Martin Krøyer Rasmussen

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (29)71.36 Total impact

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    Galia Zamaratskaia · Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
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    ABSTRACT: Immunological castration of male pigs is an attractive alternative to surgical castration and nowadays is increasingly used in many countries to reduce boar taint and improve pork quality. Moreover, immunocastrated pigs showed reduced sexual and aggressive behaviour compared to entire male pigs, thus improving animal welfare. Carcass and meat quality parameters generally do not differ between immunocastrated and surgically castrated male pigs.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Little is known about the activities and regulation of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) enzymes in porcine colon in response to specific feeding components. 2. We added hydrolyzable tannins to the diet of fattening boars and studied its effect on the expression of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A. 3. In total, 51 Landrace × Large White boars were assigned to the following treatment groups: control (without the addition of hydrolysable tannins), T1 (diet-containing 1% hydrolysable tannin extract), T2 (diet-containing 2% hydrolysable tannin extract) and T3 (diet-containing 3% hydrolysable tannin extract). CYP3A expression and activity were measured in microsomes prepared from liver and colon tissue. 4. CYP3A protein expression and activity were increased in the colon of pigs fed 2% and 3% tannins, while no changes were observed with lower tannin concentrations, or in the liver of any treatment groups. Also, it was demonstrated that colon mucosa possess CYP3A activity similar to that measured in the liver. 5. The present results provide the first evidence that tannin supplementation can modulate CYP3A in porcine colon mucosa in vivo. The physiological significance of this finding for the health status of the individual animal needs further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Xenobiotica
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of aquatic pollutants on fish are of increasing concern. Pharmaceutical-based contaminants are prioritized for further study in environmental risk assessment using several approaches. Dexamethasone (DEX) was one such contaminant recognised for its effect on fish health status. Thus, we carried out an in vivo experiment to identify potential effects of DEX on rainbow trout. Fish were exposed to 3, 30, 300 and 3000ngL(-1) DEX in a semi-static system over a period of 42d. The concentrations of DEX that fish were exposed to was confirmed by LC-LC-MS/MS. Using hepatic microsomes, we determined cytochrome P450 content, activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-debenzylase (BFCOD) and benzyloxyquinoline O-debenzylase (BQOD), as well as protein expression. Our results showed that fish do not change the catalytic activity of CYP450-mediated reactions after high DEX concentration exposure. These results disagree with mammalian studies, where DEX is a well-known inducer of CYP450. We showed a significant effect of DEX exposure on CYP450-mediated reactions (EROD, BCFOD, BQOD and PNPH) when expressed as amount of product formed per min per nmol total CYP450 at 3, 30 and 300ngL(-1) after 21d exposure. Moreover, BFCOD and BQ activities showed matching trends in all groups. Western blot analysis showed induction of CYP3A-like protein in the presence of the lowest environmentally relevant concentration of DEX. Based on these findings, continued investigation of the effect of DEX on fish using a battery of complementary biomarkers of exposure and effect is highly relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Chemosphere
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    Bo Ekstrand · Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Felicia Woll · Vladimir Zlabek · Galia Zamaratskaia
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · BioMed Research International
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    ABSTRACT: Higher accumulation of skatole in the fat of male pigs compared with female pigs might be due to gender-related differences in the rate of skatole degradation. In the present study, skatole metabolites and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms involved in skatole metabolism were for the first time investigated in hepatic S9 fractions from six male and four female pigs (crossbred Landrace×Yorkshire dams and Duroc boar). Surprisingly, the rates of production of major skatole metabolites were similar in male and female pigs. The most abundant metabolite of skatole was 3-hydroxy-3-methyloxindole (HMOI) followed by 3-methyloxindole and indole-3-carbinol in both male and female S9 fractions. Concentrations of formed HMOI and 3-methyloxindole did not differ between the genders (P=0.124 for HMOI, and P=0.575 for 3-methyloxindole). Indole-3-carbinol formation was higher in S9 fractions from the females compared with male pigs (P=0.0001). Enzyme kinetic parameters were similar for both genders (P>0.05). In both male and female pigs, ellipticine, diallyl sulphide (DAS) and quercetin inhibited HMOI formation, confirming the involvement of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1. The formation of 3-methyloxindole was reduced in the presence of the CYP2E1 inhibitor DAS, and formation of indole-3-carbinol was reduced in the presence of CYP1A1 and CYP2A19 inhibitors. We found only minor differences in skatole metabolism between male and female pigs, particularly the involvement of CYP2C and CYP3A in indole-3-carbinol formation in female but not in male pigs. This is a very essential finding, suggesting the involvement of larger number of CYP450 isoforms in female pigs. On the other hand, indole-3-carbinol is a minor skatole metabolite, and the physiological significance of CYP2C and CYP3A involvement in its formation in female pigs, but not in male pigs, needs to be elucidated. Our results, however, should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of animals and possibility of breed and age effects on skatole metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · animal
