Kevin J Gibbons

State University of New York, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (23)58.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of multiple infections in relation to acute ischemic stroke and the therapeutic options available. Conditions that are a direct cause of stroke (infectious endocarditis, meningoencephalitides, and human immunodeficiency virus infection), the pathophysiologic mechanism responsible for stroke, and treatment dilemmas are presented. Independently or in conjunction with conventional risk factors, chronic and acute infections can trigger an acute ischemic stroke through an accelerated process of atherosclerosis and immunohematologic alterations. Acute ischemic stroke has a negative impact on the antibacterial immune response, leading to stroke-induced immunodepression and infections, the most common poststroke medical complications. Poststroke infections are independent predictors of poor outcome. Antibiotic trials for poststroke infection prevention are reviewed. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not the standard of care in acute stroke, current guidelines support prompt treatment of stroke-related infections.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association
  • Andrew J Fabiano · Robert J Plunkett · Kevin J Gibbons

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Archives of neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Severe medically refractory intracranial stenosis portends a grave prognosis. Recent advances in stent technology have enabled clinicians to treat these lesions. Evidence in the coronary literature suggests that stenting without predilation angioplasty is as safe and effective as stenting immediately preceded by predilation angioplasty for the treatment of severely stenotic lesions. Because of marked differences in vessel histology and differences in the sensitivity of the cerebral and coronary vascular beds to embolic insult, direct stenting of severe intracranial stenoses may be more prone to neurological complications than a conventional or staged stenting procedure. Methods: We reviewed our clinical experience with conventional, direct, and staged stenting for high-grade stenoses involving the posterior intracranial circulation. We also reviewed the literature and experimental data supporting the rationale for staged stenting. Results: In our experience, no permanent neurological morbidity was identified in four patients treated with a staged approach. In contrast, one of three patients with conventional stenting of the basilar artery and two of four patients treated with direct basilar stenting had permanent neurological sequelae. Conclusion: For patients with high-grade posterior circulation intracranial stenoses involving the perforator-rich zones of the basilar artery, staged stenting may reduce procedure-related morbidity. A staged approach allows for plaque stabilization resulting from postangioplasty fibrosis, which may protect patients from “snowplowing,” embolic shower of debris, or dissection. Further clinical, in vivo, and histological investigation is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Neurocritical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging is a technique for the measurement of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and time-to-peak or mean transit time. The technique involves the administration of a single-bolus dose of iodinated contrast material, followed by spiral CT imaging during the passage of the contrast bolus through the cerebral vasculature. CT perfusion is a fast and inexpensive brain imaging modality for use in the management of patients with various neurological disorders, ranging from acute stroke to subarachnoid hemorrhage. This article reviews the technique of CT perfusion and presents several illustrative cases in which this imaging modality was used effectively in the critical care of patients with neurological disorders.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Neurocritical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Severe medically refractory intracranial stenosis portends a grave prognosis. Recent advances in stent technology have enabled clinicians to treat these lesions. Evidence in the coronary literature suggests that stenting without predilation angioplasty is as safe and effective as stenting immediately preceded by predilation angioplasty for the treatment of severely stenotic lesions. Because of marked differences in vessel histology and differences in the sensitivity of the cerebral and coronary vascular beds to embolic insult, direct stenting of severe intracranial stenoses may be more prone to neurological complications than a conventional or staged stenting procedure. We reviewed our clinical experience with conventional, direct, and staged stenting for high-grade stenoses involving the posterior intracranial circulation. We also reviewed the literature and experimental data supporting the rationale for staged stenting. In our experience, no permanent neurological morbidity was identified in four patients treated with a staged approach. In contrast, one of three patients with conventional stenting of the basilar artery and two of four patients treated with direct basilar stenting had permanent neurological sequelae. For patients with high-grade posterior circulation intracranial stenoses involving the perforator-rich zones of the basilar artery, staged stenting may reduce procedure-related morbidity. A staged approach allows for plaque stabilization resulting from post-angioplasty fibrosis, which may protect patients from "snow-plowing," embolic shower of debris, or dissection. Further clinical, in vivo, and histological investigation is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Neurocritical Care
  • Kevin J Gibbons · Amos O Dare
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    ABSTRACT: The recent advances in neurosurgery, applied to the growing field of skull base surgery, provide surgeons with new techniques to avoid the devastating complication of CSF leak, to improve patient selection by reducing the risk of stroke while expanding the operative options available to patients with head and neck malignancies, and to aid operative care through improved surgical planning and intraoperative localization.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
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    ABSTRACT: Medically refractory, symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the basilar artery (BA) portends a poor prognosis. Studies have shown morbidity rates following placement of stents in these lesions to be quite variable, ranging from 0 to 30%. The authors review their experience with BA stent placement for severe atherosclerotic disease to determine whether an increase in neurological morbidity is associated with direct stent placement (that performed without predilation angioplasty) compared with conventional stent placement (that performed immediately after predilation angioplasty) or staged stent placement (angioplasty followed > or = 1 month later by stent placement with or without repeated angioplasty). The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records from a consecutive series of 10 patients who underwent stent placement for medically refractory, symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the BA between February 1999 and November 2002. Patient records were analyzed for symptoms at presentation, percentage of angiographically visible stenosis, devices used, procedure-related morbidity, and clinical and radiographic outcomes. Patients with symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis but without concomitant severe (> 50%) BA stenosis were excluded from the study. Four patients were treated with direct stent placement, three with a staged procedure (these were included in a previous publication), and three with conventional stent placement. In the group treated with direct stent placement, a dense quadriparesis developed in two patients after the procedure. Computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction of the ventral pons in these patients. In the staged stent placement group, no permanent neurological complications occurred after the procedure and, in the conventional stent placement group, one of three patients experienced a neurological complication involving homonymous hemianopsia. Direct stent placement in the BA is associated with a relatively high complication rate, compared with a staged procedure. Complications may result from an embolic shower following disruption of atheromatous plaque debris attained using high-profile devices such as stents, as demonstrated by the postoperative imaging appearance of acute pontine infarctions. Additionally, displacement of debris by the stent into the ostia (snowplowing) of small brainstem perforating vessels may be responsible for the complications noted. Although direct stent placement in peripheral and coronary vessels has been shown to be safe, the authors suggest that direct stent placement in the BA should be avoided to minimize the risk of periprocedure morbidity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Experience with the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by gamma knife radiosurgery is limited. We report control of the disease in two patients with advanced-stage JNA treated with primary resection followed by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery of residual disease. An 18-year-old man presented with chronic sinusitis, worsening headaches, diplopia, and left-sided facial numbness. A second patient, a 19-year-old man, presented with recurrent epistaxis and nasal congestion. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and endoscopic evaluation in each patient were consistent with advanced-stage JNA. One patient underwent craniofacial resection with approximately 3.0 cm(3) of residual tumor in the region of the cavernous sinus. The other patient underwent preoperative embolization followed by a lateral rhinotomy for tumor resection with approximately 4.7 cm(3) of residual tumor in the right infratemporal fossa. In an attempt to limit radiation to surrounding normal brain, residual tumor in both patients was treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery. Control of disease was documented by magnetic resonance imaging more than 24 months after treatment. Short-term control of late-stage JNA was achieved by use of a strategy of primary surgical resection followed by gamma knife radiosurgery of residual tumor in two patients. Establishing the effectiveness and safety of this strategy over conventional methods of managing advanced JNA will require future prospective studies.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the reliability of balloon test occlusion with hypotensive challenge (BTO and HC) as a predictor of neurological complications before internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice in patients with advanced head and neck cancer, the authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients presenting to their institutions between 1992 and 1997 in whom this preoperative assessment was performed. Eleven patents who were candidates for extended comprehensive neck dissection (ECND) and potential ICA sacrifice were included in the study. Eight patients tolerated the test and underwent endovascular occlusion or surgical ligation of the ICA before ECND (four patients), preservation of the ICA at the time of surgery (three patients), or palliative therapy (one patient). Of three patients in whom BTO and HC failed, one patient received palliative treatment only; the other two underwent ECND with preservation of the ICA. In the group of patients who passed the test and underwent ICA occlusion or ligation before ECND, fatal thromboembolic stroke occurred within 24 hours of permanent balloon occlusion in one patient, resulting in a combined neurological morbidity/mortality rate of 25% in this subset of patients and an overall complication rate of 9% in this series. The authors found that BTO and HC offers a simple and reliable method of preoperative risk assessment when ICA resection is planned for regional control of disease in advanced head and neck cancer. This management option, however, is associated with a potential for neurological complication that must be weighed against the natural course of the disease and the risks and benefits of other treatment modalities.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Neurosurgical FOCUS
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    ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumors are an uncommon neoplasm; most are found in the long bones, formed by endochondral ossification. This article presents a case of giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa, which by radiographic and clinical examination appears to have originated in the squamous portion of the temporal bone.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2000 · Skull Base
  • Kevin J Gibbons · Wesley L Hicks · Lee R Guterman
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    ABSTRACT: Current treatment of difficult to reach lesions of the central nervous system favors extensive bone removal for improved visualization and access with minimal brain retraction. Particularly in the posterior fossa, bone is often removed piecemeal, and a standard craniotomy flap is not always available for simple reattachment. Cranioplasty with methyl methacrylate is used to provide cosmesis and neural protection. A method for the fixation of methyl methacrylate cranioplasty is described, and the results of technique application in 30 patients during a 14-month period are reported. A series of notches are burred in the cancellous margin of the surrounding cranium, preserving the inner and outer tables. Methyl methacrylate is applied to the defect. Overflow of methyl methacrylate into the notches assures solid fixation. The resultant construct resembles the locking mechanism of a bank vault. No mesh, wire, or miniplates are required. Prolene buttresses may be placed through the outer table of the notches to identify their location, should removal of the plasty be required. Removal of the outer table over the notches facilitates rapid removal. Solid plasty and good cosmesis occurred in all patients. There were no infections or complications related to this technique. Firm fixation, molding and hardening in situ, and technical ease are potential advantages over established methods of cranioplasty.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Surgical Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: We report a giant pituitary adenoma with aggressive histologic features that prominently invaded the nasopharynx. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large heterogeneous nodular mass that was hypointense to isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The mass measured 7.5 x 5 x 7 cm, extending from the nasopharynx posteriorly through the clivus, and superiorly through the paranasal sinuses, and sellar-suprasellar region. After contrast administration, heterogeneous nodular enhancement was noted. A nasopharyngeal neoplasm extending into the sella was suspected because voice change and nasal speech long preceded the patient's visual symptoms. A biopsy disclosed an aggressive, infiltrating, hemorrhagic tumor, which was diagnosed as a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. This report indicates that pituitary adenomas may grow invasively to tremendously large sizes resulting in their initial presentation as nasopharyngeal masses.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
  • K.J. Gibbons · G. Larnavas · L.R. Guterman
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    ABSTRACT: The use of acrylic cranioplasty in repairing bone defects involving air sinuses remains controversial for fear of infection. A series with acrylic repair of mastoid defects is described. Series: Sixty-two patients; schwannomas (27 vestibular, four trigeminal) and meningiomas (17) of the posterior fossa were the most common lesions. Technique: Defects were repaired with an onlay acrylic cranioplasty, secured with vault locking technique. Intravenous antibiotics and antibiotic irrigation were utilized; implants were not antibiotic impregnated. Sinus mucosa was cauterized with low power monopolar cautery, with bone wax impression and cranioplasty placement in the mastoid. Results: No implant infections occurred and none required removal. One patient developed delayed CSF rhinorrhea. One patient had a superficial infection of a neck wound for great vessel exposure prior to petrosectomy. treated with a short course of oral antibiotic.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the pertinent microvascular anatomy of 28 formalin-fixed brains to develop anatomic guidelines for aneurysm surgery in the region of the vertebrobasilar junction. Using a surgical microscope, the outer diameters were observed for the following main arteries: vertebral, basilar, posteroinferior cerebellar, and anteroinferior cerebellar. The number of lower brain stem perforating arteries was examined in relation to their course. The distance between the arteries and their perforators was measured with respect to anatomic landmarks. The anatomy of the main arteries was characteristically variable, whereas the anatomy of the perforators was constant, particularly in terms of their numbers and points of penetration into the brain substance. The four major points of entry were the lateral medullary area just caudal to the posterior olivary sulcus, the posterior olivary sulcus, the small lateral fossa at the superior olivary groove, and the foramen cecum. Each of these areas coincides with the origin of common vertebrobasilar aneurysms. The anatomy of the main arteries was variable. In contrast, the perforators penetrated the adjoining brain stem at specific locations, regardless of the caliber of the main artery. Despite a small vertebral artery or its major branches, perforators penetrating the brain are significant and may effect the outcome of aneurysm surgery or endovascular procedures.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1997 · Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: The application of endovascular techniques to the treatment of cervical carotid artery bifurcation atherosclerosis has been delayed because of the fear of causing embolic events while traversing the diseased portion of the artery with an angioplasty balloon catheter. Symptomatic carotid arteries often contain fresh or partially digested intraluminal thrombus. Before we cross certain carotid bifurcation lesions with angioplasty catheters, we deliver 100,000 to 200,000 units of urokinase in an attempt to digest loose thrombus. We have witnessed changes in the angiographic appearance of the diseased portion of the vessel after urokinase treatment, such as widening of the lumen, that suggest clot lysis. We present two patients who had symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. Angiography showed irregular narrowing of the internal carotid artery origin. One patient was selected for angioplasty instead of carotid endarterectomy because of severe cardiac risk factors. The other patient had major angiographic risk factors manifested by poor collateral circulation. The angiographic findings and history of transient ischemic attacks led us to suspect the presence of soft, loose plaque debris or thrombus in both cases. Therefore, we performed thrombolysis with urokinase before angioplasty. Repeat angiography showed widening of the arterial lumen and smoothing of the plaque profile. Subsequent angioplasty and stent placement were uneventful. Intraarterial thrombolysis can produce a change in the angiographic appearance of symptomatic atherosclerotic lesions of the cervical carotid artery bifurcation. Digestion of intralesional thrombus may provide a safer environment for deployment of endovascular remodeling devices by decreasing the likelihood of embolic phenomena. We believe thrombolysis should be done before angioplasty in select patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the usefulness of provocative testing with hypotensive challenge during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery before carotid sacrifice and to correlate tolerance of balloon test occlusion with clinical outcome after carotid artery sacrifice. Forty-seven consecutive cases of balloon test occlusions performed at our institution during the past 4 years were retrospectively reviewed. Occlusion was performed under normotensive conditions with distal perfusion of heparinized saline for 20 minutes, or until a deficit was perceived. If 20 minutes of normotension was tolerated, hypotension was induced to two thirds of mean arterial pressure for 20 minutes, or until a deficit was perceived. Of 47 patients, 4 (9%) had deficits at normotension. Of the remaining 43 patients, 9 (21%) had deficits at hypotension. One patient with a positive hypotensive test occlusion underwent carotid artery sacrifice after extracranial-intracranial bypass without sequelae. In one of the 19 patients who clinically tolerated test occlusion with hypotension and had carotid sacrifice (surgical ligation of the intracranial carotid artery), a mild embolic stroke developed, probably from the giant carotid wall aneurysm. This patient fully recovered; MR imaging showed mild changes consistent with emboli distal to the aneurysm. Symptomatic complications were noted in 2 (4%) patients, and asymptomatic arterial dissections were noted in 3 (6%) patients. Balloon test occlusion with hypotensive challenge is safe, economical, and greatly increases the sensitivity of balloon test occlusion. The predictive value of a negative test is high. However, to determine the test's specificity compared with quantitative imaging, controlled trials will be necessary.
    Preview · Article · Sep 1995 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
  • K J Gibbons · AP Barth · A Ahuja · J L Budny · L N Hopkins
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    ABSTRACT: A technique for extended ambulatory epidural pain control after lumbar discectomy is described; preliminary results with 45 patients are reported; and alternative methods of narcotic analgesia are reviewed. In this technique, an absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI) is contoured to the laminotomy defect, placed in methylprednisolone acetate (40-80 mg), and then injected with 2 to 4 mg of preservative-free morphine (a small needle was used to fill the sponge). The sponge is placed over the defect before closure. A review of office and hospital records was conducted. The series consisted of 33 men and 12 women (mean age, 39 yr; range, 24-57 yr); records showed narcotic use in 34 patients (parenteral in 3) and work-related injuries in 14 patients. Thirty-three patients were ambulatory postoperatively on the day of surgery; all were ambulatory by postoperative day (POD) 1. On the day of surgery, 18 patients did not require any postoperative analgesics; on POD 1, 22 patients did not require analgesics. Six patients received parenteral narcotics; four received one dose only, and two had two or more doses. Thirty-one patients were discharged from the hospital on POD 1, and 10 were discharged POD 2. The other patients were discharged from the hospital on POD 3 (three patients) or POD 4 (one patient). When they were discharged, all patients received a limited supply of acetaminophen with codeine for pain control at home. After discharge, phone follow-up (at 1 week) and office follow-ups (at 3-5 weeks) revealed only one patient with more than mild discomfort. Three patients required one-time bladder catheterization, and one patient had presumed discitis 1 month postoperatively. In a control group who had undergone surgery 3 months previously, the average day of discharge had been POD 3.07; no control patient had been discharged on POD 1, and only 20% had been discharged on POD 2. This method provides effective, safe, and extended analgesia after lumbar discectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1995 · Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: A TECHNIQUE FOR extended ambulatory epidural pain control after lumbar discectomy is described; preliminary results with 45 patients are reported; and alternative methods of narcotic analgesia are reviewed. In this technique, an absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI) is contoured to the laminotomy defect, placed in methylprednisolone acetate (403–80 mg), and then injected with 2 to 4 mg of preservative-free morphine (a small needle was used to fill the sponge). The sponge is placed over the defect before closure. A review of office and hospital records was conducted. The series consisted of 33 men and 12 women (mean age, 39 yr; range, 243–57 yr); records showed narcotic use in 34 patients (parenteral in 3) and work-related injuries in 14 patients. Thirty-three patients were ambulatory postoperatively on the day of surgery; all were ambulatory by postoperative day (POD) 1. On the day of surgery, 18 patients did not require any postoperative analgesics; on POD 1, 22 patients did not require analgesics. Six patients received parenteral narcotics; four received one dose only, and two had two or more doses. Thirty-one patients were discharged from the hospital on POD 1, and 10 were discharged POD 2. The other patients were discharged from the hospital on POD 3 (three patients) or POD 4 (one patient). When they were discharged, all patients received a limited supply of acetaminophen with codeine for pain control at home. After discharge, phone follow-up (at 1 week) and office follow-ups (at 33–5 weeks) revealed only one patient with more than mild discomfort. Three patients required one-time bladder catheterization, and one patient had presumed discitis 1 month postoperatively. In a control group who had undergone surgery 3 months previously, the average day of discharge had been POD 3.07; no control patient had been discharged on POD 1, and only 20% had been discharged on POD 2. This method provides effective, safe, and extended analgesia after lumbar discectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1995 · Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: The role of endovascular therapy for the treatment of giant aneurysms is presently being defined. Results derived from the endovascular treatment of giant aneurysms must be compared to the effectiveness and safety of operative treatment and the natural history of the disease. Most reports on the results of endovascular aneurysm treatment are of patients who have failed operative intervention or in whom operative intervention was not attempted because of their poor medical condition or other factors. Thus, the results of these techniques are from a high-risk subgroup. In a recent series of 19 giant aneurysms treated by a variety of techniques, including coils, balloons, and rapidly solidifying polymers, one death resulted after aneurysm rupture during the procedure (86). However, the major cause of mortality was cardiopulmonary complications within the first 2 weeks after the procedure. At present, it may be appropriate to reserve endovascular techniques for patients with no other reasonable therapeutic option. As experience with these techniques is gained, a comparison must be undertaken in a series of patients clinically equivalent to those in surgical series. Presently, the consensus is that endovascular therapy for giant aneurysms is efficacious for parent-vessel occlusion after balloon test occlusion to assess tolerance to sacrifice. Endosaccular occlusion is most effective if the aneurysm contains little thrombus, as determined by the size of the aneurysm seen on CT or MRI (87), as compared to the angiographic image. Small-necked aneurysms are particularly suited to coil occlusion if the aneurysm can be tightly packed. In wide-necked aneurysms, coil occlusion is possible, although the risk of parent-vessel occlusion is high. We often perform balloon test occlusion of the vessel before placing coils in wide-necked aneurysms. Failure of endovascular therapy after complete angiographic obliteration is based on recanalization or regrowth, resulting from device migration or remodeling at the junction of the device with the inflow tract and aneurysm wall, or by migration of the device into thrombus. The effect of aneurysm remnants after balloon or coil occlusion will be determined by long-term follow-up, as emphasized by Fox et al. (20, 63). Whenever there is an aneurysm remnant, some risk of subsequent hemorrhage exists (66). Further device refinement will enhance the safety and effectiveness of the endovascular treatment of giant aneurysms. The use of combined endovascular and conventional surgical techniques may be an increasingly important option in the treatment of giant aneurysms. Endosaccular packing of an aneurysm with occlusive material may not provide the ability to completely exclude the aneurysm from the circulation, and thus, will not necessarily prevent the process of regrowth. A further limitation of the currently implemented endovascular treatment of aneurysms is that fluoroscopy does not provide detailed information of aneurysm remnants due to the superimposition of occlusive materials, which may necessitate the development of new real-time imaging modalities for interventional procedure, such as intravascular ultrasound and ultrafast-sequence MRI.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Clinical neurosurgery
  • K J Gibbons · K Livingston
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in endovascular therapy have resulted in more acute care applications for more seriously ill patients. The use of standard neurological critical care techniques and specific preparations for minimizing the deleterious effects of ischemia facilitates the treatment of high-risk patients. Standardization of care also allows accurate comparison of newer endovascular and surgical advances.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1994 · Neurosurgery Clinics of North America

Publication Stats

357 Citations
58.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992-2011
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994-2004
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      Buffalo, New York, United States