[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endobronchial tuberculosis is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree and has a prevalence of up to 50% in active pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The most common complication of endobronchial tuberculosis is bronchial stenosis; benign fistula formation by endobronchial tuberculosis is rare, especially inter-bronchial fistula formation. We reported a rare case of a 73-year-old woman with a fistula between the right upper bronchus and bronchus intermedius. A diagnosis of inter-bronchial fistula caused by endobronchial tuberculosis was based on the results of chest computed tomography scans, bronchoscopy, and microbiological and pathological tests. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication, and her symptoms gradually improved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various tumour markers have been evaluated in malignant pleural effusions, but not CD66c. This study evaluated the diagnostic ability of CD66c in lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusions (LA-MPEs) and compared it with other known tumour markers. Forty-seven cases of LA-MPE and 52 cases of benign pleural effusions were collected. The levels of CD66c, CEA, CA 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The expression of CD66c, CEA, and CA 19-9 in cell blocks was measured by immunocytochemistry. CEA had the best diagnostic values, with a sensitivity of 87.2% and specificity of 92.3%. Both CD66c and CA 19-9 showed the highest specificity of 98.1%, with sensitivities of 63.8% and 55.3%, respectively. CYFRA 21-1 had a sensitivity of 83.0% and specificity of 76.9%. CEA combined with CA 19-9 reached a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 98.1%. The sensitivities of immunocytochemical staining for CD66c, CEA, and CA 19-9 were 72.5%, 75%, and 40%, respectively. CD66c showed a diagnostic performance comparable to CYFRA 21-1 and CA 19-9 by enzyme immunoassay. Immunocytochemical study showed that CD66c and CEA were more sensitive than CA19-9. Both studies support CD66c as a potential tumour marker to differentiate LA-MPE from benign effusions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheterization is a common diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in modern clinical practice. Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery are rare and usually occur immediately after the causative event, whether the cause was trauma or a medical procedure. Here we report the rare case of a 71-year-old woman with delayed presentation of catheter-related subclavian pseudoaneurysm. The patient was treated for aspiration pneumonia with respiratory failure in another hospital. The patient's chest wall swelling began two weeks after the initial catheterization in the other hospital, probably because of slow leakage of blood from the injured subclavian artery caused by incomplete compression of the puncture site and uremic coagulopathy. She was successfully treated with ultrasound-guided thrombin and angiography-guided histoacryl injection without stent insertion or surgery. Her condition improved, and she was discharged to her home.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disorder characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant phospholipids and protein components. The symptoms and prognosis are extremely variable. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or transbronchial lung biopsy are useful for diagnosis; surgical lung biopsy is often unnecessary but useful in the focal involvement. We report a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 50-year-old woman, confirmed by a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy from the initial focal involvement, with normal bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy findings.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The accurate and timely diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) in lung cancer patients is important because MPE has a poor prognosis and is classified as stage IV disease. Molecular biomarkers for pleural effusion, such as circulating extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) isolated from pleural fluid, may help in the diagnosis of MPE. The present study examined whether miRNAs that are deregulated in lung cancer (miR-134, miR-185, and miR-22) can serve as diagnostic markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE (LA-MPE).
Materials and Methods
Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of the three miRNAs in samples from 87 patients with pleural effusion comprising 45 LA-MPEs and 42 benign pleural effusions (BPEs). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was then used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of each of the three miRNAs and compare it with that of the common tumor marker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
The expression of all three miRNAs was significantly lower in LA-MPE than in BPE (p <0.001). The AUCs for miR-134, miR-185, miR-22, and CEA were 0.721, 0.882, 0.832, and 0.898, respectively. Combining CEA with the three miRNAs increased the diagnostic performance, yielding an AUC of 0.942 (95% confidence interval, 0.864 to 0.982), with a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 92.5%.
