[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivation of the TNFAIP3 gene, encoding the A20 protein, is associated with critical inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, the role of A20 in attenuating inflammatory signalling is unclear owing to paradoxical in vitro and in vivo findings. Here we utilize genetically engineered mice bearing mutations in the A20 ovarian tumour (OTU)-type deubiquitinase domain or in the zinc finger-4 (ZnF4) ubiquitin-binding motif to investigate these discrepancies. We find that phosphorylation of A20 promotes cleavage of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains by the OTU domain and enhances ZnF4-mediated substrate ubiquitination. Additionally, levels of linear ubiquitination dictate whether A20-deficient cells die in response to tumour necrosis factor. Mechanistically, linear ubiquitin chains preserve the architecture of the TNFR1 signalling complex by blocking A20-mediated disassembly of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin scaffolds. Collectively, our studies reveal molecular mechanisms whereby A20 deubiquitinase activity and ubiquitin binding, linear ubiquitination, and cellular kinases cooperate to regulate inflammation and cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of signals finely tune insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells to prevent both hyper-and hypoglycemic states. Here, we show that post-translational regulation of the transcription factors ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 by the ubiquitin ligase COP1 (also called RFWD2) in β cells is critical for insulin secretion. Mice lacking COP1 in β cells developed diabetes due to insulin granule docking defects that were fully rescued by genetic deletion of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5. Genes regulated by ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 in the absence of mouse COP1 were enriched in human diabetes-associated genes, suggesting that they also influence human β-cell pathophysiology. In normal β cells, ETV4 was stabilized upon membrane depolarization and limited insulin secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Collectively, our data reveal that ETVs negatively regulate insulin secretion for the maintenance of normoglycemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein ubiquitination patterns are an important component of cellular signaling. The WD-repeat protein WDR48 (USP1-associated factor UAF-1) stimulates activity of ubiquitin-specific proteases USP1, USP12, and USP46. To understand how WDR48 exerts its effect on the USP scaffold, we determined structures of the ternary WDR48:USP46:ubiquitin complex. WDR48 interacts with the USP46 fingers subdomain via a relatively small, highly polar surface on the top center of the WDR48 β propeller. In addition, WDR48 has a novel ancillary domain and a C-terminal SUMO-like domain encircling the USP46-bound ubiquitin. Mutation of residues involved in the WDR48:USP46 interaction abrogated both binding and deubiquitinase activity of the complex. An analogous mutation in USP1 similarly blocked WDR48-dependent activation. Our data suggest a possible mechanism of deubiquitinase stimulation via stabilization and prolonged residence time of substrate. The unprecedented mode of interaction between the USP fingers domain and the WD-repeat β propeller serves as a prototypical example for this family of deubiquitinases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With recent advances in immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques, immunohistochemistry now plays a more important role in research, especially in mouse models where characterization of cellular patterns of protein expression has become critical. Even with these recent advances, a paucity of IHC quality antibodies for some proteins still exists. To address this, we have developed a novel IHC assay that utilizes a commercially available goat anti-DDDDK peptide polyclonal antibody on paraffin-embedded tissues from knock-in mice expressing proteins of interest tagged with a 3×FLAG epitope at physiologically relevant levels. Focusing on two 3×FLAG-tagged proteins for which specific antibodies were available, USP48 and RIPK3, we were able to validate our anti-DDDDK assay by comparing the IHC directed against the actual proteins to the anti-DDDDK IHC assay, which recognizes the FLAG epitope. We were also able to detect a third 3×FLAG-tagged protein, BAP1, for which quality reagents were not available. This universal IHC method will enable researchers to characterize the expression patterns of proteins of interest when specific antibodies are lacking.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have received less attention. Here we show that the deubiquitylating enzyme DUBA is a negative regulator of IL-17A production in T cells. Mice with DUBA-deficient T cells developed exacerbated inflammation in the small intestine after challenge with anti-CD3 antibodies. DUBA interacted with the ubiquitin ligase UBR5, which suppressed DUBA abundance in naive T cells. DUBA accumulated in activated T cells and stabilized UBR5, which then ubiquitylated RORγt in response to TGF-β signalling. Our data identify DUBA as a cell-intrinsic suppressor of IL-17 production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuins can promote deacetylation of a wide range of substrates in diverse cellular compartments and regulate many cellular processes¹,². Recently Narayan et al., reported that SIRT2 was required for necroptosis based on their findings that SIRT2 inhibition, knock-down or knock-out prevented necroptosis. We sought to confirm and explore the role of SIRT2 in necroptosis and tested four different sources of the SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2, three independent siRNAs against SIRT2, and cells from two independently generated Sirt2−/− mouse strains, however we were unable to show that inhibiting or depleting SIRT2 protected cells from necroptosis. Furthermore, Sirt2−/− mice succumbed to TNF induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) more rapidly than wild type mice while Ripk3−/− mice were resistant. Our results therefore question the importance of SIRT2 in the necroptosis cell death pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 trigger pro-inflammatory cell death termed “necroptosis.” Studies
with RIPK3-deficient mice or the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 suggest that necroptosis exacerbates pathology in many disease
models. We engineered mice expressing catalytically inactive RIPK3 D161N or RIPK1 D138N to determine the need for the active
kinase in the whole animal. Unexpectedly, RIPK3 D161N promoted lethal RIPK1- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis. In contrast,
mice expressing RIPK1 D138N were viable and, like RIPK3-deficient mice, resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–induced hypothermia.
