[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between heavy metals exposure and respiratory diseases or allergic sensitization showing high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) has been suggested. However, previous findings have been inconsistent and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We evaluated heavy metal exposure and its association with coughing, itchy eyes in chronic cough patients with different IgE levels. Ninety outpatients in Kanazawa University Hospital were recruited between January-June 2011. Subjects whose total IgE measured by radioimmunosorbent test were asked to record their daily symptoms. We collected daily total suspended particles (TSP) from which concentrations of calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) were determined then divided into high and low level groups. Generalized estimating equations were applied to compute the relationship between concentrations of these metals and symptoms. All metals at high levels were significantly associated with itchy eyes compared with low levels, with exception of Ca, the six others were significant in patients with IgE < 250 IU/mL. Cd, Fe, Mn had association with coughing (odds ratio-OR (95% confidence interval-CI): 1.13 (1.03, 1.24), 1.22 (1.05, 1.42), and 1.13 (1.01, 1.27), respectively), this relationship remained significant for Cd (OR (95% CI): 1.14 (1.03, 1.27)) and Mn (OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.00, 1.31)) in patients with lower IgE. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between aerial heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients, suggesting these symptoms may be due to a non-IgE mediated mechanism.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is important because patients with ACOS have significantly worse outcomes compared with those with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) alone. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), together with a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA), are recommended, but no therapeutic studies for ACOS have been conducted. Recently, fluticasone furoate/vilanterole (FF/VI) has been approved as the first once-daily ICS/LABA combination therapy for asthma and COPD.
A 12-week, randomized, open-label cross-over study was conducted in 16 patients with ACOS to compare the effectiveness of once-daily FF/VI 200/25 μg vs. twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL) 500/50 μg. The study period included a 4-week run-in, the first 4-week treatment, and the second 4-week treatment. Respiratory functions, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and respiratory impedance using the forced oscillation technique (FOT), were measured, as was fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). A COPD assessment test (CAT) scores and asthma control test (ACT) scores were recorded 0, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization.
The mean values for the FEV1 were 1.33 (±0.29) L in the run-in period, 1.38 (±0.39) L after the FP/SAL treatment period, and 1.47 (±0.38) L after the FF/VI treatment period. The FEV1 value after the FF/VI treatment was significantly greater than the value after the run-in period (p < 0.01). FOT parameters, FeNO levels, CAT scores, ACT scores, and other blood tests were not significantly different during the run-in period, the FP/SAL treatment period, and the FF/VI treatment period.
FF/VI, the first once-daily ICS/LABA, can provide substantial improvement in lung functions, indicating that FF/VI should be considered for the regular treatment of ACOS.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for sixth-line chemotherapy.A chest X-ray film and computed tomographic( CT)scan revealed a right-sided massive tumor with multiple lung tumors.Repeated treatment with carboplatin(AUC 6)on day 1 and nab-paclitaxel(100mg/m2)on days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days were effective in this patient.Chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel may be effective for patients with multi-recurrent adenocarcinoma.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the allergic symptoms, including sneezing or a runny nose and nasal congestion. This is the first report to show that Asian dust triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Atmospheric Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial disorders presenting with chronic productive cough. Accumulating evidence indicates that prostanoids are key elements in the pathophysiology of these disorders. However, little is known about the role of prostacyclin in neutrophilic bronchial inflammation.
The effect of beraprost, a chemically and biologically stable analog of prostacyclin, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin was examined in 14 patients with chronic bronchitis, a neutrophilic bronchial disorder, in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Capsaicin cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin eliciting five or more coughs, was measured as an index of the airway cough reflex sensitivity.
After a 2-week treatment with beraprost (80 μg twice a day orally), the cough threshold was significantly (P < .05) decreased as compared with placebo [12.2 (geometric standard error of the mean [GSEM] 1.5) μM vs. 24.4 (GSEM 1.3)].
These findings indicate that prostacyclin is involved in the pathophysiology of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic bronchitis, a frequently encountered neutrophilic bronchial disorder presenting with chronic productive cough.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Lung Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of "idiopathic cough" in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as "a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT)," which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Thoracic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing number of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer are receiving outpatient maintenance chemotherapy. It is very important to maintain these patients' quality of life(QOL). Pemetrexed has been reported to be an effective maintenance chemotherapy. However, its effects on the QOL of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are undergoing outpatient maintenance chemotherapy are unknown; therefore, we conducted this study. To investigate factors that influence the QOL of these patients, we provided a QOL questionnaire,"The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs(QOL-ACD)"to 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The medical factors related to the overall QOL scores, as well as other categories indicating"activity","physical condition","psychological condition","social relationship", and"face scale", were analyzed. No significant reductions in any of the factors were observed in this study.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In steroid-naive patients with asthma, several gene variants are associated with a short-term response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment; this has mostly been observed in Caucasians. However, not many studies have been conducted for other ethnicities. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between the annual decline in forced expiratory flow volume in one second (FEV1 ) and the variant of the glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 gene (GLCCI1) in Japanese patients with asthma receiving long-term ICS treatment, taking into account the effect of high serum periostin levels, a known association factor of pulmonary function decline and a marker of refractory eosinophilic/Th2 inflammation.
In this study, 224 patients with asthma receiving ICS treatment for at least 4 years were enrolled. The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GLCCI1, stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), and T gene on the decline in FEV1 of 30 ml/year or greater were determined.
Besides the known contributing factors, that is, the most intensive treatment step, ex-smoking, and high serum periostin levels (≥95 ng/ml), the GG genotype of GLCCI1 rs37973, and not other SNPs, was independently associated with a decline in FEV1 of 30 ml/year or greater. When patients were stratified according to their serum periostin levels, the GG genotype of rs37973 was significantly associated with blood eosinophilia (≥250/μl) in the high serum periostin group.
A GLCCI1 variant is a risk factor of pulmonary function decline in Japanese patients with asthma receiving long-term ICS treatment. Thus, GLCCI1 may be associated with response to ICS across ethnicities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the three cases of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). All cases had the upper-lobe predominant subpleural opacities in chest radiography and computed tomography scans. Although these findings are similar to apical cap, they are different in that they have upper-lobe volume loss and progress to inner and lower lobes during their clinical course. Although it is rare, PPFE should be considered as a differential diagnosis of upper-lobe predominant idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.