K. Matsuoka

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyoto, Japan

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Publications (25)80.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ability to accurately derive black hole (BH) masses at progressively higher redshifts and over a wide range of continuum luminosities has become indispensable in the era of large-area extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. In this paper we present an extension of existing comparisons between rest-frame UV and optical virial BH mass estimators to intermediate redshifts and luminosities comparable to the local H$\beta$ reverberation mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN). We focus on the MgII, CIV, and CIII] broad emission lines and compare them to both H$\alpha$ and H$\beta$. We use newly acquired near-infrared spectra from the FMOS instrument on the Subaru telescope for 89 broad-lined AGN at redshifts between 0.3 and 3.5, complemented by data from the AGES survey. We employ two different prescriptions for measuring the emission line widths and compare the results. We confirm that MgII shows a tight correlation with H$\alpha$ and H$\beta$, with a scatter of ~0.25 dex. The CIV and CIII] estimators, while showing larger scatter, are viable virial mass estimators after accounting for a trend with the UV-to-optical luminosity ratio. We find an intrinsic scatter of ~0.37 dex between Balmer and carbon virial estimators by combining our dataset with previous high redshift measurements. This updated comparison spans a total of 3 decades in BH mass. We calculate a virial factor for CIV/CIII] logf(CIV/CIII])=0.87 with an estimated systematic uncertainty of ~0.4 dex and find excellent agreement between the local reverberation mapped AGN sample and our high-z sample.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of new infrared spectroscopic observations of 37 quasars at z ∼ 3, selected based on the optical r ′-band magnitude and the availability of nearby bright stars for future imaging follow-up with an adaptive optics system. The supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses (MBH) were successfully estimated in 28 out of 37 observed objects from the combination of the Hβ emission linewidth and continuum luminosity at rest-frame 5100 Å. Comparing these results with those from previous studies of quasars with similar redshift, our sample exhibited slightly lower Eddington ratios (∼−0.11 dex in median), and the SMBH masses are slightly higher (∼0.38 dex in median). The SMBH growth time, tgrow, was calculated by dividing the estimated SMBH mass by the mass accretion rate measured using optical luminosity. We found, given reasonable assumptions, that tgrow was smaller than the age of the universe at the redshift of individual quasars for a large fraction of observed sources, suggesting that the SMBHs in many of our observed quasars are in the growing phase with high accretion rates. A comparison of the SMBH masses derived from our Hβ data and archived C iv data indicated considerable scattering, as indicated in previous studies. All quasars with measured SMBH masses have at least one nearby bright star, such that they are suitable targets for adaptive optics observations to study the mass relationship between SMBHs and host galaxies’ stellar components at high redshift.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
  • KENTA MATSUOKA · JONG-HAK WOO · HYUN-JIN BAE

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the origin of quasars, we estimate the bias factor for low-luminosity quasars at high redshift for the first time. In this study, we use the two-point angular cross-correlation function (CCF) for both low-luminosity quasars at $-24<M_{\rm 1450}<-22$ and Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). Our sample consists of both 25 low-luminosity quasars (16 objects are spectroscopically confirmed low-luminosity quasars) in the redshift range $3.1<z<4.5$ and 835 color-selected LBGs with $z^{\prime}_{\rm LBG}<25.0$ at $z\sim4$ in the COSMOS field. We have made our analysis for the following two quasar samples; (1) the spectroscopic sample (the 16 quasars confirmed by spectroscopy), and (2) the total sample (the 25 quasars including 9 quasars with photometric redshifts). The bias factor for low-luminosity quasars at $z\sim4$ is derived by utilizing the quasar-LBG CCF and the LBG auto-correlation function. We then obtain the $86\%$ upper limits of the bias factors for low-luminosity quasars, that are 5.63 and 10.50 for the total and the spectroscopic samples, respectively. These bias factors correspond to the typical dark matter halo masses, log $(M_{\rm DM}/(h^{-1}M_{\odot}))=$$12.7$ and $13.5$, respectively. This result is not inconsistent with the predicted bias for quasars which is estimated by the major merger models.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Kenta Matsuoka · Jong-Hak Woo
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the relation between star formation (SF) and black hole accretion luminosities, using a sample of 492 type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z < 0.22, which are detected in the far-infrared (FIR) surveys with AKARI and Herschel. We adopt FIR luminosities at 90 and 100 um as SF luminosities, assuming the proposed linear proportionality of star formation rate with FIR luminosities. By estimating AGN luminosities from [OIII]5007 and [OI]6300 emission lines, we find a positive linear trend between FIR and AGN luminosities over a wide dynamical range. This result appears to be inconsistent with the recent reports that low-luminosity AGNs show essentially no correlation between FIR and X-ray luminosities, while the discrepancy is likely due to the Malmquist and sample selection biases. By analyzing the spectral energy distribution, we find that pure-AGN candidates, of which FIR radiation is thought to be AGN-dominated, show significantly low-SF activities. These AGNs hosted by low-SF galaxies are rare in our sample (~ 1%). However, the low fraction of low-SF AGN is possibly due to observational limitations since the recent FIR surveys are insufficient to examine the population of high-luminosity AGNs hosted by low-SF galaxies.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have used FMOS on Subaru to obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 123 far-infrared selected galaxies in COSMOS and obtain the key rest-frame optical emission lines. This is the largest sample of infrared galaxies with near-infrared spectroscopy at these redshifts. The far-infrared selection results in a sample of galaxies that are massive systems that span a range of metallicities in comparison with previous optically selected surveys, and thus has a higher AGN fraction and better samples the AGN branch. We establish the presence of AGN and starbursts in this sample of (U)LIRGs selected as Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-MIPS detections in two redshift bins (z~0.7 and z~1.5) and test the redshift dependence of diagnostics used to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. In addition, we construct a low redshift (z~0.1) comparison sample of infrared selected galaxies and find that the evolution from z~1.5 to today is consistent with an evolving AGN selection line and a range of ISM conditions and metallicities from the models of Kewley et al. (2013b). We find that a large fraction of (U)LIRGs are BPT-selected AGN using their new, redshift-dependent classification line. We compare the position of known X-ray detected AGN (67 in total) with the BPT selection and find that the new classification line accurately selects most of these objects (> 70%). Furthermore, we identify 35 new (likely obscured) AGN not selected as such by their X-ray emission. Our results have direct implications for AGN selection at higher redshift with either current (MOSFIRE,
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of at , approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 1041 erg s–1) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in 16 intermediate redshift ($0.5 < z < 1.1$) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of $f(L_{X,H} > 10^{42}; M_R<-20) = 8.0_{-2.3}^{+3.0}\%$ at $\bar{z} \sim 0.74$, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of 3 higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGN in these groups. Contrary to the large population of X-ray AGN ($N(L_{X,H} > 10^{41}$ erg/s) = 25), we find only 4 emission-line AGN, 3 of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGN in our groups are optically-dull (i.e. lack strong emission-lines) similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically-selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGN. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGN populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGN in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand nature of building blocks of galaxies in the early universe, we investigate "genuine irregular galaxies (GIGs)" in the nearby universe. Here, GIGs are defined as isolated galaxies without regular structures (spheroid, bulge, disk, bar, spiral arm, and nucleus). Using the results of two excellent studies on galaxy morphology based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we obtain a sample of 66 irregular galaxies. We carry out new classification of them into GIGs and non-GIGs which have regular structure or show evidence for galaxy interaction, by using the SDSS Data Release 10 images. We then find that a half of these irregular galaxies (33/66) are GIGs and obtain an unambiguous sample of 33 GIGs for the first time. We discuss their observational properties by comparing them with those of elliptical, S0, spiral galaxies, and irregular galaxies without the GIGs. We find that our GIGs have smaller sizes, lower optical luminosities, bluer rest-frame optical colors, lower surface stellar mass densities, and lower gas metallicity than normal galaxies. All these properties suggest that they are in chemically and dynamically younger phases even in the nearby universe.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present an investigation into how well the properties of the accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole may be coupled to those of the overlying hot corona. To do so, we specifically measure the characteristic spectral index, Gamma, of a power-law energy distribution, over an energy range of 2 to 10 keV, for X-ray selected, broad-lined radio-quiet AGN up to z~2 in COSMOS and E-CDF-S. We test the previously reported dependence between Gamma and black hole mass, FWHM and Eddington ratio using a sample of AGN covering a broad range in these parameters based on both the Mg ii and H-alpha emission lines with the later afforded by recent near infrared spectroscopic observations using Subaru/FMOS. We calculate the Eddington ratios, lambda_Edd, for sources where a bolometric luminosity (L_Bol) has been presented in the literature, based on SED fitting, or, for sources where these data do not exist, we calculate L_Bol using a bolometric correction to the LX, derived from a relationship between the bolometric correction, and LX/L3000. From a sample of 69 X-ray bright sources (>250 counts), where Gamma can be measured with greatest precision, with an estimate of L_Bol, we find a statistically significant correlation between Gamma and lambda_Edd, which is highly significant with a chance probability of 6.59x10^-8. A statistically significant correlation between Gamma and the FWHM of the optical lines is confirmed, but at lower significance than with lambda_Edd indicating that lambda_Edd is the key parameter driving conditions in the corona. Linear regression analysis reveals that Gamma=(0.32+/-0.05)log10 lambda_Edd+(2.27+/-0.06) and Gamma=(-0.69+/-0.11)log10(FWHM/km/s)+(4.44+/-0.42). Our results on Gamma-lambda_Edd are in very good agreement with previous results. (ABRIDGED)
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The connection between the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity is one of the most important issues in understanding the coevolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. In our recent study, by using SDSS quasar spectra we found that the emission-line flux rations involving a nitrogen line correlate with the Eddington ratio. This correlation suggests that the mass accretion in quasars is associated with a post-starburst phase, when AGB stars enrich the interstellar medium with the nitrogen. Moreover, we focused on nitrogen-loud quasars, that have prominent emission lines of the nitrogen, to investigate whether this argument is correct. In this symposium, we present our results regarding the relation between the star formation and feeding to SMBHs traced by the nitrogen abundance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of broad emission lines observed in moderate-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), typical of those found in X-ray surveys of deep fields, with the goal of testing the validity of single-epoch virial black hole mass estimates. We have acquired near-infrared spectra of AGNs up to z ~ 1.8 in the COSMOS and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey, with the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope. These near-infrared spectra provide a significant detection of the broad Hα line, shown to be a reliable probe of black hole mass at low redshift. Our sample has existing optical spectroscopy that provides a detection of Mg II, typically used for black hole mass estimation at z 1. We carry out a spectral-line fitting procedure using both Hα and Mg II to determine the virial velocity of gas in the broad-line region, the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å, and the total Hα line luminosity. With a sample of 43 AGNs spanning a range of two decades in luminosity, we find a tight correlation between the ultraviolet and emission-line luminosity. There is also a close one-to-one relationship between the full width at half-maximum of Hα and Mg II. Both of these then lead to there being very good agreement between Hα- and Mg II-based masses over a wide range in black hole mass, i.e., M BH ~ 107-9M ☉. In general, these results demonstrate that local scaling relations, using Mg II or Hα, are applicable for AGNs at moderate luminosities and up to z ~ 2.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the result of our low-luminosity quasar survey in the redshift range of 4.