[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fine particulate matter present in urban areas seems to be incriminated in respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to relate physicochemical characteristics of PM2.5 (particulate matter collected with a 50% efficiency for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm) to their biological activities toward a bronchial epithelial cell line 16-HBE. Two seasonal sampling campaigns of particles were realized, respectively, in a kerbside and an urban background station in Paris. Sampled-PM2.5 mainly consist of particles with a size below 1 microm and are mainly composed of soot as assessed by analytical scanning electron microscopy. The different PM2.5 samples contrasted in their PAH content, which was the highest in the kerbside station in winter, as well as in their metal content. Kerbside station samples were characterized by the highest Fe and Cu content, which appears correlated to their hydroxyl radical generating properties measured by electron paramagnetic resonance. Particles were compared by their capacity to induce cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS production, and proinflammatory cytokine release (GM-CSF and TNF-alpha). At a concentration of 10 microg/cm2, all samples induced peroxide production and cytokine release to the similar extent in the absence of cytotoxicity. In conclusion, whereas the PM2.5 samples differ by their PAH and metal composition, they induce the same biological responses likely either due to components bioavailability and/ or interactions between PM components.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Environmental Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have associated the increase of respiratory disorders with high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) levels although the underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. PM are a complex mixture of particles with different origins but in urban areas, they mainly contain soots from transport like Diesel exhaust particles (DEP). In order to determine whether PM biological effects can be explained by the presence of DEP, the effects of urban PM, DEP and carbon black particles (CB) were compared on a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE14o-). Two types of PM were used : reference material (RPM) and PM with an aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm collected in Paris with a high volume sampler (VPM). From 10 to 30 microg/cm2, cell viability was never modified whatever the particles. However, DEP and to a lower extent PM inhibited cell proliferation, induced the release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, GM-CSF, and generated a pro-oxidant state as shown by the increased intracellular peroxides production. By contrast, CB never induced such effects. Nevertheless CB are more endocytosed than DEP whereas PM are the less endocytosed particles. In conclusion, PM induced to a lower extent the same biological effects than DEP in 16-HBE cells suggesting that particle characteristics should be thoroughly considered in order to clearly correlate adverse effects of PM to their composition and to clarify the role of DEP in PM effects.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Toxicology in Vitro