Cells expressing RIPK1 D138N were resistant to TNF-induced necroptosis, whereas TNF-induced signaling pathways promoting gene
transcription were unperturbed. Our data indicate that the kinase activity of RIPK3 is essential for necroptosis but also
governs whether a cell activates caspase-8 and dies by apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is required for epidermal differentiation and is mutated in Bartsocas-Papas
syndrome. RIPK4 binds to protein kinase C, but its signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. Ectopic RIPK4, but not catalytically
inactive or Bartsocas-Papas RIPK4 mutants, induced accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin and a transcriptional program similar
to that caused by Wnt3a. In Xenopus embryos, Ripk4 synergized with coexpressed Xwnt8, whereas Ripk4 morpholinos or catalytic inactive Ripk4 antagonized Wnt signaling. RIPK4 interacted constitutively with the adaptor protein
DVL2 and, after Wnt3a stimulation, with the co-receptor LRP6. Phosphorylation of DVL2 by RIPK4 favored canonical Wnt signaling.
Wnt-dependent growth of xenografted human tumor cells was suppressed by RIPK4 knockdown, suggesting that RIPK4 overexpression may contribute to the growth of certain tumor types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NLRC4 is a cytosolic member of the NOD-like receptor family that is expressed in innate immune cells. It senses indirectly bacterial flagellin and type III secretion systems, and responds by assembling an inflammasome complex that promotes caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis. Here we use knock-in mice expressing NLRC4 with a carboxy-terminal 3×Flag tag to identify phosphorylation of NLRC4 on a single, evolutionarily conserved residue, Ser 533, following infection of macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (also known as Salmonella typhimurium). Western blotting with a NLRC4 phospho-Ser 533 antibody confirmed that this post-translational modification occurs only in the presence of stimuli known to engage NLRC4 and not the related protein NLRP3 or AIM2. Nlrc4(-/-) macrophages reconstituted with NLRC4 mutant S533A, unlike those reconstituted with wild-type NLRC4, did not activate caspase-1 and pyroptosis in response to S. typhimurium, indicating that S533 phosphorylation is critical for NLRC4 inflammasome function. Conversely, phosphomimetic NLRC4 S533D caused rapid macrophage pyroptosis without infection. Biochemical purification of the NLRC4-phosphorylating activity and a screen of kinase inhibitors identified PRKCD (PKCδ) as a candidate NLRC4 kinase. Recombinant PKCδ phosphorylated NLRC4 S533 in vitro, immunodepletion of PKCδ from macrophage lysates blocked NLRC4 S533 phosphorylation in vitro, and Prkcd(-/-) macrophages exhibited greatly attenuated caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion specifically in response to S. typhimurium. Phosphorylation-defective NLRC4 S533A failed to recruit procaspase-1 and did not assemble inflammasome specks during S. typhimurium infection, so phosphorylation of NLRC4 S533 probably drives conformational changes necessary for NLRC4 inflammasome activity and host innate immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: De-ubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 is mutated in a hereditary cancer syndrome with increased risk of mesothelioma and uveal melanoma.
Somatic BAP1 mutations occur in various malignancies. We show that mouse Bap1 gene deletion is lethal during embryogenesis, but systemic or hematopoietic-restricted deletion in adults recapitulates features
of human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Knockin mice expressing BAP1 with a 3xFlag tag revealed that BAP1 interacts with
host cell factor–1 (HCF-1), O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), and the polycomb group proteins ASXL1 and ASXL2 in vivo. OGT and HCF-1 levels were decreased
by Bap1 deletion, indicating a critical role for BAP1 in stabilizing these epigenetic regulators. Human ASXL1 is mutated frequently in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) so an ASXL/BAP1 complex may suppress CMML. A BAP1 catalytic mutation found in a MDS patient implies that BAP1 loss of function has similar consequences in mice and humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ML-IAP [melanoma IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis)] is an anti-apoptotic protein that is expressed highly in melanomas where it contributes to resistance to apoptotic stimuli. The anti-apoptotic activity and elevated expression of IAP family proteins in many human cancers makes IAP proteins attractive targets for inhibition by cancer therapeutics. Small-molecule IAP antagonists that bind with high affinities to select BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) domains have been shown to stimulate auto-ubiquitination and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) and c-IAP2 (cellular IAP2). In the present paper, we report ML-IAP proteasomal degradation in response to bivalent, but not monovalent, IAP antagonists. This degradation required ML-IAP ubiquitin ligase activity and was independent of c-IAP1 or c-IAP2. Although ML-IAP is best characterized in melanoma cells, we show that ML-IAP expression in normal mammalian tissues is restricted largely to the eye, being most abundant in ciliary body epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium. Surprisingly, given this pattern of expression, gene-targeted mice lacking ML-IAP exhibited normal intraocular pressure as well as normal retinal structure and function. The results of the present study indicate that ML-IAP is dispensable for both normal mouse development and ocular homoeostasis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells detect infection or tissue injury. Surveillance mechanisms involve pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Most PRRs respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by triggering activation of NF-κB, AP1, CREB, c/EBP, and IRF transcription factors. Induction of genes encoding enzymes, chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and regulators of the extracellular matrix promotes the recruitment and activation of leukocytes, which are critical for eliminating foreign particles and host debris. A subset of PRRs activates the protease caspase-1, which causes maturation of the cytokines IL1β and IL18. Cell adhesion molecules and chemokines facilitate leukocyte extravasation from the circulation to the affected site, the chemokines stimulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Binding initiates signals that regulate leukocyte motility and effector functions. Other triggers of inflammation include allergens, which form antibody complexes that stimulate Fc receptors on mast cells. Although the role of inflammation is to resolve infection and injury, increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies that specifically recognize polyubiquitin chains containing ubiquitins linked at a particular lysine residue are powerful tools for interrogating endogenous protein modifications. Here, we describe protocols for revealing K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunostaining.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-1 activation by inflammasome scaffolds comprised of intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and the adaptor ASC is believed to be essential for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 during the innate immune response. Here we show, with C57BL/6 Casp11 gene-targeted mice, that caspase-11 (also known as caspase-4) is critical for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production in macrophages infected with Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium or Vibrio cholerae. Strain 129 mice, like Casp11(-/-) mice, exhibited defects in IL-1β production and harboured a mutation in the Casp11 locus that attenuated caspase-11 expression. This finding is important because published targeting of the Casp1 gene was done using strain 129 embryonic stem cells. Casp1 and Casp11 are too close in the genome to be segregated by recombination; consequently, the published Casp1(-/-) mice lack both caspase-11 and caspase-1. Interestingly, Casp11(-/-) macrophages secreted IL-1β normally in response to ATP and monosodium urate, indicating that caspase-11 is engaged by a non-canonical inflammasome. Casp1(-/-)Casp11(129mt/129mt) macrophages expressing caspase-11 from a C57BL/6 bacterial artificial chromosome transgene failed to secrete IL-1β regardless of stimulus, confirming an essential role for caspase-1 in IL-1β production. Caspase-11 rather than caspase-1, however, was required for non-canonical inflammasome-triggered macrophage cell death, indicating that caspase-11 orchestrates both caspase-1-dependent and -independent outputs. Caspase-1 activation by non-canonical stimuli