[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horseshoe kidney has an incidence rate ranging from 1 in 400 to 1 in 1000, with a 2:1 ratio in men. It also has a predilection for chromosomal aneuploidies. From a pathophysiology standpoint, this anomaly occurs during the second to sixth week of gestation when the inferior portion of the metanephric blastema fuses to form an isthmus, commonly in the lower renal pole (90%). As a result of this fusion, the kidney may not bypass the inferior mesenteric artery and is impeded in its ascent. With an aberrant anatomical orientation and location, complications arise including hydronephrosis, renal calculi and a twofold risk of Wilms tumour. Despite these findings, the association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) within a horseshoe kidney is extremely rare and fewer than 200 cases have been described. Therapeutically speaking, partial nephrectomies are the gold standard of treatment for renal tumours smaller than 4 cm in diameter, with a growing indication to accomplish this procedure by laparoscopic or robotic means. We report a case of an asymptomatic 58-year-old male with an incidental computed tomography scan finding of a 4-cm solid mass in the right moiety of a horseshoe kidney. He was treated by laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. There have only been 2 other reported cases to our knowledge on a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a horseshoe kidney for RCC. We believe that, in experienced hands, the laparoscopic approach may be used successfully for this clinical situation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transperitoneal minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) has become first choice for several urologists and patients dealing with localized prostate cancer. We evaluate the effect of postoperative radiation on the small bowel in patients who underwent extraperitoneal open versus transperitoneal MIRP.
We reviewed all patients who received postoperative radiation from 2006 to 2010. Planning target volume (PTV) and surrounding organs, including the small bowel, were delineated. The presence of the small bowel in PTV and its volume in receiving each dose level were analyzed.
A total of 122 patients were included: 26 underwent MIRP and 96 underwent open prostatectomy. The median age of patients was 66 years, with median body mass index 27 kg/m(2). The total PTV dose was 66 Gy, with the minimum and maximum doses received by the small bowel 0.4 and 66.4 Gy, respectively. The maximum volume of small bowel that received the safe limit of 40 Gy was 569 cm(3). Of the 26 patients who underwent MIRP, 12 (46%) had small bowel identified inside the PTV compared to 57 (59%) among patients who underwent open prostatectomy (p = 0.228). The mean volume of the small bowel receiving 40 Gy was 26 and 67 cm(3) in open and MIRP groups, respectively (p = 0.006); the incidence of acute complications was the same in both groups.
Higher volumes of the small bowel are subjected to significant radiation after MIRP procedures compared to open procedures; however, we could not demonstrate any impact on acute complications. Whether there is a difference in late complications remains to be evaluated.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assess the variations between post-graduate trainees (PGTs) and attending urologists in applying the Revised Clavien-Dindo Classification System (RCCS) to urological complications.
Twenty postoperative complications were selected from urology service Quality Assurance meeting minutes spanning 1 year at a tertiary care centre. The cases were from adult and pediatric sites and included minor and major complications. After a briefing session to review the RCCS, the survey was administered to 16 attending urologists and 16 PGTs. Concordance rates between the two groups were calculated for each case and for the whole survey. Inter-rater agreement was calculated by kappa statistics.
There was good overall agreement rate of 81 % (range: 30-100) when both groups were compared. Thirteen of the 20 cases (65%) held an agreement rate above 80% (k = 0.753, p < 0.001) including 3 (15%) cases with 100% agreement. There were only 2 cases where the scores given by PGTs were significantly different from that given by attending urologists (p ≤ 0.03). There was no significant difference between both groups in terms of overall RCCS grades (p = 0.12). When all participants were compared as one group, there was good overall inter-rater agreement rate of 75% (k = 0.71). Although the percent of overall agreement rate among PGTs was higher than the attending urologists (82% [k = 0.79] vs. 69% [k = 0.64]), this was not significantly different (p = 0.68).
There was good overall agreement among PGTs and attending urologists in application of the RCCS in urology. Therefore, it is appropriate for PGTs to complete the Quality Assurance meeting reports.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rodent models are often suboptimal for translational research on human prostate cancer (PCa). To better fill the gap with human, we refined the previously described orthotopic dog prostate cancer (DPC)-1 model.
