[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has gained much attention. However, very limited numbers of studies have focused on the clinical significance of TG elevation in non-HTG induced pancreatitis, such as acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). This study aimed to study the clinical significances of triglyceride (TG) elevation in patients with ABP.
We retrospectively analyzed a total of 426 ABP cases in our research center. According to the highest TG level within 72 h of disease onset, the patients were divided into a normal TG group and an elevated TG group. We analyzed the differences between the two groups of patients in aspects such as general information, disease severity, APACHE II (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II) and Ranson scores, inflammatory cytokines, complications and prognosis.
Compared with the normal TG group, patients in the elevated TG group showed a significantly higher body mass index and were significantly younger. TG elevation at the early stage of ABP was associated with higher risk of severe pancreatitis and organ failures, especially respiratory failure. For patients with severe pancreatitis, those with elevated TG levels were more likely to have a larger area of necrosis, and higher incidence of pancreatic abscess as well as higher mortality (17.78% versus 9.80%, P < 0.05).
In ABP patients, TG elevation might participate in the aggravation of pancreatitis and the occurrence of systemic or local complications. Thus, the TG level may serve as an important indicator to determine the prognosis of patients with ABP.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the major malignancies and cause for mortality across the world, with recurrence and metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of pancreatic cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to develop novel biomarkers of pancreatic cancer prognosis. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH has been previously reported to inhibit the tumor suppressive Hippo signaling by suppressing LATS1/2 in breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the role of ITCH in pancreatic cancer progression has not been described. Here we report that ITCH transcript and protein expression mimic metastatic trait in pancreatic cancer patients and cell lines. Loss-of-function studies of ITCH showed that the gene product is responsible for inducing metastasis in vivo. We furthermore show that hsa-miR-106b, which itself is down regulated in metastatic pancreatic cancer, directly interacts and inhibit ITCH expression. ITCH and hsa-miR-106b are thus potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four and a half LIM protein 1 (FHL1) has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in various types of tumor. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of FHL1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that FHL1 inhibits anchorage‑dependent and ‑independent growth of TSCC cells in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice, as determined by cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Knockdown of FHL1 with FHL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistically, flow cytometric analysis showed that knockdown of FHL1 promoted G1/S cell cycle progression. Furthermore, expression of cell cycle‑associated regulators, cyclin D and cyclin E, were detected by western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cyclin D and cyclin E were markedly elevated at both the protein and mRNA level in the FHL1 siRNA‑transfected cells. These results suggested that FHL1 has a tumor suppressive role in TSCC and that FHL1 may be a useful target for TSCC gene therapy.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hydrogen-rich saline on pancreatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.
Eighty heterotopic pancreas transplantations (HPT) were performed in syngenic rats. The receptors were randomized blindly into the following three groups: the HPT group and two groups that underwent transplantation and administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HS, >0.6 mM, 6 mL/kg) or normal saline (NS, 6 mL/kg) via the tail vein at the beginning of reperfusion (HPT + HS group, HPT + NS group). Samples from the pancreas and blood were taken at 12 hours after reperfusion. The protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against I/R injury were evaluated by determining the changes in histopathology and measuring serological parameters, oxidative stress-associated molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines.
Administration of hydrogen-rich saline produced notable protection against pancreatic I/R injury in rats. Histopathological improvements and recovery of impaired pancreatic function were observed. In addition, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were reduced markedly in the HPT + HS group. Additionally, there were noticeable inhibitory effects on the pancreatic malondialdehyde level and considerable recruitment of SOD and GPx, which are antioxidants.
Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatic I/R injury in rats, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.
Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays important roles in a large variety of diseases; glycyrrhizin (GL) is recognized as an HMGB1 inhibitor. However, few studies have focused on whether glycyrrhizin can potentially improve the outcome of traumatic pancreatitis (TP) by inhibiting HMGB1.
A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20 in each): Control group, TP group and TP-GL group. Pancreatic trauma was established with a custom-made biological impact machine-III, and GL was administered at 15 minutes after the accomplishment of operation. To determine survival rates during the first 7 days after injury, another 60 rats (n = 20 in each) were grouped and treated as mentioned above. At 24 hours of induction of TP, the histopathological changes in pancreas were evaluated and serum amylase levels were tested. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and HMGB1 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. HMGB1 expressions in pancreas were measured using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis.
Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α and IL-6 were increased dramatically in TP group at 24 hours after induction of TP. However, these indicators were reduced significantly by GL administration in TP-GL group comparing with TP group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, survival analysis showed that the seven-day survival rate in TP-GL group was significantly higher than that in TP group (85% versus 65%, P<0.05). GL treatment significantly decreased the pancreatic protein and mRNA expressions of HMGB1 and ameliorated the pancreatic injury in rats with TP.
Glycyrrhizin might play an important role in improving survival rates and ameliorating pancreatic injury of TP by suppression of the expressions of HMGB1 and other proinflammatory cytokine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FHL1 is an important tumor-suppressor that is downregulated in multiple tumors by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrated that miR-410 specifically targets the 3'UTR of FHL1. Furthermore, using DNA bisulfite modification and sequencing experiments, we demonstrated that the FHL1 promoter is hypermethylated in cancer cells. FHL1 methylation is increased upon miR-410 expression, suggesting that the regulation of FHL1 by miR-410 occurs by a dual mechanism. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we observed that miR-410 overexpression results in the increased binding of DNMT3A at the FHL1 promoter, which could explain how miR-410 regulates FHL1 methylation. Importantly, in vitro and in vivo results suggest that miR-410 may have oncogenic properties. Furthermore, both miR-410 and DNMT3A are upregulated in clinical human liver and colorectal tumors cancers. Our results suggest that miR-410 may function as an oncomiR and are consistent with its key function in regulating FHL1 in certain digestive system cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex plays a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. However, how AP-1 transcriptional activity is repressed is not fully understood. Here, we show that RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing 1 (RBPMS1) physically and functionally interacts with AP-1 in vitro and in vivo. The RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and C-terminus of the RBPMS1 isoforms RBPMS1A and RBPMS1C, but not RBPMS1B, interacted with cFos, a member of the AP-1 family that dimerizes with cJun to stimulate AP-1 transcriptional activity. RBPMS1 did not associate with Jun proteins. RBPMS1A and RBPMS1C bound to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of cFos that mediates dimerization of AP-1 proteins. In addition, RBPMS1A-C interacted with the transcription factor Smad3, which was shown to interact with cJun and increase AP-1 transcriptional activity. RBPMS1 inhibited c-Fos or Smad3-mediated AP-1 transactivation and the expression of AP-1 target genes known to be the key regulators of cancer growth and progression, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclin D1. Mechanistically, RBPMS1 blocks the formation of the cFos/cJun or Smad3/cJun complex as well as the recruitment of cFos or Smad3 to the promoters of AP-1 target genes. In cultured cells and a mouse xenograft model, RBPMS1 inhibited the growth and migration of breast cancer cells through c-Fos or Smad3. These data suggest that RBPMS1 is a critical repressor of AP-1 signaling and RBPMS1 activation may be a useful strategy for cancer treatment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ share considerable sequence homology yet exert opposite effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. While the proliferative role of ERα in breast tumors is well characterized, it is not clear whether the antitumor activity of ERβ can be mobilized in breast cancer cells. Here, we have shown that phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue (Y36) present in ERβ, but not in ERα, dictates ERβ-specific activation of transcription and is required for ERβ-dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth in culture and in murine xenografts. Additionally, the c-ABL tyrosine kinase and EYA2 phosphatase directly and diametrically controlled the phosphorylation status of Y36 and subsequent ERβ function. A nonphosphorylatable, transcriptionally active ERβ mutant retained antitumor activity but circumvented control by upstream regulators. Phosphorylation of Y36 was required for ERβ-mediated coactivator recruitment to ERβ target promoters. In human breast cancer samples, elevated phosphorylation of Y36 in ERβ correlated with high levels of c-ABL but low EYA2 levels. Furthermore, compared with total ERβ, the presence of phosphorylated Y36-specific ERβ was strongly associated with both disease-free and overall survival in patients with stage II and III disease. Together, these data identify a signaling circuitry that regulates ERβ-specific antitumor activity and has potential as both a prognostic tool and a molecular target for cancer therapy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eye absent (Eya) proteins are involved in cell fate determination in a broad spectrum of cells and tissues. Aberrant expression of Eya2 has been documented in a variety of cancers and correlates with clinical outcome. However, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate Eya2 expression remains unknown. Here, we show that miR-30a represses Eya2 expression by binding to the 3’-untranslated region of Eya2. Overexpression of Eya2 in miR-30a-transfected breast cancer cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration caused by miR-30a. Knockdown of Eya2 by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) in breast cancer cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-30a and abolished the ability of miR-30a to regulate breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. The miR-30a/Eya2 axis could regulate G1/S cell cycle progression, accompanied by the modulation of expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc. Moreover, miR-30a expression was downregulated in breast cancer patients, and negatively correlated with Eya2, which was upregulated in breast cancer patients. These data suggest that the miR-30a/Eya2 axis may play an important role in breast cancer development and progression and that miR-30a activation or Eya2 inhibition may be a useful strategy for cancer treatment.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annular pancreas (AP) concurrent with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBMJ), an unusual coexisted congenital anomaly, often presented symptoms and subjected surgical treatment at the early age of life. We reported the first adult case of concurrent AP with PBMJ presented with symptoms until his twenties, and performed a literature review to analyze the clinicopathological features of such cases comparing with its pediatric counterpart.
The main clinical features of this case were abdominal pain and increased levels of plasma amylase as well as liver function test. A complete type of annular pancreas with duodenal stenosis was found, and dilated common bile duct with high confluence of pancreaticobiliary ducts was also observed. Meanwhile, extremely high levels of bile amylase were detected both in common bile duct and gallbladder. The patient received duodenojejunostomy (side-to-side anastomosis) as well as choledochojejunostomy (Roux-en-Y anastomosis), adnd was discharged in a good condition.
AP concurrent with PBMJ usually presents as duodenal obstruction in infancy, while manifests as pancreatitis in adulthood. Careful long-term follow-up is required for children with AP considering its association with PBMJ which would induce various intractable pathologic conditions in the biliary tract and pancreas.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · BMC Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied with multiple organ failure, is one of the most common causes of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Recent reports have revealed that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, a component of extracellular matrices potentiates the activation of intracellular proinflammatory responses via TLR4, contributing to the aggravation of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, little is known about the participants in the HS/TLR4 mediated inflammatory cascades. Our previous work provided a clue that a membrane potassium channel (MaxiK) is responsible for HS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, in this report we attempted to reveal the roles of MaxiK in the activation of macrophages stimulated by HS. Our results showed that incubation of RAW264.7 cells with HS upregulated MaxiK and TLR4 expression levels. HS could also activate MaxiK channel to promote the efflux of potassium ion from cells, as measured by the elevated activity of caspase-1, whereas it was significantly abolished by the treatment with paxilline, a specific blocker of MaxiK channel. Moreover, it was found that paxilline substantially inhibited HS-induced activation of several different transcription factors in macrophages, including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), p38 and interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), followed by decreased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-β (IFN-β). Taken together, our investigation provides likely evidence that HS/TLR4-mediated intracellular inflammatory cascade depends on the activation of MaxiK, which may offer an important opportunity for a new approach in the therapeutic strategies of SAP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the progression from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this work was to investigate whether treatment with hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) prevented NASH in rats through abating oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation.
A methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet rat model was prepared. Rats were divided into three experimental groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: (1) control rats; (2) MCD-diet-fed rats; (3) MCD-diet-fed rats treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml/kg/d of 0.28 mol/l NaHS, a donor of H2 S).
MCD diet impaired hepatic H2 S biosynthesis in rats. Treatment with H2 S prevented MCD-diet-induced NASH, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin staining, reduced apoptosis and activities of ALT and AST, and attenuated hepatic fat accumulation in rats. Treatment with H2 S abated MCD-diet-induced oxidative stress through reducing CYP2E1 expression, enhancing HO-1 expression and suppressing mitochondrial ROS formation, and suppressed MCD-diet-induced inflammation through suppressing activated NFκB signaling and reducing IL-6 and TNFα expression. In addition, Treatment of MCD-diet fed rats with H2 S had a beneficial modulation on expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism genes in livers.
Treatment with H2 S prevented NASH induced by MCD diet in rats possibly through abating oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) acting as a transcription factor, extranuclear ER also plays an important role in cancer cell growth regulation through activation of kinase cascades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which extranuclear ER exerts its function are still poorly understood. Here, we report that mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility (Memo) regulates extranuclear functions of ER. Memo physically and functionally interacted with ER. Through its interaction with the growth factor receptors IGF1R and ErbB2, Memo mediated extranuclear functions of ER, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B/AKT, two important nuclear estrogen receptor growth regulatory protein kinases, and integration of function with nuclear ER. Activation of MAPK and AKT was responsible for Memo modulation of ER phosphorylation and estrogen-responsive gene expression. Moreover, Memo increased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro and was required for estrogen-induced breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, our studies identified Memo as a new component of extranuclear ER signalosome and suggest an essential role for Memo in the regulation of ER-positive breast cancer cell growth.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein post-translational modifications play very important roles in the regulation of gene functions and successful site-directed mutagenesis is vital to determine a protein's modification sites and hence, to define its structure and function. Yet, researches are always confronted with the problem on how to generate multiple-site mutations of a target gene rapidly. In this study, a novel strategy to generate multiple-site mutations was developed based on accurate single site mutagenesis with SRrp53 as an example. Firstly, the entire SRrp53 coding sequence was amplified from the human breast cDNA library and then cloned into the expression vector pcDNA3-FLAG. Five sets of primers for K196R, K171R, K163R, K146R and K309R mutations were synthesized and were then phosphorylated at their 5' terminus. In the next step, the first ran of inverse PCR was performed with one specific set of phosphorylated primers. Further, the PCR products were subjected to Dpn I treatment, agarose gel purification, dam methyltransferase treatment, self-ligation and purification with PCR extraction kit. Afterwards, the second ran of inverse PCR was performed and the PCR products were treated as above protocol. The second processed PCR products were then used as the template for the third ran of inverse PCR. The exact run times of inverse PCR are according to the number of mutation sites that you wanted. The PCR products of the last run were treated with Dpn I, purified with agarose gel extract kit, self-ligated and were transformed into DH5a. Ten colonies were randomly picked up for plasmids extraction and DNA sequencing. The expression of both the SRrp53 wild type and five-site mutants was analyzed by transfection of these plasmids into 293T cells. The DNA sequencing results showed that 9 of 10 extracted plasmids gained the correct mutations. And after these 9 correct plasmids were transfected into 293T cells, all of the mutants were expressed with the right molecular mass. In a word, our novel strategy can be applied to generate multiple-site mutants of a target gene efficiently and conveniently. The method has laid a good foundation for further exploration of this protein's function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Iatrogenic biliary stricture (IBS) is a disastrous complication of cholecystectomy. Although the endoscopic treatments are well accepted as initial attempts for IBS, surgical hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) is often necessary for a considerable proportion of patients. However, the anastomotic stricture after HJ also occurs.
In the present study, a new procedure, progressive balloon dilation following HJ (HJPBD), was designed and utilized in the IBS treatment. We retrospectively compared HJPBD with the traditional HJ in term of the outcomes when used for IBS treatment.
Between January 1997 and December 2009, 112 patients with IBS attributed to cholecystectomy enrolled in our hospital were treated with surgical reconstruction with either HJ (n=58) or HJPBD (n=54). Of the 58 patients in HJ group, 48 patients (82.8%) had a successful outcome, while 52 out of 54 patients (96.3%) in HJPBD group achieved success. The successful surgical reconstruction rates were significantly different between these two groups, with a further improved outcome in patient undergone progressive balloon dilation following HJ. Additionally, 8 of the 10 failure cases in HJ group were successfully rescued by HJPBD procedure.
Our findings suggest that the new procedure of HJPBD could be successfully applied to IBS patients, and significantly improve the outcome of IBS reconstruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregulated in virus-related cancers; however, miRNA regulation of virus-related cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-148a is repressed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) to promote cancer growth and metastasis in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hematopoietic pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor-interacting protein (HPIP) is an important regulator of cancer cell growth. We used miRNA target prediction programs to identify miR-148a as a regulator of HPIP. Expression of miR-148a in hepatoma cells reduced HPIP expression, leading to repression of AKT and ERK and subsequent inhibition of mTOR through the AKT/ERK/FOXO4/ATF5 pathway. HBx has been shown to play a critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of HBV-related HCC. We found that HBx suppressed p53-mediated activation of miR-148a. Moreover, expression of miR-148a was downregulated in patients with HBV-related liver cancer and negatively correlated with HPIP, which was upregulated in patients with liver cancer. In cultured cells and a mouse xenograft model, miR-148a reduced the growth, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis of HBx-expressing hepatocarcinoma cells through inhibition of HPIP-mediated mTOR signaling. Thus, miR-148a activation or HPIP inhibition may be a useful strategy for cancer treatment.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As it is often difficult for a transplant pathologist to make a definite diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) by routine morphological analysis of liver allograft biopsy, supplementary methods and objective markers are needed to facilitate this determination.
To evaluate the diagnostic value of cytotoxic molecules in ACR episodes, immunohistochemical staining for perforin, granzyme B and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) were performed in liver allograft biopsies. The positive cells in the portal tract area and lobules were counted separately to investigate the distribution of the cytotoxic molecules.
The immunohistochemical study showed that the overall positive rates for the three markers were not significantly different between the ACR and non-ACR groups. However, in the portal tract area, perforin-, granzyme B- and TIA-1-positive cells in the ACR group were significantly more than those in the non-ACR groups. In the lobules, perforin- and granzyme B-positive cells in the ACR group were significantly more than those in the biliary complication and opportunistic infection groups, while TIA-1-positive cells was significantly fewer than those in non-ACR groups. The numbers of positive cells in the portal tract area correlated with the rejection activity index of ACR.
These results indicate that, though the overall positive rates have nonsense in ACR diagnosis, the quantification and local distribution analysis of cytotoxic molecule positive cells in liver tissue is helpful for differential diagnosis and severity evaluation of ACR following liver transplantation.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Diagnostic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initiation of breast cancer is associated with increased expression of tumor-promoting estrogen receptor α (ERα) protein and decreased expression of tumor-suppressive ERβ protein. However, the mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here we show that PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), an estrogen-inducible protein that is overexpressed in breast cancer, can regulate the balance between ERα and ERβ. We found that PES1 modulated many estrogen-responsive genes by enhancing the transcriptional activity of ERα while inhibiting transcriptional activity of ERβ. Consistent with this regulation of ERα and ERβ transcriptional activity, PES1 increased the stability of the ERα protein and decreased that of ERβ through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, mediated by the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). Moreover, PES1 transformed normal human mammary epithelial cells and was required for estrogen-induced breast tumor growth in nude mice. Further analysis of clinical samples showed that expression of PES1 correlated positively with ERα expression and negatively with ERβ expression and predicted good clinical outcome in breast cancer. Our data demonstrate that PES1 contributes to breast tumor growth through regulating the balance between ERα and ERβ and may be a better target for the development of drugs that selectively regulate ERα and ERβ activities.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of clinical investigation