required NLRP3 and ASC, but caspase-11 processing and cell death did not, implying that there is a distinct activator of caspase-11. Lastly, loss of caspase-11 rather than caspase-1 protected mice from a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. These data highlight a unique pro-inflammatory role for caspase-11 in the innate immune response to clinically significant bacterial infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogenes ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 encode transcription factors in the E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family, which includes the most frequently rearranged and overexpressed genes in prostate cancer. Despite being critical regulators of development, little is known about their post-translational regulation. Here we identify the ubiquitin ligase COP1 (also known as RFWD2) as a tumour suppressor that negatively regulates ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5. ETV1, which is mutated in prostate cancer more often, was degraded after being ubiquitinated by COP1. Truncated ETV1 encoded by prostate cancer translocation TMPRSS2:ETV1 lacks the critical COP1 binding motifs and was 50-fold more stable than wild-type ETV1. Almost all patient translocations render ETV1 insensitive to COP1, implying that this confers a selective advantage to prostate epithelial cells. Indeed, COP1 deficiency in mouse prostate elevated ETV1 and produced increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and early prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Combined loss of COP1 and PTEN enhanced the invasiveness of mouse prostate adenocarcinomas. Finally, rare human prostate cancer samples showed hemizygous loss of the COP1 gene, loss of COP1 protein, and elevated ETV1 protein while lacking a translocation event. These findings identify COP1 as a tumour suppressor whose downregulation promotes prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death is important for embryonic development, immune cell homeostasis, and pathogen elimination. Innate immune cells also undergo a very rapid form of cell death termed pyroptosis after activating the protease caspase-1. The hemichannel pannexin-1 has been implicated in both processes. In this study, we describe the characterization of pannexin-1-deficient mice. LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages lacking pannexin-1 activated caspase-1 and secreted its substrates IL-1β and IL-18 normally after stimulation with ATP, nigericin, alum, silica, flagellin, or cytoplasmic DNA, indicating that pannexin-1 is dispensable for assembly of caspase-1-activating inflammasome complexes. Instead, thymocytes lacking pannexin-1, but not the P2X7R purinergic receptor, were defective in their uptake of the nucleic acid dye YO-PRO-1 during early apoptosis. Cell death was not delayed but, unlike their wild-type counterparts, Panx1(-/-) thymocytes failed to recruit wild-type peritoneal macrophages in a Transwell migration assay. These data are consistent with pannexin-1 liberating ATP and other yet to be defined "find me" signals necessary for macrophage recruitment to apoptotic cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular pathogens and endogenous danger signals in the cytosol engage NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which assemble inflammasome complexes to activate caspase-1 and promote the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. However, the NLRs that respond to microbial pathogens in vivo are poorly defined. We show that the NLRs NLRP3 and NLRC4 both activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella typhimurium. Responding to distinct bacterial triggers, NLRP3 and NLRC4 recruited ASC and caspase-1 into a single cytoplasmic focus, which served as the site of pro-IL-1beta processing. Consistent with an important role for both NLRP3 and NLRC4 in innate immune defense against S. typhimurium, mice lacking both NLRs were markedly more susceptible to infection. These results reveal unexpected redundancy among NLRs in host defense against intracellular pathogens in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages respond to cytosolic nucleic acids by activating cysteine protease caspase-1 within a complex called the inflammasome. Subsequent cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 are critical for innate immunity. Here, we show that macrophages from mice lacking absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) cannot sense cytosolic double-stranded DNA and fail to trigger inflammasome assembly. Caspase-1 activation in response to intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis also required AIM2. Immunofluorescence microscopy of macrophages infected with F. tularensis revealed striking colocalization of bacterial DNA with endogenous AIM2 and inflammasome adaptor ASC. By contrast, type I IFN (IFN-alpha and -beta) secretion in response to F. tularensis did not require AIM2. IFN-I did, however, boost AIM2-dependent caspase-1 activation by increasing AIM2 protein levels. Thus, inflammasome activation was reduced in infected macrophages lacking either the IFN-I receptor or stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Finally, AIM2-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility to F. tularensis infection compared with wild-type mice. Their increased bacterial burden in vivo confirmed that AIM2 is essential for an effective innate immune response.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences