Publications (53)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Chemokine (C-Cmotif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a major chemokine that recruit monocytes and macrophages to the sites of inflammation. Recent researches have clarified that overexpression of CCL2 is associated with unfavorable prognosis in various cancer types. In this study, we aim to determine the prognostic value of CCL2 expression as well as its receptor C-C motif receptor type 2 (CCR2) in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgery. Results: Both high CCL2 and CCR2 expression were remarkably correlated with shortened survival time (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and increased risk of recurrence (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). The combination of CCL2 and CCR2 expression (CCL2/CCR2 signature) could offer a better prognostic stratification. Furthermore, multivariate analyses identified CCL2/CCR2 signature as an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.007 and P = 0.043, respectively). The incorporation of CCL2/CCR2 signature would refine individual risk stratification and predictive accuracy of the well-established models. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined the intratumoral expression of CCL2 and CCR2 by immunohistochemical staining in 268 histologically proven non-metastatic ccRCC patients receiving surgery in a single institution between 2001 and 2004. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were applied to determine the prognostic value of CCL2 and CCR2 expression. Concordance index was calculated to compare predictive accuracy of the established models. Conclusions: Combined CCL2 and CCR2 expression emerges as an independent prognostic factor for non-metastatic ccRCC patients after surgical treatment.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Oncotarget
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    Hangcheng Fu · Yidong Liu · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    Full-text Dataset · Apr 2016
  • Hangcheng Fu · Yidong Liu · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucin-4 (MUC4), a member of membrane-bound mucins, has been reported to exert a large variety of distinctive roles in tumorigenesis of different cancers. MUC4 is aberrantly expressed in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) but its prognostic value is still unveiled. This study aims to assess the clinical significance of MUC4 expression in patients with ccRCC. The expression of MUC4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 198 patients with ccRCC who underwent nephrectomy retrospectively in 2003 and 2004. Sixty-seven patients died before the last follow-up in the cohort. Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test was applied to compare survival curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to evaluate the prognostic value of MUC4 expression in overall survival (OS). The predictive nomogram was constructed based on the independent prognostic factors. The calibration was built to evaluate the predictive accuracy of nomogram. In patients with ccRCC, MUC4 expression, which was determined to be an independent prognostic indicator for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.891; P < 0.001), was negatively associated with tumor size (P = 0.036), Fuhrman grade (P = 0.044), and OS (P < 0.001). The prognostic accuracy of TNM stage, UCLA Integrated Scoring System (UISS), and Mayo clinic stage, size, grade, and necrosis score (SSIGN) prognostic models was improved when MUC4 expression was added. The independent prognostic factors, pT stage, distant metastases, Fuhrman grade, sarcomatoid, and MUC4 expression were integrated to establish a predictive nomogram with high predictive accuracy. MUC4 expression is an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with ccRCC.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Medicine
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    Yuan Chang · Le Xu · Lin Zhou · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is currently widely used as an adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. However, recent studies have shown that GM-CSF can impair anti-tumor immune responses. Thus the role of GM-CSF in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unraveled. Our present study aims to investigate the prognostic significance of intratumoral GM-CSF in patients with clinically localized ccRCC. Results: A high intratumoral GM-CSF expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastases (P = 0.009), high TNM stage (P = 0.031), high Fuhrman grade (P < 0.001), presence of tumor necrosis (P = 0.005), and high Leibovich scores (P < 0.001). In addition, the prognostic significance of intratumoral GM-CSF expression was restricted to patients with Leibovich intermediate/high-risk (P = 0.001). Furthermore, a high intratumoral GM-CSF expression was demonstrated as an independent prognostic factor of reduced RFS (P = 0.018). Incorporation of the intratumoral GM-CSF expression into a prognostic model including TNM stage, Fuhrman grade, tumor necrosis and lymphovascular invasion generated a nomogram, which predicted accurately 3- and 5-year survival for ccRCC patients. Materials and methods: This study comprised 233 clinically localized (T1-3N0-1M0) ccRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy in 2008 at a single centre. Intratumoral GM-CSF expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and its associations with clinicopathologic features and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were evaluated. Conclusions: The intratumoral GM-CSF expression, as a potentially independent prognostic biomarker for recurrence, might improve conventional clinical and pathologic analysis to refine outcome prediction for clinically localized ccRCC patients after surgery.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Oncotarget
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein (UQCRH), as a connecter between cytochrome c1 with cytochrome c in complex III of respiratory chain, is top-ranked hypermethylated gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This study aims to evaluate the impact of UQCRH on recurrence and survival of 424 ccRCC patients enrolled retrospectively from a single institution after surgical resection using immunohistochemistry method. UQCRH was specifically downregulated in ccRCC, compared with papillary and chromophobe RCC. Moreover, patients with low UQCRH were prone to possess high T stage and TNM stage and associated with poor survival and early recurrence. UQCRH remained an independent favorable prognosticator for OS (Hazard rate [HR]: 0.510, 95% CI: 0.328-0.795, p=0.003) and RFS (HR: 0.506, 95% CI: 0.334-0.767, p=0.001) adjusting with other well-established factors using backward Cox model. Furthermore, in stratified subgroups, patients with low UQCRH had an increased risk of recurrence (HR: 0.452, 95% CI: 0.261-0.783, p=0.005) and mortality (HR: 0.386, 95% CI: 0.205-0.726, p=0.003) in subgroup of early TNM stage. Taken together, UQCRH is a potential independent favorable prognostic factor for recurrence and survival of patients with ccRCC after nephrectomy.