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 5.5 in the COSMOS field. Using the COSMOS photometric catalog, we selected 15 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z {approx} 5 that are {approx}3 mag fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars in the same redshift range. We obtained optical spectra for 14 of the 15 candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope and did not identify any low-luminosity type-1 quasars at z {approx} 5, while a low-luminosity type-2 quasar at z {approx} 5.07 was discovered. In order to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5, we calculated the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density of type-1 quasars. As a result, the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits on the quasar space density are {Phi} < 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -24.52 < M{sub 1450} < -23.52 and {Phi} < 2.88 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -23.52 < M{sub 1450} < -22.52. The inferred 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density are then used to provide constraints on the faint-end slope and the break absolute magnitude of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5. We find that the quasar space density decreases gradually as a function of redshift at low luminosity (M{sub 1450} {approx} -23), being similar to the trend found for quasars with high luminosity (M{sub 1450} < -26). This result is consistent with the so-called downsizing evolution of quasars seen at lower redshifts.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the z=3.2 quasar SDSS J1707+6443, obtained with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. This quasar is classified as a "nitrogen-loud" quasar because of the fairly strong NIII] and NIV] semi-forbidden emission lines from the broad-line region (BLR) observed in its rest-frame UV spectrum. However, our rest-frame optical spectrum from MOIRCS shows strong [OIII] emission from the narrow-line region (NLR) suggesting that, at variance with the BLR, NLR gas is not metal-rich. In order to reconcile these contradictory results, there may be two alternative possibilities; (1) the strong nitrogen lines from the BLR are simply due to a very high relative abundance of nitrogen rather than to a very high BLR metallicity, or (2) the BLR metallicity is not representative of the metallicity of the host galaxy, better traced by the NLR. In either case, the strong broad nitrogen lines in the UV spectrum are not indication of a chemically enriched host galaxy. We estimated the black hole mass and Eddington ratio of this quasar from the velocity width of both CIV and H_beta, that results in log(M_BH/M_sun) = 9.50 and log(L_bol/L_Edd) = -0.34. The relatively high Eddington ratio is consistent with our earlier result that strong nitrogen emission from BLRs is associated with high Eddington ratios. Finally, we detected significant [NeIII] emission from the NLR, implying a quite high gas density of n~10^6 cm^-3 and suggesting a strong coupling between quasar activity and dense interstellar clouds in the host galaxy.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep optical spectrum of TN J0924-2201, the most distant radio galaxy at z = 5.19, obtained with FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope. We successfully detect, for the first time, the CIV1549 emission line from the narrow-line region (NLR). In addition to the emission-line fluxes of Ly alpha and CIV, we set upper limits on the NV and HeII emissions. We use these line detections and upper limits to constrain the chemical properties of TN J0924-2201. By comparing the observed emission-line flux ratios with photoionization models, we infer that the carbon-to-oxygen relative abundance is already [C/O] > -0.5 at a cosmic age of ~ 1.1 Gyr. This lower limit on [C/O] is higher than the ratio expected at the earliest phases of the galaxy chemical evolution, indicating that TN J0924-2201 has already experienced significant chemical evolution at z = 5.19.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present $J$-band long-slit spectroscopic observation of NGC 1068 classified as a Seyfert 2 galaxy. $J$-band observations with OAO/ISLE provide clear detection of spatially extended [Fe II] 1.257 $\mu$m and [P II] 1.188 $\mu$m lines. We found that [Fe II] 1.257 $\mu$m$/$[P II] 1.188 $\mu$m increases with distance from a central continuum peak. Observed line ratios around the nucleus (continuum peak) are consistent with a typical value expected from photoionization models, while the ratios at 3$”$–4$”$ (210–280 pc) east and west of the nucleus are slightly higher than this. In the off nucleus region of NGC 1068 we also found a possible association between [Fe II] 1.257 $\mu$m$/$[P II] 1.188 $\mu$m and the radio continuum. This suggests a mild contribution of shock ionization induced by a radio jet outside nucleus while photoionization by the central energy source is dominant near the nucleus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
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    ABSTRACT: Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by a clear correlation between luminosity and metallicity (L_AGN-Z_AGN relation). The origin of this correlation is not clear. It may result from a relation between the black hole mass (M_BH) and metallicity, or from a relation between the accretion rate (L/L_Edd) and metallicity. To investigate the origin of the L_AGN-Z_AGN relation, we use optical spectra of 2383 quasars at 2.3 < z < 3.0 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By using this data set, we have constructed composite spectra of 33 subsamples in intervals of both M_BH and L/L_Edd. From these composite spectra we measure emission-line flux ratios that are sensitive to the metallicity of the broad line region (BLR); specifically, NV/CIV, NV/HeII, (SiIV+OIV])/CIV, and AlIII/CIV. We find that there is a significant correlation between M_BH and Z_BLR as inferred from all four metallicity-sensitive emission-line flux ratios. This result strongly suggests that the observed L_AGN-Z_AGN relation is mostly a consequence of the M_BH-Z_AGN relation. The relation between M_BH and Z_BLR is likely a consequence of both the M_BH-M_bul relation and of the mass-metallicity relation in the host galaxy. We also find that L/L_Edd correlates with the emission line flux ratios involving NV (more specifically, NV/CIV and NV/HeII), while it does not correlate with the other two metallicity sensitive emission line flux ratios, i.e., (SiIV+OIV])/CIV and AlIII/CIV. These correlations indicate that the emission-line flux ratios involving NV depend on both metallicity and relative abundance of nitrogen. We suggest that the relation between L/L_Edd and those line ratios involving nitrogen, is caused by a delay of the black hole accretion rate relative to the onset of nuclear star formation of about 10^8 years, which is the timescale required for the nitrogen enrichment. Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A, 16 pages, 6 figures
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We searched for quasars that are ~ 3 mag fainter than the SDSS quasars in the redshift range 3.7 < z < 4.7 in the COSMOS field to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function. Using optical photometric data, we selected 31 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z ~ 4. We obtained optical spectra for most of these candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru telescope, and identified 8 low-luminosity quasars at z ~ 4. In order to derive the quasar luminosity function (QLF) based on our spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we estimated the photometric completeness of our quasar survey through detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Our QLF at z ~ 4 has a much shallower faint-end slope beta = -1.67^{+0.11}_{-0.17} than that obtained by other recent surveys in the same redshift. Our result is consistent with the scenario of downsizing evolution of active galactic nuclei inferred by recent optical and X-ray quasar surveys at lower redshifts. Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure, Accepted for publication in ApJL
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    T. Nagao · R. Maiolino · A. Marconi · K. Matsuoka · Y. Taniguchi
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical properties of AGNs and their redshift evolution are of interest to understand the star-formation history of AGN host galaxies and the co-evolution between galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One important observational clue on this issue is a tight correlation between the AGN luminosity and the metallicity of the broad-line region. Surprisingly this relation shows no redshift evolution, even up to z ~ 6. This correlation is attributable mainly to the positive correlation between metallicity and SMBH mass, rather than to the relation between metallicity and Eddington ratio. A significant positive correlation between the metallicity and the AGN luminosity is also seen in narrow-line regions, not only in broad-line regions. Possible implications of these results on the galaxy-SMBH co-evolution are briefly mentioned.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    K. Matsuoka · T. Nagao · R. Maiolino · A. Marconi · Y. Taniguchi
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the metallicity of the narrow line regions (NLRs) of high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs), using new deep optical spectra of 9 HzRGs obtained with FORS2 on VLT and data from the literature. To estimate the metallicity of NLRs we focus on the Civ/Heii and Ciii]/Civ flux ratios. Based on comparison between the observed emission-line flux ratios and the prediction of our photoionization model calculations, we find no significant metallicity evolution in NLRs of HzRGs, up to z ~ 4. We discuss the possibility that massive galaxies had almost completed the major epoch of the star formation in the very high-z universe (z > 5). Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Keywords (in text query field) Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union