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    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Galia Zamaratskaia
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is the major family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of several xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Among substrates for CYP450 is the tryptophan metabolite skatole (3-methylindole), one of the major contributors to the off-odour associated with boar-tainted meat. The accumulation of skatole in pigs is highly dependent on the hepatic clearance by CYP450s. In recent years, the porcine CYP450 has attracted attention both in relation to meat quality and as a potential model for human CYP450. The molecular regulation of CYP450 mRNA expression is controlled by several nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are targets for numerous endogenously and exogenously produced agonists and antagonists. Moreover, CYP450 expression and activity are affected by factors such as age, gender and feeding. The regulation of porcine CYP450 has been suggested to have more similarities with human CYP450 than other animal models, including rodents. This article reviews the available data on porcine hepatic CYP450s and its implications for boar taint.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Galia Zamaratskaia · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: Due to limited availability of human liver tissue for the study of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), porcine liver tissue has been suggested as an alternative source to prepare microsomes and hepatocytes. The porcine liver is made by four different lobes. The present study investigated the expression and activity of specific CYP450 isoforms in the four lobes, with the purpose to examine if one lobe of the porcine liver resembles the human more than others. Samples from the four major lobes were taken from female pigs and mRNA expression and activity of CYP1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E and 3A determined. The results showed no differences in specific mRNA expression and activity of any of the investigated CYP450 isoforms. In conclusion, the study shows that all parts of the porcine liver are equally useful as model tissue.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Toxicology in Vitro
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Christina Lindgaard Klausen · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has been shown to induce enzymes of pharmacokinetic relevance (cytochrome P450; CYP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selected secondary plant metabolites with a global extract of chicory root, on the expression of hepatic CYP mRNA (1A2, 2A19, 2C33, 2D25, 2E1 and 3A29), using primary porcine hepatocytes. Of the tested secondary plant metabolites, artemisinin, scoparone, lactucin and esculetin all induced increased expression of specific CYPs, while esculin showed no effect. In contrast, a global extract of chicory root decreased the expression of CYP1A2, 2C33, 2D25 and 3A29 at high concentrations. The results suggest that purified secondary metabolites from chicory affect CYP expression and thereby might affect detoxification in general, and that global extracts of plants can have effects different from individual components.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Food Chemistry
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Galia Zamaratskaia · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: Due to limited availability of human liver tissue for the study of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), porcine liver tissue has been suggested as an alternative source to prepare microsomes and hepatocytes. The porcine liver is made by four different lobes. The present study investigated the expression and activity of specific CYP450 isoforms in the four lobes, with the purpose to examine if one lobe of the porcine liver resembles the human more than others. Samples from the four major lobes were taken from female pigs and mRNA expression and activity of CYP1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E and 3A determined. The results showed no differences in specific mRNA expression and activity of any of the investigated CYP450 isoforms. In conclusion, the study shows that all parts of the porcine liver are equally useful as model tissue.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: In pigs the endogenously produced compound androstenone is metabolised in the liver in two steps by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1). The present study investigated the effect of selected sex-steroids (0.01-1 μM androstenone, testosterone and estradiol), skatole (1-100 μM) and secondary plant metabolites (1-100 μM) on the expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 mRNA. Additionally the effect of a global methanolic extract of dried chicory root was investigated and compared to previous obtained in vivo effects. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of piglets (crossbreed: Landrace X Yorkshire and Duroc) and cultured for 24 hours before treatment for an additionally 24 hours. RNA was isolated from the hepatocytes and specific gene-expression determined by RT-PCR using TaqMan probes. The investigated sex-steroids had no effect on the mRNA expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1, while skatole decreased the content of SULT2A1 30 % compared to control. Of the investigated secondary plant metabolites artemisinin and scoparone (found in Artemisia sp.) lowered the content of SULT2A1 by 20 and 30 % compared to control, respectively. Moreover, we tested three secondary plant metabolites (lactucin, esculetin and esculin) found in chicory root. Lactucin increased the mRNA content of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 by 200 % compared to control. An extract of chicory root was shown to decrease the expression of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1. It is concluded that the gene-expression of enzymes with importance for androstenone metabolism are regulated by secondary plant metabolites in a complex manner.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Gene
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    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Bo Ekstrand · Galia Zamaratskaia
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the expression and regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD), with emphasis on the porcine version. 3β-HSD is often associated with steroidogenesis, but its function in the metabolism of both steroids and xenobiotics is more obscure. Based on currently available literature covering humans, rodents and pigs, this review provides an overview of the present knowledge concerning the regulatory mechanisms for 3β-HSD at all omic levels. The HSD isoenzymes are essential in steroid hormone metabolism, both in the synthesis and degradation of steroids. They display tissue-specific expression and factors influencing their activity, which therefore indicates their tissue-specific responses. 3β-HSD is involved in the synthesis of a number of natural steroid hormones, including progesterone and testosterone, and the hepatic degradation of the pheromone androstenone. In general, a number of signaling and regulatory pathways have been demonstrated to influence 3β-HSD transcription and activity, e.g., JAK-STAT, LH/hCG, ERα, AR, SF-1 and PPARα. The expression and enzymic activity of 3β-HSD are also influenced by external factors, such as dietary composition. Much of the research conducted on porcine 3β-HSD is motivated by its importance for the occurrence of the boar taint phenomenon that results from high concentrations of steroids such as androstenone. This topic is also examined in this review.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Galia Zamaratskaia · Bente Andersen · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and activity are dependent on many factors, including dietary ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of chicory root on hepatic CYP3A and 2C in male pigs. Chicory feeding increased the expression of CYP3A29 mRNA but not CYP2C33. Correspondingly, CYP3A activity was increased by chicory feeding, while CYP2C activity was not affected. Additionally, the in vitro effect of chicory extract on the CYP3A activity was investigated. It was shown that CYP3A activity in the microsomes from male pigs was inhibited, but this effect was eliminated by pre-incubation. In both male and female pigs the CYP3A activity was increased in the presence of chicory after pre-incubation. Furthermore, gender-related differences in mRNA expression and activity were observed. CYP3A mRNA expression was greater in female pigs; this was not reflected on activity. For CYP2C, no difference in mRNA expression was observed, while CYP2C activity was greater in female pigs. Surprisingly, the expression of the constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor did not differ with feed or gender. In conclusion, chicory root modifies the expression and activity of CYP3A in vivo and in vitro, while CYP2C is not affected.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Carl Brunius · Bo Ekstrand · Galia Zamaratskaia
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of surgical (SC) and immunological castration on the steroid metabolizing enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) in male pigs. Thirty-two male pigs were divided in four groups; in one group the pigs were SC before the age of 7 days, two groups were injected with Improvac(®) a vaccine against gonadotropin releasing hormone (immunological castration), while the pigs in the last group remained entire males (EMs). Immunological castration was in one group performed by vaccine injection at ages 11 and 14 weeks, while the other group received injections at ages 17 and 21 weeks. Plasma, adipose and liver tissue were collected at the time of slaughter. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of testosterone and oestradiol. The adipose tissue was analyzed for the concentration of androstenone, while the liver tissue was analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1. Independent of method, all castrated pigs showed greater mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD and lower levels of all steroids in plasma compared with EMs. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD and steroid levels. The same was not valid for expression of SULT2A1. It is concluded that steroid levels can increase expression of the steroid metabolizing enzyme 3β-HSD and thereby influence steroid metabolism, e.g. of androstenone.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Molecular Biology Reports
  • Jana Tomankova · Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Kristina Andersson · Bo Ekstrand · Galia Zamaratskaia
