[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conformity to masculine norms and gender role conflict have each been linked to male-perpetrated aggression. However, these constructs have been critiqued for their assumption that gender can be reducible to the individual. Despite the excellent psychometric properties and multidimensionality of modern masculinity measures, their positivistic epistemological framework may render them insufficient for predicting the socially constructed gendered component of male aggression. The current study sought to empirically evaluate this critique by analyzing the extent to which gender norm adherence and gender role conflict uniquely predict a highly gender-linked phenomenon, physical aggression, over and above trait agreeableness. As such, 181 undergraduate students were recruited from a Southeastern university in the United States to complete assessment pertinent to masculinity (CMNI and GRCS), personality (NEO-FFI Agreeableness), and physical aggression (BAQ). Path analyses were utilized to estimate direct and indirect effects of conformity to masculine norms and gender role conflict on aggression over and above trait agreeableness. Results suggest that conformity to masculine norms and gender role conflict both directly account for men’s violence; however, when gender role conflict is considered in tandem with only the masculine norm most salient to physical aggression (i.e., violence), its relationship with aggression is fully mediated by trait agreeableness. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of more fully incorporating a constructionist approach in efforts to represent gender as it unfolds in the context of men’s aggression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate conflicting theories that perpetration of sexual aggression and perpetration of nonsexual aggression are either manifestations of one another (i.e., derived from the same underlying factors) or completely divergent in origin, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 independent studies that measured perpetration of both forms of aggression. Our findings indicated that research literature only partially supports the view that these aggression forms are similar in origin. While associations of significant magnitude were found between sexual and nonsexual aggression perpetration, they were limited to specific groups of perpetrators (i.e., adult perpetrators, nonincarcerated perpetrators, perpetrators who target adult victims). Important methodological moderators were also identified, including the use of self-report instruments and use of nonaggressive comparison groups, which resulted in stronger associations between sexual and nonsexual aggression. We discuss implications for theory refinement, as well as the identification, treatment, and prevention of sexual aggression.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Aggression and Violent Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as well as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In the current study, the FFNI was examined in relation to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) NPD, DSM-5 (http://www.dsm5.org) NPD traits, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism in both community (N = 287) and clinical samples (N = 98). Across the samples, the FFNI scales manifested good convergent and discriminant validity such that FFNI scales derived from FFM neuroticism were primarily related to vulnerable narcissism scores, scales derived from FFM extraversion were primarily related to grandiose scores, and FFNI scales derived from FFM agreeableness were related to both narcissism dimensions, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 NPD scores. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable narcissism composites also demonstrated incremental validity in the statistical prediction of these scores, above and beyond existing measures of DSM NPD, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism, respectively. The FFNI is a promising measure that provides a comprehensive assessment of narcissistic pathology while maintaining ties to the significant general personality literature on the FFM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Psychological Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM-5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait perspective, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the focus of this study, is assessed using 2 specific traits: grandiosity and attention seeking. Using a sample collected online from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk; N = 306), we examined the relations among traits from a new measure of DSM-5's trait model-the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, in press)-and grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The 25 traits from PID5 captured a significant portion of the variance in grandiose and vulnerable factors, although the 2 specific facets designated for the assessment of NPD fared substantially better in the assessment of grandiose rather than vulnerable narcissism. These results are discussed in the context of improving the DSM-5's ability to capture both narcissism dimensions.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Personality Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a new self-report measure of psychopathy designed to assess the personality
traits associated with psychopathy from a Five Factor Model perspective. The current study examined the validity of the EPA
in sample of undergraduates by examining the relations between the EPA scales and three validated self-report psychopathy
instruments, as well as assessments of aggression, substance use, and antisocial behavior. The EPA scales manifested strong
convergent validity with the extant psychopathy measures and an expected pattern of relations with measures of externalizing
behaviors. Overall, the EPA appears to be a promising measure of psychopathy which provides new opportunities to explore the
underlying structure of this construct and parse its relations with constructs central to its nomological network.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paulhus and Williams (2002) identified a "Dark Triad" comprising the following related personality styles: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. The heterogeneity found in narcissism and psychopathy raises the possibility of a second triad made up of emotional vulnerability and dark traits (i.e., the vulnerable dark triad; VDT). Along with vulnerable narcissism and Factor 2 psychopathy, the third member of the hypothesized VDT is borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a sample of 361 undergraduates, we examine the relations between these constructs and their relations with criterion variables, including personality, environmental etiological factors (e.g., abuse), and current functioning (e.g., psychopathology, affect). The results suggest that the VDT constructs are significantly related to one another and manifest similar nomological networks, particularly vulnerable narcissism and BPD. Although the VDT members are related to negative emotionality and antagonistic interpersonal styles, they are also related to introversion and disinhibition. Ultimately, it seems there is a "dark continuum" of pathological personality traits that differ primarily in relation to negative and positive emotionality and disinhibition.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Personality