The present study suggests that the expression levels of circulating extracellular miR-134, miR-185, and miR-22 in patients with pleural effusion may have diagnostic value when differentiating between LA-MPE and BPE.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-time, convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is used for the staging of malignant mediastinal lymph nodes. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy and safety of EBUS-TBNA when used as an initial diagnostic tool.
We retrospectively studied 56 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA as an initial diagnostic tool between August 2010 and December 2011. Procedure purpose were classified into four categories: 1) intrathoracic masses adjacent to the central airway; 2) enlarged lymph nodes for concurrent diagnosis and staging in suspected malignancy; 3) enlarged lymph nodes in suspected malignancy cases with inability to perform percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB); and 4) solely mediastinal masses/lymph nodes in lieu of mediastinoscopy.
The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA regardless of procedure purpose was calculated to be 83.9%. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy of malignant disease was significantly higher than benign disease (93.9% vs. 70.6%, p < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for each disease is as follows: tuberculosis, 50%; sarcoidosis, 60%; aspergillosis, 100%; lung abscess, 100%; lung cancer, 93%; and lymphoma, 100%. There were minor complications in seven patients during the EBUS-TBNA procedure. The complications included mild hypoxia and bleeding.
In conclusion, EBUS-TBNA is a useful initial diagnostic tool for both benign and malignant diseases. EBUS-TBAN is also a very safe procedure and less invasive compared to mediastinoscopy or PCNB.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the extract from cuttlebone (CB) has wound healing effect in burned lesion of rat. In present study, the main component of CB extract was analyzed and its wound healing activity was evaluated by using in vitro acute inflammation model. The extract of CB stimulated macrophages to increase the production of TNF-α. The extract also enhanced the production of TGF-β and VEGF, which were involved in angiogenesis and fibroblast activation. The treatment with CB extract enhanced proliferation of murine fibroblast. CB extract also induced the activation of fibroblast to increase the secretion of matrix metalloproteases 1 (MMP1). The constituent of CB extract which has wound healing activity was identified as chitin by HPLC analysis. The mechanism that the CB extract helps to promote healing of burned lesion is associated with that chitin in CB extracts stimulated wound skins to induce acute inflammation and to promoted cell proliferation and MMP expression in fibroblast. Our results suggest that CB or chitin can be a new candidate material for the treatment of skin wound such as ulcer and burn.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Biomolecules and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Few studies have investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM), a globally increasing metabolic disease, on treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with multidrug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Objectives: We analyzed outcomes in a large cohort to assess the impact of DM on treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB. Methods: MDR-TB patients newly diagnosed or retreated between 2000 and 2002 and followed for 8-11 years were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the effect of DM as a comorbidity on their treatment outcome and long-term survival. Results: Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB, 239 (17.0%) had coexisting DM. The mean age and body mass index were higher in MDR-TB patients with DM [MDR-TBDM(+)] than in those without DM [MDR-TBDM(-)]. Patients with MDR-TB and a comorbidity of DM had a significantly lower treatment success rate than those without a history of DM (36.0 vs. 47.2%, p = 0.002). In addition, DM was the negative predictor for MDR-TB treatment success in multivariate analyses [odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.99]. Mean survival times were also lower in MDR-TBDM(+) than in MDR-TBDM(-) patients (102 vs. 114 months, p = 0.001), with DM as a significant predictor of poor long-term survival in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50). Conclusions: Among MDR-TB patients, DM was a relatively common comorbidity. In patients undergoing treatment for MDR-TB and followed for 8-11 years, it was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of both treatment failure and death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have explored suppression of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus Genus. On the other hand, this study examined the inhibitory effect of the culture broth extract (CE) of A. tamarii obtained from dead silkworm on nitric oxide (NO) production and its antioxidative activity. The culture broth was extracted with EtOAc, dried, and then used in this experiment. As a result, CE did not show cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 cells at any concentration. Moreover, CE suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production of RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The total phenol content according to the Folin-Dennis method, the antioxidative activity by DPPH, and the nitrate radical scavenging capacity of CE were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, many of the phenolic compounds were considered to represent the antioxidative activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucormycosis is a fatal opportunistic fungal infection that typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. The classical manifestation of mucormycosis is a rhinocerebral infection, and although primary gastrointestinal infection is uncommon, it has an extremely high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, cases of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host are rarely reported. Here, we describe our experience of a male patient, with no underlying disease, who succumbed to a bowel infarction caused by intestinal mucormycosis during mechanical ventilatory care for severe pneumonia and septic shock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reported actual compliance for severe sepsis bundles was very low, suggesting the presence of barriers to their implementation. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of full-time intensivist and nurse-to-patient ratio in Korean intensive care units (ICUs) on the implementation of the severe sepsis bundles and clinical outcome.
A total of 251 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled from 28 adult ICUs during the July, 2009. We recorded the organizational characteristics of ICUs, patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes, and the compliance for severe sepsis bundles.
Complete compliance with the resuscitation bundle and totally complete compliance with all element targets for resuscitation and management bundles were significantly higher in the ICU with full-time intensivist and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 (P < .05). The hazard ratio (HR) for hospital mortality was independently reduced by the presence of full-time intensivist (HR, 0.456; 95% confidence interval, 0.223-0.932), and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 was independently associated with a lower 28-day mortality (HR, 0.459; 95% confidence interval, 0.211-0.998).
The full-time intensivist and the nurse-to-patient ratio had a substantial influence on the implementation of severe sepsis bundles and the mortalities of patients with severe sepsis.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of critical care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has emerged as a severe infection in patients with immunocompromised hosts. However, recently, several IPA cases, without an apparent predisposition to immunodeficiency, has been reported. A 72-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of general weakness and poor oral intake. She reported no medical history, except for intraarticular injection of a corticosteroid for joint pain for the duration of two months. A chest radiography revealed multiple cavitary nodules in both lungs. Examination of specimens, obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy, led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Brain magnetic resonance imagining revealed numerous peripheral thin enhancing cystic nodules in both cerebral hemispheres. We initiated intravenous administration of amphotercin B. However, the patient died after nine days. Here, we report an invasive aspergillosis case, which involves the lungs and brain after a short period of steroid injection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in lung adenocarcinoma specimens with different proportions of tumor cells using two methods with different sensitivities.
EGFR mutation status was determined by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping and direct sequencing. The samples consisted of 41 cell blocks of malignant pleural effusions with various proportions of tumor cells, as well as 23 lung biopsy specimens containing more than 20% tumor cells and the corresponding surgically resected tumors.
In the analysis of malignant pleural effusions, EGFR mutations were detected only by PNA clamping in four of nine patients who exhibited partial response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors; all the cell blocks of these four patients contained less than 20% tumor cells. Direct sequencing revealed wild-type EGFR, whereas PNA clamping revealed mutant EGFR, in one of five patients who exhibited progressive disease in response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor; the cell block of this patient contained a high proportion of tumor cells. A comparison of biopsy specimens containing sufficient tumor cells and the corresponding surgically resected tumors revealed discordance in the EGFR mutation status in four patients based on PNA clamping, whereas no discrepancies were observed by direct sequencing.
Highly sensitive methods, such as PNA clamping, may be superior to direct sequencing for the detection of EGFR mutations in diagnostic specimens with a low proportion of tumor cells. Direct sequencing may be more representative when diagnostic specimens with a high proportion of tumor cells are available.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary lipiodol embolism is a rare but very fatal complication of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), Here we present the case of an unusual complication of TACE in a 67-year-old man who presented with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and a history of a third session of TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that had been performed 3 days prior to presenting. On the basis of chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan findings, we diagnosed pulmonary lipiodol embolism. He was conservatively treated with oxygen and haemostatic agents. The patient recovered quickly without any significant sequela and was discharged.