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated hepatic mRNA expression and activities of CYP3A and 2C in entire, surgically castrated and pigs vaccinated with Improvac. Additionally, we examined the mRNA expression of the two nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known to regulate CYP3A and 2C mRNA expression, respectively. Activities of CYP3A and 2C were estimated as a rate of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-benzyloxyquinoline metabolism (CYP3A) and tolbutamide metabolism (CYP2C). We found no effect of Improvac treatment or surgical castration on either CYP3A or 2C activities. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of CYP3A29, 2C33 and PXR were not changed. CAR mRNA expression differed only between entire and surgically castrated male pigs (p=0.005), being greater in surgically castrated pigs. Our results indicated that neither CYP3A nor 2C are affected by Improvac.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Vaccine
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Carl Brunius · Galia Zamaratskaia · Bo Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the in vivo effect of chicory root on testicular steroid concentrations and androstenone metabolizing enzymes in entire male pigs. Furthermore, the effect on skatole and indole concentrations in plasma and adipose tissue was investigated. The pigs were divided into two groups; one receiving experimental feed containing 10% dried chicory root for 16 days before slaughter, the control group was fed a standard diet. Plasma, adipose and liver tissue samples were collected at slaughter. Plasma was analyzed for the concentration of testosterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), skatole and indole. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the concentration of androstenone, skatole and indole, while the liver tissue was analyzed for mRNA and protein expressions of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), sulfotransferase 2A1 and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). The results showed that the androstenone concentrations in the adipose tissue of chicory fed pigs were significantly (p<0.05) lower and indole concentrations were higher (p<0.05) compared to control fed pigs. Moreover the chicory root fed pigs had increased mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD and decreased HSP70 expression (p<0.05). Testosterone and IGF-1 concentrations in plasma as well as skatole concentrations in adipose tissue were not altered by dietary intake of chicory root. It is concluded that chicory root in the diet reduces the concentration of androstenone in adipose tissue via induction of 3β-HSD, and that these changes were not due to increased cellular stress.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to provide further insights into the mechanism of in vivo regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A, 2A and 2E1 activities in pigs with different levels of testicular steroids. Hepatic mRNA and protein expression and enzymatic activity of CYP1A, CYP2A and CYP2E1 were compared between entire male and castrated pigs. Castration was performed either surgically or immunologically. The pigs were divided into four groups. In the first group, piglets were surgically castrated without anaesthesia. Immunological castration was performed by vaccination with Improvac® (Pfizer Ltd). Vaccinated pigs were subdivided into two groups according to the vaccination regimen: early and standard vaccination. Pigs in the early vaccination group were vaccinated when aged 11 and 15 weeks. Pigs in the standard vaccination group were vaccinated when aged 17 and 21 weeks. In the control group, pigs remained intact throughout the study. Hepatic CYP450 mRNA expression, measured by real-time RT-PCR, differed significantly between groups for all isoforms measured: CYP1A2 (P = 0.002), 2A (P = 0.000) and 2E1 (P = 0.002). Lower CYP450 mRNA in entire male pigs suggests suppression of CYP1A2, CYP2A and CYP2E1 by testicular steroids at the transcriptional level. However, this suppression was not always reflected in decreased protein expression and activities of these isoforms, suggesting that at least some CYP450s (e.g. CYP2E1) are regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · animal
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    Galia Zamaratskaia · Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Isabelle Herbin · Bo Ekstrand · Vladimir Zlabek
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    ABSTRACT: Sexually mature pigs are known to possess high concentrations of testicular steroids, which have been shown to change the activities of cytochrome P450 in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the regulation of CYP1A and CYP2E1 activity by the steroids dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3β-androstenol, 17β-estradiol and 17α-estradiol. Catalytic activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) were used as markers of CYP1A activities, while p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH) was used as a marker of CYP2E1 activities. Of the steroids tested, only 17β-estradiol and 17α-estradiol inhibited EROD and MROD activities. This inhibition was observed when a steroid concentration of 100 µM was used, while lower concentrations showed no inhibitory effect. PNPH activities were inhibited only by 100 µM of 17β-estradiol. The significance of these results in vivo is unknown because inhibition was only found when concentrations of estrogens higher than physiological levels were used. Nevertheless, the results provided further evidence on the important role of estrogens in regulation of porcine cytochrome P450 activities.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Interdisciplinary toxicology
