Li Zhang

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (4)11.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A method to analyze haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water was developed using a capillary electrophoresis (CE) ion analyzer for analyte separation and detection. The effects of background electrolyte (BGE) composition, sample injection approach, and on- and off-capillary preconcentration techniques on HAA peak resolution and method sensitivity were evaluated. The recommended BGE consists of 25 mM phosphate buffer at pH 5.7 with 1 mM tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide as the electroosmotic flow modifier. Aqueous samples were preconcentrated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then loaded onto an extended light path capillary (75-mu m inside diameter x 56-cm effective length) using pressure injection (50 mbar for 12 s). The estimated method detection limits were in the range of 1.5-3.5 mu g/L. The SPE/CE method was used to analyze ambient and spiked water samples from a water distribution system, and results were in good agreement with those using US Environmental Protection Agency method 552.2. The main advantage of the SPE/CE method over the currently approved HAA analysis methods is that it does not require HAA derivatization, which involves potentially hazardous chemicals and conditions, Disadvantages of the SPE/CE method are that it does not offer a significant time savings (because of the need for off-capillary sample preconcentration) and chlorodibromoacetic acid could not be quantified because of interference from a contaminant peak.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal - American Water Works Association
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed kinetic studies of the reactions of haloacetic acids (HAAs) with Fe(0) were performed in longitudinally mixed batch reactors. The reactions of tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), bromodichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid were mass transfer limited, with corrected mass transfer coefficients of 3.7-3.9 x 10(-4) m/s. The reactions of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), and bromoacetic acid (BAA) were reaction limited. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were partially reaction limited. For the reaction limited species and partially reaction limited species, intra- and interspecies competition effects were observed. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson kinetic model incorporating a mass transfer term was adopted to account for these effects. The lumped kinetic parameters for the HAAs ranged from 0.04 to 248 microM min(-1) for an iron loading of 0.3 g of Fe/125 mL and followed the trend DBAA > BCAA > TCAA > BAA > DCAA. The adsorption parameters ranged from 0.0007 to 0.0065 microM(-1). The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the reaction of TBAA or BAA with Fe(0) was also investigated. No significant effect of DO on the reaction rate of TBAA, which is a mass transfer limited species, was observed. A lag phase, however, was observed for the reaction of BAA, which is a reaction limited species, until the DO was depleted. Simulations were performed to investigate the potential significance of the reactions of HAAs with Fe(0) in water distribution systems.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Environmental Science and Technology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Water Environment Research
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    ABSTRACT: To predict the fate of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in natural or engineered systems, information is needed concerning the types of reactions that these compounds undergo, the rates of those reactions, and the products that are formed. Given that many drinking water distribution systems consist of unlined cast iron pipe, reactions of HAAs with elemental iron (Fe0) may play a role in determining the fate of HAAs in these systems. In addition, zerovalent iron may prove to be an effective treatment technology for the removal of HAAs from chlorinated drinking water and wastewater. Thus, batch experiments were used to investigate reactions of four trihaloacetic acids, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBAA), and bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), with Fe0. All compounds readily reacted with Fe0, and investigation of product formation and subsequent disappearance revealed that the reactions proceeded via sequential hydrogenolysis. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, and TBAA was the only compound completely dehalogenated to acetic acid. In compounds containing chlorine, the final product of reactions with Fe0 was monochloroacetic acid. Halogen mass balances were 95-112%, and carbon mass balances were 62.6-112%. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for trihaloacetic acid degradation were as follows: BDCAA (10.6 +/- 3.1 h-1) > CDBAA (1.43 +/- 0.32 h-1) approximately TBAA (1.41 +/- 0.28 h-1) > TCAA (0.08 +/- 0.02 h-1).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Environmental Science and Technology

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