    Article · Mar 2016 · American Journal of Cancer Research
  • Zewei Wang · Le Xu · Yuan Chang · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgical resection. In this retrospective research, we enrolled 203 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy between 2003 and 2004 in a single institution. We recorded clinicopathologic features, overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and assessed IL-33 expression by immunohistochemical staining. On such bases, the correlations between IL-33 expression and clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated. A high expression of IL-33 was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage and Fuhrman grade (p = 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively) in patients with ccRCC. Moreover, multivariate analysis identified IL-33 as an independent prognostic factor of OS for patients with ccRCC after surgery (hazard ratio = 2.050; 95 % CI 1.223-3.447; p = 0.006). The incorporation of IL-33 into the TNM stage and Fuhrman grade might help to refine individual risk stratification. The IL-33 expression may serve as an independent negative predictor of survival for patients with ccRCC after surgery.
    Article · Mar 2016 · Tumor Biology
  • Lin Zhou · Yuan Chang · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Vascular mimicry (VM) is one type of tumor-cell plasticity. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of VM in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Patients and methods: Retrospective cohort study of 387 patients with ccRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between 2008 and 2009. Pathologic features, baseline patient characteristics, and follow-up data were recorded. VM in ccRCC tissue was identified by CD31-PAS double staining. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the impact of prognostic factors on RFS. The concordance index and Akaike's Information Criteria were used to assess the predictive accuracy and sufficiency of different models. Results: Positive VM staining occurred in 6.5% (25 of 387) ccRCC cases, and it was associated with increased risks of recurrence (Log-Rank P<0.001). The incorporation of VM into the pT stage, Fuhrman grade and Leibovich score would help to refine individual risk stratification. Moreover, VM was identified as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.001) and entered into a nomogram together with pT stage, Fuhrman grade, tumor size, and necrosis. In the primary cohort, the Harrell's C-index for the established nomogram to predict RFS was slightly higher than that of the Leibovich model (0.850 vs. 0.823), which failed to reach statistical significance (P = 0.158). Conclusions: VM could be a potential prognosticator for RFS in ccRCC patients after RN. Further external validation and functional analysis should be pursued to assess its potential prognostic and therapeutic values for ccRCC patients.
    Article · Mar 2016 · The Journal of urology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFN-inducible CXCR3 ligands (ICL), namely CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, exhibit pleiotropic roles in orchestrating immunity and angiogenesis. However, the prognosis value of them in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was still obscure. Thus, we retrospectively used immunohistochemistry approach to evaluate the impact of these ligands on recurrence and survival of non-metastatic clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients after nephrectomy. We systemically built a prespecified ICL score based on these ligands, and found specimens with high ICL score were prone to possess high Fuhrman grade, necrosis, and high-risk level of SSIGN. Moreover, ICL score stratified patients into different risk subgroups, and remained an independent adverse prognosticator for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Meanwhile, in TCGA database, the increasing ICL mRNA predicted poor survival and early recurrence. Furthermore, after adding ICL score into SSIGN, the C-index for OS and RFS increased from 0.705 to 0.746 and 0.712 to 0.765, respectively. In conclusion, the ICL score based on expression of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 stratified non-metastatic ccRCC patients into different risk subgroups of recurrence and death, which might benefit preoperative risk stratification and guide immune therapy in the future.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2016 · Oncotarget
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    Full-text Dataset · Feb 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8) could drive cancer progress through recruiting certain immune cells. Recent evidences revealed the chemotaxis of CCR8+ human malignant tumor cells towards lymph node, and a significantly increased CCR8 expression in renal carcinomas patients. To assess the clinical association between CCR8 expression and the risk of post-surgery recurrence in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), we detected intratumoral CCR8 expression in 472 post-nephrectomy ccRCC patients retrospectively enrolled. Positive CCR8 staining tumor cell occurred in 26.1% (123 of 472) non-metastatic ccRCC cases, and the positive expression was associated with increased risks of recurrence (Log-Rank P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, CCR8 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.008) and entered into a newly-built nomogram together with T stage, Fuhrman grade, tumor size, necrosis and lymphovascular invasion. Calibration curves showed optimal agreement between predictions and observations, while its C-index was higher than that of Leibovich score for predicting recurrence-free survival (RFS) of localised RCC patients (0.854 vs 0.836, respectively; P = 0.044). The practical prognostic nomogram model may help clinicians in decision making and design of clinical studies.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · Oncotarget
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    Full-text Dataset · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is known to recruit monocytes and macrophages to sites of inflammation. Recent studies suggest CCL2 is overexpressed in multiple cancer types and may play a role in the tumor progression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between CCL2 expression and the risk of recurrence after surgery in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: This study included 268 ccRCC patients who underwent nephrectomy at a single institute between 2001 and 2004. Clinicopathologic variables and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were recorded. CCL2 expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in tumor tissues. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were fitted to analyze the effect of prognostic factors on recurrence-free survival (RFS). Harrell's concordance index was calculated to assess predictive accuracy. Results: High CCL2 expression was associated with a greater risk of recurrence in ccRCC patients (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that CCL2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.045). The predictive accuracy of the Leibovich prognostic score was improved when CCL2 expression was added (0.76 vs. 0.71, P<0.001). Notably, the improvement in prediction was more pronounced in patients with low-risk disease. A nomogram integrating CCL2 expression and pathologic factors was then constructed, which predicted 5- and 10-year RFS well for ccRCC patients. Conclusions: High chemokine CCL2 expression is an independent predictor of recurrence in ccRCC patients. Evaluation of CCL2 could help guide postsurgical management for ccRCC patients.
    Article · Dec 2015 · Urologic Oncology
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    Liu Yang · Qian Wu · Le Xu · [...] · Jianxin Gu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the impact of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) expression on recurrence and survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) following surgery. We retrospectively enrolled 267 patients (195 in the training cohort and 72 in the validation cohort) with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy at a single institution. Clinicopathologic features, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were recorded. CSF-1 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to analyze the impact of prognostic factors on CSS and RFS. Concordance index (C-index) was calculated to assess predictive accuracy. In both cohorts, CSF-1 expression positively correlated with advanced Fuhrman grade and necrosis. High CSF-1 expression indicated poor survival and early recurrence of ccRCC patients after surgery, especially those with advanced TNM stage disease. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed CSF-1 expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for recurrence and survival. The predictive accuracy of the University of California Los Angeles Integrated Staging System (UISS) was significantly improved when CSF-1 expression was incorporated. High CSF-1 expression is a potential adverse prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival of ccRCC patients after nephrectomy.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Cancer
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solute Carrier Family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5), also named as ASCT2, a major glutamine transporter, is highly expressed in various malignancies and plays a critical role in the transformation, growth and survival of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of SLC1A5 in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). SLC1A5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Kaplan-Meier method was conducted to compare survival curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to assess the impact of prognostic factors on overall survival (OS). A nomogram was then constructed on the basis of the independent prognosticators identified on multivariate analysis. The predictive ability of the models was compared using Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Our data indicated that high expression of SLC1A5 was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage, higher Fuhrman grade and shorter OS in ccRCC patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that SLC1A5 was an independent prognosticator for OS. A nomogram integrating SLC1A5 and other independent prognosticators was constructed, which showed a better prognostic value for OS than TNM staging system. In conclusion, high SLC1A5 expression is an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome in ccRCC patients after surgery.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the major cytokine that induces transcriptional acute and chronic inflammation responses, and was recently incorporated as a recurrence prognostication signature for localised clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). As the prognostic efficacy of initial risk factors may ebb during long-term practice, we aim to report conditional cancer-specific survival (CCSS) of RCC patients and evaluate the impact of IL-6 as well as its receptor (IL-6R) to offer more relevant prognostic information accounting for elapsing time. Methods: We enrolled 180 histologically proven localised ccRCC patients who underwent nephrectomy between 2001 and 2004 with available pathologic information. Five-year CCSS was determined and stratified by future prognostic factors. Constant Cox regression analysis and Harrell's concordance index were used to indicate the predictive accuracy of established models. Results: The 5-year CCSS of organ-confined ccRCC patients with both IL-6- and IL-6R-positive expression was 52% at year 2 after surgery, which was close to locally advanced patients (48%, P=0.564) and was significantly poorer than organ-confined patients with IL-6- or IL-6R-negative expression (89%, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses proved IL-6 and IL-6R as independent predictors after adjusting for demographic factors. Concordance index of pT-IL-6-IL-6R risk stratification was markedly higher compared with the stage, size, grade and necrosis prognostic model (0.724 vs 0.669, P=0.002) or UCLA Integrated Staging System (0.724 vs 0.642, P=0.007) in organ-confined ccRCC population during the first 5 years. Conclusions: Combined IL-6 and IL-6R coexpression emerges as an independent early-stage immunologic prognostic factor for organ-confined ccRCC patients.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 10 November 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.379 www.bjcancer.com.
    Article · Nov 2015 · British Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequencing revealed that mutations in SETD2 occur in 3% to 12% of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cases and are associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we used an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to evaluate the impact of SETD2 loss, with expression of H3K36me3, a nonredundantly histone modification by SETD2, on recurrence and survival of nonmetastatic ccRCC patients after nephrectomy. SETD2 and H3K36me3 were assessed in 192 nonmetastatic ccRCC patients enrolled retrospectively from a single institution. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis were used to associate prespecified SETD2/H3K36me3 score with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). And a nomogram was constructed to predict OS at 10 years. Patients with low expression of SETD2 were prone to possess large tumor size and advanced pT stage. And low H3K36me3 expression was associated with larger tumor size. A prespecified combined score based on SETD2 and H3K36me3 expression remained an independent prognosticator for OS and RFS, which was associated with tumor size, pT stage, and sarcomatoid. Furthermore, using prespecified SETD2/H3K36me3 score could stratify nonmetastatic ccRCC patients into different risk subgroups, especially in patients dichotomized by pT stage and Fuhrman grade, respectively. Finally, the C-index for predicting OS increased from 0.727 to 0.747, after adding SETD2/H3K36me3 score to pT stage and Fuhrman grade. The combined score based on expression of SETD2 and H3K36me3 using IHC could predict poor clinical outcomes in nonmetastatic ccRCC patients, and it may benefit preoperative risk stratification and guide treatment planning in the future.
    Article · Nov 2015 · Medicine
  • Yuan Chang · Qiang Fu · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicates that systemic inflammation involves in cancer development and progression. Preoperative lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) has been estimated as an independent prognostic factor of various cancers. We investigated the prognostic value of LMR in nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients after surgery. We retrospectively recruited 430 consecutive patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC (T1-3N0M0) who underwent curative nephrectomy between 2008 and 2009 at a single center in China. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were obtained at hospitalization before surgery. Preoperative LMR as a continuous variable and as a dichotomized variable at a level of 3.25, which was the 25th percentile value, were analyzed in unvariable and multivariable Cox regression models, respectively. Concordance index (C-index) was calculated to assess predictive accuracy. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. As both of the continuous and dichotomized variable, decreased preoperative LMR was proven to be independent prognostic factors of recurrence-free survival (P = 0.039 and P = 0.003, respectively) and overall survival (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Further examination revealed that the dichotomized LMR could enhance the predictive accuracy of each of the existing prognostic models among intermediate-risk to high-risk patients. The preoperative LMR is an independent prognostic factor of recurrence-free survival and overall survival for nonmetastatic ccRCC patients after surgery, and it can be used in tandem with established prognostic systems to further enhance outcome prediction in intermediate-risk to high-risk patients.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Tumor Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), a single-pass type III transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase, is mainly involved in inflammation and immune regulation to facilitate the progression of solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CSF-1R expression on clinical outcome of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgery. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 268 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy between 2001 and 2004. Clinicopathologic features and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were collected. Western blot analysis was performed in the pairwise comparisons of CSF-1R expression in peritumor and tumor tissues of patients with ccRCC. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to determine CSF-1R expression level in tumor specimens. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the impact of prognostic factors on CSS. A concordance index was calculated to measure prognostic accuracy. A prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the identified independent prognostic factors. Results: CSF-1R expression in tumor tissues was higher than in peritumor tissues in 71.4 % (5 of 7) patients. CSF-1R expression of tumor tissues was positively associated with metastasis, tumor, node, metastasis classification system (TNM) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score and poor CSS. CSF-1R expression was determined as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC. Furthermore, extension of the well-established prognostic models with CSF-1R expression presented significantly improved prognostic accuracy. An efficient prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: High CSF-1R expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    Zheng Liu · Yidong Liu · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doc.S1. Supplemental Methods: Tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry.
    Full-text Dataset · Jul 2015
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    Zheng Liu · Yidong Liu · Le Xu · [...] · Jiejie Xu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fig. S3. Kaplan–Meier analysis for cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma according to the intratumoral P2X7 expression in each Fuhrman grade. Kaplan–Meier analysis for CSS of patients in Fuhrman grade 1 (n = 50) (A), Fuhrman grade 2 (n = 122) (B), Fuhrman grade 3 (n = 66) (C), Fuhrman grade 4 (n = 35) (D). P-value was calculated by log-rank test.
    Full-text Dataset · Jul 2015