Cyclosporine (Cy) A was used for immune suppression at varying doses and time-periods prior and after orthotopic DPC-1 cell implantation in the dog prostate (n = 12). Follow up included digital rectal examination, ultrasound prostate imaging and biopsies of hypoechoic areas. At necropsy, the prostate, iliosacral lymph nodes (LN), lung nodules, and suspicious bone segments were collected for histopathology.
15 mg CyA/kg daily for 10 days was optimal for tumor take. Maintaining these conditions post-implantation resulted in a rapid tumor development within and beyond the prostate and in iliosacral LNs. To minimize tumor burden, 10 times less DPC-1 cells were implanted. A series of dogs was next followed for 3-4 months, under continuous immune suppression (n = 3) or with CyA interruption at 8.5 weeks (n = 2). In all instances, multifocal tumors were found within the prostate. Predominant patterns were micropapillary and cribriform. Metastases were present in iliosacral LNs and lungs. Moreover, pelvic bone metastases producing a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic reaction were confirmed in two dogs, one per group. Lastly, the release of CyA 1-2 weeks post-implantation (n = 3) did not prevent tumor growth and spreading to LNs.
The continuing growth of DPC-1 tumors despite the release of CyA and, for the first time, spreading to bones renders this refined model closer to the spontaneous canine and hormone-refractory phase of human PCa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT). There remains some debate as to the clinical benefit and associated morbidity. Our objective was to report our experience with PC-RPLND in NSGCT.
We have reviewed the clinical, pathologic and surgical parameters associated with PC-RPLND in a single institution. Between 1994 and 2008, three surgeons operated 73 patients with residual masses after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for a metastatic testicular cancer. Patients needed to have normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers, no prior surgical attempts to resect retroperitoneal masses and resectable retroperitoneal tumor mass at surgery to be included in this analysis
Mean age was 30.4 years old. Fifty-three percent had mixed germ cell tumors. The mean size of retroperitoneal metastasis was 6.3 and 4.0 cm, before and post-chemotherapy, respectively. In 56% of patients, the surgeon was able to perform a nerve sparing procedure. The overall complication rate was 27.4% and no patient died due to surgical complications. The pathologic review showed presence of fibrosis/necrosis, teratoma and viable tumor (non-teratoma) in 27 (37.0%), 30 (41.1%) and 16 (21.9%) patients, respectively. The subgroups presenting fibrosis and large tumors were more likely to have a surgical complication and had less nerve sparing procedures.
PC-RPLND is a relatively safe procedure. The presence of fibrosis and large residual masses are associated with surgical complications and non-nerve-sparing procedure.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of our study is to examine the correlation between PSA density (PSAd) at the time of diagnosis with PSA velocity (PSAV), PSA doubling time and tumour progression, on repeat biopsy, in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance. Data from 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance in the period between 1992 and 2007, who had the necessary parameters available, were collected. PSAd was calculated and correlated with PSAV, PSA doubling time (PSADT), Gleason score at diagnosis and local progression on repeated biopsies. PSAV was 0.64 and 1.31 ng ml(-1) per year (P = 0.02), PSADT of 192 and 113 months (P = 0.4) for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively. The rate of detecting high Gleason score (≥ 7) at diagnosis was 6 and 23% for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively. A total of 101 patients underwent at least a second biopsy and the incidence of upgrading was 10 and 31% for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively (P = 0.001). Although low PSAd is an accepted measure for suggesting insignificant prostate cancer, our study expands its role to indicate that PSAd < 0.15 may be an additional clinical parameter that may suggest indolent disease, as measured by future PSAV and repeat biopsy over time.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer have steadily been improving since the late 1980s. However, clinicians still confront a large group of men developing disease metastatic to bone. Adequate control of bone complications plays a fundamental role in achieving control of symptoms and quality of life in this group. Androgen deprivation therapy, the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, increases the risk of various complications, including bone disease. This review addresses the prevention of bone complications related not only to prostate cancer metastases but also to impaired bone integrity caused by androgen deprivation therapy.