[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brought to you by the editorial team of Cell Death and Differentiation, Cell Death and Disease is a peer-reviewed author-pays online journal in the field of translational cell death. It seeks to promote diverse and integrated areas of Experimental and Internal Medicine with its specialties, including Cancer, Immunity and Neuroscience.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS), a repressor of hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent transcription under hypoxia, was found to exert pro-apoptotic activity in oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, physiological and pathological processes associated with this activity are not known. Here we show that IPAS is a key molecule involved in neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). IPAS was ubiquitinated by Parkin for proteasomal degradation following carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment. Phosphorylation of IPAS at Thr12 by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) was required for ubiquitination to occur. Activation of the PINK1–Parkin pathway attenuated IPAS-dependent apoptosis. IPAS was markedly induced in the midbrain following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and IPAS-deficient mice showed resistance to MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). A significant increase in IPAS expression was found in SNpc neurons in patients with sporadic PD. These results indicate a mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitory Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain protein (IPAS) is a splice variant of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3α, and possesses two entirely different functions. One is as a transcriptional repressor against HIF-dependent hypoxic gene activation. The other is as a pro-apoptotic factor by direct binding to the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL and its related proteins on mitochondria. Presently, the regulatory mechanism that determines the intracellular distribution of IPAS to fulfill each of the two functions is unknown. As a first step towards elucidation of the mechanism, nucleocytoplasmic transport signals of IPAS were explored. A bipartite-like nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in the N-terminal region by the deletion and mutation analysis of EGFP-IPAS. In addition, the helix-loop-helix domain showed weak nuclear import/retention activity. A leptomycin B-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES) was localized in the C-terminal region of the protein. A proline-rich region supported the NES activity. These NLS and NES are not carried by the other variants of HIF-3α due to differential exon usage. These results strongly suggest that IPAS is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nature of functional proteins adsorbed on solid surfaces is
interesting from the perspective of developing of bioelectronics and
biomaterials. Here we present evidence that citrine (one of yellow
fluorescent protein variants) adsorbed on modified gold surfaces would
not undergo denaturation and energy transfer among the adsorbed citrine
molecules would occur. Gold substrates were chemically modified with
3-mercaptopropionic acid and tert-butyl mercaptan for the preparation of
hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. A pure solution of
citrine was dropped and dried on the modified gold substrates and their
surface morphology was studied with scanning tunnelling microscopy
(STM). The obtained STM images showed multilayers of citrine adsorbed on
the modified surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, citrine was adsorbed
more randomly, formed various non-uniform aggregates, while on
hydrophilic surfaces, citrine appeared more aligned and isolated uniform
protein clusters were observed. Fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy
decay of these dried citrine layers were also measured using the time
correlated single photon counting method. Fluorescence anisotropy of
citrine on the hydrophobic surface decayed faster than citrine on the
hydrophilic surface. From these results we concluded that fluorescence
energy migration occurred faster among citrine molecules which were
randomly adsorbed on the hydrophobic surface to compare with the
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phosphate-eliminated nonnatural oligonucleotide serves as a primer surrogate in reverse transcription reaction of mRNA. Despite of the nonnatural triazole linkages in the surrogate, the reverse transcriptase effectively elongated cDNA sequences on the 3'-downstream of the primer by transcription of the complementary sequence of mRNA. A structure-activity comparison with the reference natural oligonucleotides shows the superior priming activity of the surrogate containing triazole-linkages. The nonnatural linkages also protect the transcribed cDNA from digestion reactions with 5'-exonuclease and enable us to remove noise transcripts of unknown origins.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Chemistry - An Asian Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular response to hypoxia plays an important role in both circulatory and pulmonary diseases and cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are major transcription factors regulating the response to hypoxia. The α-subunits of HIFs are hydroxylated by members of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) family, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we report on the identification of ATF4 as a protein interacting with PHD1 as well as PHD3, but not with PHD2. The central region of ATF4 including the Zipper II domain, ODD domain and β-TrCP recognition motif were involved in the interaction with PHD1. Coexistence of PHD1 stabilized ATF4, as opposed to the destabilization of ATF4 by PHD3. Moreover, coexpression of ATF4 destabilized PHD3, whereas PHD1 stability was not affected by the presence of ATF4. Mutations to alanine of proline residues in ATF4 that satisfied hydroxylation consensus by PHDs did not affect binding activity of ATF4 to PHD1 and PHD3. Furthermore, in vitro prolyl hydroxylation assay clearly indicated that ATF4 did not serve as a substrate of both PHD1 and PHD3. Coexpression of PHD1 or PHD3 with ATF4 repressed the transcriptional activity of ATF4. These results suggest that PHD1 and PHD3 control the transactivation activity of ATF4.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is often accompanied by hypoxia. However, crosstalk between signalling pathways activated by inflammation and
signalling events that control adaptive response to hypoxia is not fully understood. Here we show that exposure to tumour
necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activates expression of the inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS) to suppress the hypoxic response
caused by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2 in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells but not in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.
This induction of IPAS was dependent on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and attenuated hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target
genes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-dependent reporter activity in
hypoxia was also decreased following TNF-α treatment. Knockdown of IPAS mRNA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) restored the
TNF-α-suppressed hypoxic response. These results indicate that TNF-α is a cell-type specific suppressor of HIFs and suggest
a novel crosstalk between stimulation by inflammatory mediators and HIF-dependent hypoxic response.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein (IPAS) is a dominant negative transcription factor that represses hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity. In this study, we show that IPAS also functions as a pro-apoptotic protein through binding to pro-survival Bcl-2 family members. In a previous paper, we reported that NF-κB-dependent IPAS induction by cobalt chloride repressed the hypoxic response in PC12 cells. We found that prolonged incubation under the same conditions caused apoptosis in PC12 cells. Repression of IPAS induction protected cells from apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of IPAS recovered cell viability. EGFP-IPAS protein was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, with a large fraction associated with mitochondria. Mitochondrial IPAS induced mitochondria depolarization and caspase-3 activation. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that IPAS is associated with Bcl-x(L), Bcl-w and Mcl-1. The association of IPAS with Bcl-x(L) was also observed in living cells by the FLIM-based FRET analysis, indicating direct binding between the two proteins. IPAS contributed to dysfunction of Bcl-x(L) by inhibiting the interaction of Bcl-x(L) with Bax. These results demonstrate that IPAS functions as a dual function protein involved in transcription repression and apoptosis.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Cell death and differentiation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) can mimic hypoxia in inducing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Several cultured cells were examined for susceptibility to CoCl(2) in DMEM, MEM and RPMI 1640 medium. Here we report that HIF-1α expression of mammalian cells by CoCl(2) was largely dependent on the culture medium. HIF-1α protein and hypoxia response element (HRE)-dependent reporter activity were strongly induced in RPMI 1640 but not in DMEM in several cultured cells including MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line. Analysis of causal nutrients has revealed that histidine, which is contained richer in DMEM, acts as the inhibitory nutrient for cobalt-induced HIF-1α expression of MCF-7 cells in DMEM. D-Histidine also inhibited the HIF-1α activity at the same level as L-histidine, suggesting that sequestration of free cobaltous ion by chelation with histidine was the cause of the inhibition. These results demonstrate that selection of the culture medium must be considered with caution in cell culture experiments using CoCl(2) as a hypoxia-mimetic reagent.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dioxins, which are unintentionally generated toxic pollutants, exert a variety of adverse effects on organisms. The majority of these effects, which include teratogenesis, immunosuppression, tumor promotion, and endocrine disruption, are mediated through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. Genetic variations in AhR result in different survivability under exposure to dioxin contamination, which might affect the genetic structure of wildlife populations through differential susceptibility to dioxin exposure. The aim of this study was to clarify the polymorphisms of AhR in Japanese field mice, Apodemus speciosus, and their functional differences in order to develop a molecular indicator for dioxin sensitivity. Wild Japanese field mice had abundant polymorphisms in AhR coding region. Seventy-one single nucleotide polymorphisms, 27 of which occur amino acid substitutions, and consequently 49 alleles were identified in 63 individuals. In the functional analysis of AhR variants using transient reporter assays, a Gln to Arg mutation at amino acid 799 exhibited a significant decrease in the level of transactivational properties (p=0.015) which might modify the dioxin susceptibility of an individual.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loose interaction between the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) was visualized in living CHO-K1 cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), using time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. FRET between active tetrameric subunits of GAPDH linked to cerulean or citrine was observed, and this FRET signal was significantly attenuated by coexpression of PGK. Also, direct interaction between GAPDH–citrine and PGK–cerulean was observed by FRET. The strength of FRET signals between them was dependent on linkers that connect GAPDH to citrine and PGK to cerulean. A coimmunoprecipitation assay using hemagglutinin-tagged GAPDH and FLAG-tagged PGK coexpressed in CHO-K1 cells supported the FRET observation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a complex of GAPDH and PGK is formed in the cytoplasm of living cells.
Structured digital abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LBP-1 proteins form dimers and act as transcription factors that activate a number of genes related to cell growth and differentiation. LBP-1a and LBP-1c are localized in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in cultured cells, but translocated into the nucleus after forming heterodimers with LBP-1b, which is a splicing variant of LBP-1a with an intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we report that LBP-1b showed potent transactivation activity, and that forcibly expressed LBP-1a and LBP-1c in the nucleus essentially exhibited very little or no transactivation activity. Mutations in the NLS that abolished the NLS activity of LBP-1b also abrogated the transactivation activity. We have found that LBP-1 proteins contain a putative sterile alpha motif domain indispensable for their dimerization capability in the C-terminal region. To demonstrate whether homo- and heterodimers composed of LBP-1a and/or LBP-1c are generated in the nucleus, we applied the FLIM-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging technique to living cells. It revealed that dimers composed of LBP-1a and LBP-1c were re-formed probably by a partner-exchange of LBP-1b-containing heterodimers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator for hypoxic activation of genes for angiogenesis, hormone synthesis,
glycolysis and cell survival. In addition to hypoxic stimulus, various effectors and reagents were reported to affect HIF-1
activity. Here, we show that cyclic AMP (cAMP) down-regulates the HIF-1 activity in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells but not in
Hep3B and HeLa cells. Hypoxia response element-dependent reporter activity was decreased by the addition of dibutyryl cAMP.
Expression of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic α-subunits repressed the HIF-1 activity. HIF-1α and HLF (HIF-2α or EPAS1) protein
levels were decreased by the treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Although CREB was served as a negative factor for the HIF-1 activity,
it may not be a major PKA target in the cAMP-dependent HIF-α repression pathway. Induction of hypoxia responsive genes was
suppressed by dibutyryl cAMP. Our results provide additional insight into a regulatory mechanism of hypoxic response.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnesium deficiency is suggested to contribute to many age-related diseases. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is known to be a master regulator of hypoxic response. Here we show that hypomagnesemia suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced HIF-1alpha activity in paraganglion cells of the adrenal medulla and carotid body. In PC12 cells cultured in the low magnesium medium and treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) or exposed to intermittent hypoxia, ROS-mediated HIF-1alpha activity was suppressed. This suppression was due to up-regulation of inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein (IPAS) that was caused by NF-kappaB activation, which resulted from ROS and calcium influx mainly through the T-type calcium channels. Induction of tyrosine hydroxylase, a target of HIF-1, by CoCl(2) injection was suppressed in the adrenal medulla of magnesium-deficient mice because of up-regulation of IPAS. Also in the carotid body of magnesium-deficient mice, CoCl(2) and chronic intermittent hypoxia failed to enhance the tyrosine hydroxylase expression. These results demonstrate that serum magnesium levels are a key determinant for ROS-induced hypoxic responses.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major transcription factor regulating the response of tumor cells to hypoxia and is comprised of HIF-1alpha and Arnt (HIF-1beta). In mammalian cells, HIF-1 protein levels are regulated by three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3. To assess whether intracellular localization of PHD1 and PHD2 affects the hypoxic response via HIF-1, we investigated the localization signal of PHDs. PHD1 possessed at least one nuclear localization signal (NLS), and PHD2 contained a region as essential for nuclear export in their N-terminal region. Treatment of cells with leptomycin B revealed that PHD2 was able to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Reporter assay indicated that differences in the intracellular distribution of PHD1 did not influence on HIF-1alpha activity. However, a PHD2 mutant lacking the region for nuclear export exhibited significantly reduced effect to HIF-1alpha activity compared to wild-type PHD2, suggesting that the regulation of the intracellular distribution of PHD2 is an effective pathway for the control of the hypoxic response.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Klf4 has demonstrated activity in the reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state, but the molecular mechanism of this process remains unknown. It is, therefore, of great interest to understand the functional role of Klf4 and related genes in ESC regulation. Here, we show that homozygous disruption of Klf5 results in the failure of ESC derivation from ICM cells and early embryonic lethality due to an implantation defect. Klf5 KO ESCs show increased expression of several differentiation marker genes and frequent, spontaneous differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of Klf5 in ESCs suppressed the expression of differentiation marker genes and maintained pluripotency in the absence of LIF. Our results also suggest that Klf5 regulates ESC proliferation by promoting phosphorylation of Akt1 via induction of Tcl1. These results, therefore, provide new insights into the functional and mechanistic role of Klf5 in regulation of pluripotency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play a central role in oxygen homeostasis. HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) modify HIFα
subunits and thereby target them for proteasomal degradation. Mammalian PHDs comprise three isozymes, PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3,
and belong to the iron(II)-2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. We have expressed full-length human PHD1 in Escherichia coli, and purified it to apparent homogeneity by immobilized Ni-affinity chromatography, cation-exchange HPLC followed by gel
filtration. Fe2+ was found to have EC50 value of 0.64 μM and the purified enzyme showed maximal activity at 10 μM Fe2+. The IC50 values for transition metal ions, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+, were 58, 35 and 220 μM, respectively, in the presence of 100 μM Fe2+. Mn2+ did not affect the activity <1 mM. Many transcription-related proteins are regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, recombinant
PHD1 was examined for in vitro phosphorylation using protein kinase A, protein kinase Cα, casein kinase I and II and Erk2. The protein was most strongly
phosphorylated by protein kinase Cα, and the phosphorylation sites were found to be Ser-132, Ser-226 and Ser-234. Mutation
of Ser-132 or Ser-234 to Asp or Glu diminished the enzymatic activity to 25–60%, while mutation of Ser-226 scarcely influenced
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have investigated the photochemical properties and photodynamic effects of ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc(CO)(Py)) and naphthalocyanine (RuNc(CO)(Py)) complexes. When a nanosecond-pulsed laser is used, the photodecarbonylation of our Ru complexes efficiently proceeds via stepwise two-photon excitation, while the reaction yields are negligibly small when a continuous-wave (CW) laser is employed. The pulsed laser selective photodecarbonylation decreases the Q-band absorbance, which satisfies what the photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires of the photobleaching. For RuPc(CO)(Py), the photochemical reactions including both the photodecarbonylation and just photobleaching occur in HeLa cells in vitro. Toxicity and phototoxicity tests indicate that our RuPc(CO)(Py) and RuNc(CO)(Py) complexes in concentrations of 0.3-1 microM and 1-2 microM, respectively, are applicable as PDT agents. The phototoxicity is consistent with the photochemical properties of these complexes, namely, excited triplet lifetimes (10 and 4.8 micros for the Pc and Nc complexes, respectively) and singlet oxygen yields (0.48 and 0.35 for the Pc and Nc complexes, respectively). On the basis of these results, we propose a novel concept for achieving a greater depth of necrosis in PDT as follows: (1) PDT of upper cellular layers using CW-laser irradiation; (2) efficient photobleaching in upper cellular layers using pulsed dye-laser irradiation, which results in an increase in the therapeutic depth of red light; (3) PDT directed toward deeper tumor tissues using CW laser irradiation. In addition, these Ru complexes are promising as CO release agents for investigative biochemistry.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B