[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1) is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L), is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR). RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID) of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca(2+) and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and one of the most notorious opportunistic pathogens of humans. It possesses a 6.3 Mbp GC-rich genome comprising 5570 genes. Being able to cause a plethora of secondary diseases in immunocompromised persons, P. aeruginosa has become a severe health concern and one of the leading pathogens in nosocomial infections. The bacterium is equipped with a series of virulence factors, which allow it to cause prominent illnesses like pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, urinary tract infections in catheterized individuals or tissue infections in burn victims.A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to infection is highly dependent on detailed information of the virulence factors. Recent crystal structures of several P. aeruginosa proteins like autotransporters, multidrug efflux pumps, antibiotic binding proteins and various secreted virulence factors significantly added to our knowledge about the details of the bacterium's pathogenicity.Nowadays, the continuously evolving resistance to antibiotics of P. aeruginosa has led to the emergence of clinical isolates susceptible to only one class of antimicrobial agents and eventually to pandrug-resistant isolates, i.e. resistant to all available antibiotics.So clearly, there is an urgent need for research aimed at a better understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the life of this versatile bacterium. In time, this may lead to the development of new classes of antibiotics active against multiple drug resistance P. aeruginosa isolates. The elucidation of more crystal structures of the bacterium's most important virulence factors will be an important aid in doing so.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many lipoproteins reside in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, and their biogenesis is dependent on the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system. The periplasmic chaperone LolA accepts OM-destined lipoproteins that are released from the inner membrane by the LolCDE complex and transfers them to the OM receptor LolB. The exact nature of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is still unknown. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli LolA features an open beta-barrel covered by alpha helices that together constitute a hydrophobic cavity, which would allow the binding of one acyl chain. However, OM lipoproteins contain three acyl chains, and the stoichiometry of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is 1:1. Here we present the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LolA that projects clear hydrophobic surface patches. Since these patches are large enough to accommodate acyl chains, their role in lipoprotein binding was investigated. Several LolA mutant proteins were created, and their functionality was assessed by studying their capacity to release lipoproteins produced in sphaeroplasts. Interruption of the largest hydrophobic patch completely destroyed the lipoprotein-releasing capacity of LolA, while interruption of smaller patches apparently reduced efficiency. Thus, the results show a new lipoprotein transport model that places (some of) the acyl chains on the hydrophobic surface patches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen able to cause acute or chronic infections. Like all other Pseudomonas species, P. aeruginosa has a large genome, >6 Mb, encoding more than 5000 proteins. Many proteins are localized in membranes, among them lipoproteins, which can be found tethered to the inner or the outer membrane. Lipoproteins are translocated from the cytoplasm and their N-terminal signal peptide is cleaved by the signal peptidase II, which recognizes a specific sequence called the lipobox just before the first cysteine of the mature lipoprotein. A majority of lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane via the LolCDEAB system, while those having an avoidance signal remain in the inner membrane. In Escherichia coli, the presence of an aspartate residue after the cysteine is sufficient to cause the lipoprotein to remain in the inner membrane, while in P. aeruginosa the situation is more complex and involves amino acids at position +3 and +4 after the cysteine. Previous studies indicated that there are 185 lipoproteins in P. aeruginosa, with a minority in the inner membrane. A reanalysis led to a reduction of this number to 175, while new retention signals could be predicted, increasing the percentage of inner-membrane lipoproteins to 20 %. About one-third (62 out of 175) of the lipoprotein genes are present in the 17 Pseudomonas genomes sequenced, meaning that these genes are part of the core genome of the genus. Lipoproteins can be classified into families, including those outer-membrane proteins having a structural role or involved in efflux of antibiotics. Comparison of various microarray data indicates that exposure to epithelial cells or some antibiotics, or conversion to mucoidy, has a major influence on the expression of lipoprotein genes in P. aeruginosa.