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    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen · Carsten Juel · Nikolai B Nordsborg
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    ABSTRACT: It is investigated if exercise-induced mRNA changes cause similar protein expression changes of Na(+)-K(+) pump isoforms (α(1), α(2), β(1), β(2)), FXYD1, and Na(+)/K(+) exchanger (NHE1) in rat skeletal muscle. Expression was evaluated (n = 8 per group) in soleus and extensor digutorum longus after 1 day, 3 days, and 3 wk (5 sessions/wk) of either sprint (4 × 3-min sprint + 1-min rest) or endurance (20 min) running. Two hours after exercise on day 1, no change in protein expression was apparent in either training group or muscle, whereas sprint exercise increased the mRNA of soleus α(2) (4.9 ± 0.8-fold; P < 0.05), β(2) (13.2 ± 4.4-fold; P < 0.001), and NHE1 (12.0 ± 3.1-fold; P < 0.01). Two hours after sprint exercise, protein expression normalized to control samples was higher on day 3 than day 1 for soleus α(1) (41 ± 18% increase vs. 15 ± 8% reduction; P < 0.05), α(2) (64 ± 35% increase vs. 37 ± 12% reduction; P < 0.05), β(1) (17 ± 21% increase vs. 14 ± 29% reduction; P < 0.05), and FXYD1 (35 ± 16% increase vs. 13 ± 10% reduction; P < 0.05). In contrast, on day 3, soleus α(1) (0.1 ± 0.1-fold; P < 0.001), α(2) (0.2 ± 0.1-fold; P < 0.001), β(1) (0.4 ± 0.1-fold; P < 0.05), and β(2)-mRNA (2.9 ± 1.7-fold; P < 0.001) expression was lower than after exercise on day 1. After 3 wk of training, no change in protein expression relative to control existed. In conclusion, increased expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump subunits, FXYD1 and NHE1 after 3 days exercise training does not appear to be an effect of increased constitutive mRNA levels. Importantly, sprint exercise can reduce mRNA expression concomitant with increased protein expression.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
  • M K Rasmussen · G Zamaratskaia · B Ekstrand
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and 2A (CYP2A) are the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of skatole in pigs. In this study, physiological concentrations of androstenone, 17β-oestradiol and testosterone were tested for their ability to regulate CYP2E1 and CYP2A activity in liver microsomes isolated from entire male and female pigs as well as in microsomes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing either human recombinant CYP2E1 or CYP2A6. We found that physiological concentrations of androstenone and oestradiol had the ability to inhibit CYP2E1 activity. The magnitude of this inhibition (approximately 30%) was similar in recombinant human CYP2E1 and microsomes from entire male pigs. This inhibition was only seen when adding the steroid to the assay 15 min before the substrate. Interestingly, CYP2E1 activity in the microsomes from female pigs was not affected. None of the investigated steroids modified the activity of recombinant human CYP2A6. However, CYP2A activity was slightly increased in the microsomes from female pigs in the presence of oestradiol, but the magnitude of this increase was very low (below 10%) and probably irrelevant. Overall, these results indicate that physiological concentrations of androstenone and oestradiol have a potential to inhibit CYP2E1 activities in vitro, and that this inhibition is gender-specific. Further studies are needed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms underlying those differences between the genders.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
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    ABSTRACT: Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is used in the treatment of psoriasis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is elevated in patients with severe psoriasis. We studied the effect of DMF on the MIF-induced activation of the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) and p90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK1) signaling pathways which regulate the proliferation of human keratinocytes via transcription factors. The effects of DMF on the MIF-induced activation of MSK1, RSK1, cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), Cox-2 and c-Jun, JunB and p53 were studied by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. DMF inhibited the MIF-induced phosphorylation of MSK1, RSK1, CREB and JunB, and reduced Cox-2 expression and the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes. The expression of p-p53 (S15) was induced simultaneously with the inhibition of Cox-2. Addition of DMF before MIF induced nuclear expression of p-c-Jun (S63) and c-Jun. Transfection with small interfering MSK1 and RSK1 RNA before MIF incubation stimulated p-p53 (S15) and nuclear p-c-Jun (S63) similarly to DMF. Our results indicate that the specific inhibitory effects of DMF on RSK1 and MSK1 activation together with the induction of p-c-Jun (S63) and p-p53 (S15) lead to the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation, partly explaining the anti-psoriatic effect of DMF.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Agents and Actions

Publication Stats

373 Citations
71.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • Aarhus University
      • • Department of Food Science
      • • Department of Dermatology
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2008-2011
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      • Department of Dermatology
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2007-2011
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark