature apex freshly extracted were obtained. The cells derived from the apical pulp tissue not framed by dentin or the coronal pulp tissues were cultured by primary explant culture. APDCs (apical pulp-derived cells) and CPCs (coronal pulp cells) formed spheres under neurosphere culture condition. The number of spheres from APDCs was larger than that from CPCs. The sphere-forming cells derived from APDCs had self-renewal capacity, and expressed neural crest-associated markers (p75, Snail and Slug) and NSC (neural stem cell) markers (Nestin and Musashi1). The expression pattern of mesenchymal stem cell markers, CD105 and CD166, on the surface of sphere-forming cells derived APDCs was different from that of APDCs. These sphere-forming cells could differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages (osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and smooth muscle cells) and neural lineage (neurons) in vitro, and generated ectopic bone tissues on the border of HA (hydroxyapatite) scaffold in vivo. The results of this study suggest that APDCs contain cells with characteristics of NCSCs reported previously in mice. Humans developing tooth with immature apex is an effective source of cells for neural crest lineage tissue regeneration.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Cell Biology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a pollutant widely found throughout nature and is toxic to animals. We created a PFOS analogue on a polyethylene glycol polyacrylamide copolymer and isolated peptides that preferentially bound the PFOS analogue using a T7 phage display system. Bioinformatic analysis using the FASTAskan program on the RELIC bioinformatics server showed several human proteins that likely bound PFOS. Among them, we confirmed binding between PFOS and a recombinant soluble form of monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 (sCD14) by a surface plasmon biosensor. Furthermore, PFOS inhibited TNF-α production induced by the sCD14 in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although oxygen is required for functional chromophore formation during the maturation process of fluorescent proteins, the effects of hypoxia on their fluorescence have rarely been studied in mammalian cells. We recently reported that severe hypoxia (pO(2)<0.1%) abrogates fluorescence from the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) expressed in HeLa cells. Fucci is a system for visualizing cell cycle progression in live cells using red (monomeric Kusabira Orange 2, mKO(2)) and green (monomeric Azami Green, mAG) fluorescent proteins. In this study, taking advantage of the system, we attempted to determine the dependence on oxygen tension (pO(2)) of these two fluorescent proteins during the maturation process. The oxygen tension at which the number of fluorescence-positive cells was reduced by 50% (pO(2)·50) was 0.9% and 0.3% for mKO2 and mAG, respectively. Furthermore, we measured fluorescence recovery kinetics after reoxygenation in cells treated at two different pO(2) levels, and observed that mKO2 exhibits slower kinetics of oxidation than mAG. Thus, we demonstrate that mKO2 exhibits a stronger dependence on oxygen tension than mAG, as well as the usefulness of this novel method to produce varying levels of hypoxic conditions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1997 and 2006, 324 patients with T1-2 tongue cancer were treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital. Their 5- and 10-year local control rates were 83% and 80%, respectively, and the occurrence rates of ≥ grade 3 mucositis and osteonecrosis were both 0.3%. During the study period, 9 other patients with tongue cancer underwent surgery and brachytherapy for positive surgical margins at our institution. Their 5- and 10-year local control rates were 76% and 64%. Moreover, 24 patients with tongue cancer received chemotherapy followed by brachytherapy, and their 5-and 10-year local control rates were both 100%. These outcomes are comparable to those of the patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy for T1-2 tongue cancer. In this study, 80% of patients treated by brachytherapy for T1-2 tongue cancer were cured with preserved function. However, for some patients with tumors unsuitable for treatment by brachytherapy alone, a combination of brachytherapy and surgery or chemotherapy may be a suitable treatment option.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Japanese Journal of Head and Neck Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity.
Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm(2) (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker.
The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of α/β of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively.
Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics