[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidating the sites and mechanisms of sRAGE action in the healthy state is vital to better understand the biological importance of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Previous studies in animal models of disease have demonstrated that exogenous sRAGE has an anti-inflammatory effect, which has been reasoned to arise from sequestration of pro-inflammatory ligands away from membrane-bound RAGE isoforms. We show here that sRAGE exhibits in vitro binding with high affinity and reversibly to extracellular matrix components collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin. Soluble RAGE administered intratracheally, intravenously, or intraperitoneally, does not distribute in a specific fashion to any healthy mouse tissue, suggesting against the existence of accessible sRAGE sinks and receptors in the healthy mouse. Intratracheal administration is the only effective means of delivering exogenous sRAGE to the lung, the organ in which RAGE is most highly expressed; clearance of sRAGE from lung does not differ appreciably from that of albumin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been suggested to modulate lung injury in models of acute pulmonary inflammation. To study this further, model systems utilizing wild type and RAGE knockout (KO) mice were used to determine the role of RAGE signaling in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. coli induced acute pulmonary inflammation. The effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intratracheal (i.t.) administration of mouse soluble RAGE on E. coli injury was also investigated.
C57BL/6 wild type and RAGE KO mice received an i.t. instillation of LPS, E. coli, or vehicle control. Some groups also received i.p. or i.t. administration of mouse soluble RAGE. After 24 hours, the role of RAGE expression on inflammation was assessed by comparing responses in wild type and RAGE KO. RAGE protein levels decreased in wild type lung homogenates after treatment with either LPS or bacteria. In addition, soluble RAGE and HMGB1 increased in the BALF after E. coli instillation. RAGE KO mice challenged with LPS had the same degree of inflammation as wild type mice. However, when challenged with E. coli, RAGE KO mice had significantly less inflammation when compared to wild type mice. Most cytokine levels were lower in the BALF of RAGE KO mice compared to wild type mice after E. coli injury, while only monocyte chemotactic protein-1, MCP-1, was lower after LPS challenge. Neither i.p. nor i.t. administration of mouse soluble RAGE attenuated the severity of E. coli injury in wild type mice.
Lack of RAGE in the lung does not protect against LPS induced acute pulmonary inflammation, but attenuates injury following live E. coli challenge. These findings suggest that RAGE mediates responses to E. coli-associated pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules other than LPS or other bacterial specific signaling responses. Soluble RAGE treatment had no effect on inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor survival. The identification of therapeutic targets is essential to improving outcomes. Previous studies found that expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the lung is significantly decreased in human IPF lungs and in two animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, RAGE-null mice spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis with age and more severe fibrosis when challenged with asbestos. In contrast to the findings that the lack of RAGE enhanced pulmonary fibrosis, He et al. found that RAGE null mice were protected from bleomycin-induced fibrosis and suggested the effect was due to a lack of HMGB1 induced RAGE signaling. The current study further tests this hypothesis by blocking RAGE signaling via administration of soluble RAGE, a decoy receptor, to determine if this will also protect against pulmonary fibrosis. Wild-type, RAGE(+/-), and RAGE(-/-) mice were treated with bleomycin and assessed for fibrosis. Wild-type mice were also treated with exogenous soluble RAGE or vehicle control. In addition, in vitro studies with primary alveolar epithelial cells from wild-type and RAGE null mice were used to investigate the effect of RAGE on cell viability and migration in response to injury. A lack of RAGE was found to be protective against bleomycin injury in both in vivo and in vitro studies. However, soluble RAGE administration was unable to ameliorate fibrosis. This study confirms paradoxical responses to two different models of pulmonary fibrosis and suggests a further role for RAGE in cellular migration.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been shown to differ in two different mouse models of asbestos and bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. RAGE knockout (KO) mice get worse fibrosis when challenged with asbestos, whereas in the bleomycin model they are largely protected against fibrosis. In the current study the role of RAGE in a mouse model of silica induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated.
Wild type (WT) and RAGE KO mice received a single intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of silica in saline or saline alone as vehicle control. Fourteen days after treatment mice were subjected to a lung mechanistic study and the lungs were lavaged and inflammatory cells, protein and TGF-beta levels in lavage fluid determined. Lungs were subsequently either fixed for histology or excised for biochemical assessment of fibrosis and determination of RAGE protein- and mRNA levels. There was no difference in the inflammatory response or degree of fibrosis (hydroxyproline levels) in the lungs between WT and RAGE KO mice after silica injury. However, histologically the fibrotic lesions in the RAGE KO mice had a more diffuse alveolar septal fibrosis compared to the nodular fibrosis in WT mice. Furthermore, RAGE KO mice had a significantly higher histologic score, a measure of affected areas of the lung, compared to WT silica treated mice. A lung mechanistic study revealed a significant decrease in lung function after silica compared to control, but no difference between WT and RAGE KO. While a dose response study showed similar degrees of fibrosis after silica treatment in the two strains, the RAGE KO mice had some differences in the inflammatory response compared to WT mice.
Aside from the difference in the fibrotic pattern, these studies showed no indicators of RAGE having an effect on the severity of pulmonary fibrosis following silica injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in numerous disease processes including: atherosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, impaired wound healing and neuropathy to name a few. Treatment of animals with a soluble isoform of the receptor (sRAGE) has been shown to prevent and even reverse many disease processes. Isolating large quantities of pure sRAGE for in vitro and in vivo studies has hindered its development as a therapeutic strategy in other RAGE mediated diseases that require long-term therapy. This article provides an improvement in both yield and detail of a previously published method to obtain 10mg of pure, endotoxin free sRAGE from 65 g of lung tissue.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Protein Expression and Purification
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a tetrameric glycoprotein responsible for the removal of superoxide generated
in the extracellular space. Two different folding variants of EC-SOD exist based on the disulfide bridge connectivity, resulting
in enzymatically active (aEC-SOD) and inactive (iEC-SOD) subunits. As a consequence of this, the assembly of the EC-SOD tetramers
produces molecules with variable activity and may represent a way to regulate the antioxidant level in the extracellular space.
To determine whether the formation of these two folding variants is an intra- or extracellular event, we analyzed the biosynthesis
in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing wild-type EC-SOD. These analyses revealed that both folding variants were present
in the intra- and extracellular spaces, suggesting that the formation is an intracellular event. To further analyze the biosynthesis,
we constructed mutants with the capacity to generate only aEC-SOD (C195S) or iEC-SOD (C45S). The expression of these suggested
that the cellular biosynthetic machinery supported the secretion of aEC-SOD but not iEC-SOD. The coexpression of these two
mutants did not affect the expression pattern. This study shows that generation of the EC-SOD folding variants is an intracellular
event that depends on a free cysteine residue not involved in disulfide bonding.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severely debilitating disease associated with a dismal prognosis. There are currently no effective therapies for IPF, thus the identification of novel therapeutic targets is greatly needed. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors whose activation has been linked to various pathologies. In healthy adult animals, RAGE is expressed at the highest levels in the lung compared to other tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that RAGE is involved in IPF pathogenesis, we have examined its expression in two mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and in human tissue from IPF patients. In each instance we observed a depletion of membrane RAGE and its soluble (decoy) isoform, sRAGE, in fibrotic lungs. In contrast to other diseases in which RAGE signaling promotes pathology, immunohistochemical and hydroxyproline quantification studies on aged RAGE-null mice indicate that these mice spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis-like alterations. Furthermore, when subjected to a model of pulmonary fibrosis, RAGE-null mice developed more severe fibrosis, as measured by hydroxyproline assay and histological scoring, than wild-type controls. Combined with data from other studies on mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and human IPF tissues indicate that loss of RAGE contributes to IPF pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · American Journal Of Pathology