Jörg Hausleiter

Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (241)2172.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the incremental prognostic value of quantitative plaque characterization beyond established CT risk scores.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography
  • D. Braun · B. Bischoff · J. Hausleiter
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, several minimally invasive approaches for interventional therapy of structural heart diseases have been developed. For example, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative therapeutic option for high-risk patients that serves as an alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement. Also, high-risk patients with mitral valve regurgitation may benefit from interventional mitral valve clipping. Furthermore, left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices may reduce the risk for thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation and a contraindication for oral anticoagulation. Lastly, selected patients may benefit from interventional closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) as well as persistent foramen ovale (PFO). For planning purposes prior to these interventions as well as for peri-interventional guidance, imaging techniques play an important role. Beyond the use of several imaging techniques for structural heart diseases, it has been shown that coronary CT angiography (CCTA) can improve success rates of percutaneous coronary revascularization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Heart, Lung and Circulation
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) can prognosticate outcomes in patients without modifiable risk factors over medium term follow-up. This ability was driven by major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Objective Determine if coronary CTA could discriminate risk of mortality with longer term follow-up. In addition we sought to determine the long-term relationship to MACE. Methods From 12 centers, 1884 patients undergoing coronary CTA without prior coronary artery disease (CAD) or any modifiable CAD risk factors were identified. The presence of CAD was classified as none (0% stenosis), mild (1% to 49% stenosis) and obstructive (≥50% stenosis severity). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and the secondary endpoint was MACE. MACE was defined as the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and late target vessel revascularization (>90 days). Results Mean age was 55.6±14.5 years. At mean 5.6±1.3 years follow-up, 145(7.7%) deaths occurred. All-cause mortality demonstrated a dose-response relationship to the severity and number of coronary vessels exhibiting CAD. Increased mortality was observed for >1 segment non-obstructive CAD (hazard ratio [HR]:1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.79;p=0.025), obstructive 1&2 vessel CAD (HR: 1.70; 95%CI: 1.08-2.71;p=0.023) and 3-vessel or left main CAD (HR: 2.87;95% CI: 1.57-5.23;p=0.001). Both obstructive CAD (HR: 6.63;95% CI: 3.91-11.26;p<0.001) and non-obstructive CAD (HR: 2.20;95% CI: 1.31-3.67;p=0.003) predicted MACE with increased hazard associated with increasing CAD severity; 5.60% in no CAD, 13.24% in non-obstructive and 36.28% in obstructive CAD, p<0.001 for trend. Conclusions In individuals being assessed for CAD with no modifiable risk factors, all-cause mortality in the long term (>5 years) was predicted by the presence of more than 1 segment of non-obstructive plaque, obstructive 1- or 2-vessel CAD and 3 vessel/left main CAD. Any CAD, whether non-obstructive or obstructive, predicted MACE over the same time period.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography
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    ABSTRACT: Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is a growing medical challenge in today's aging population, leading to increased health expenditure due to the resultant morbidity and mortality. Surgery, either replacement or repair, has been the mainstay of therapy for primary MR. In high-risk or inoperable patients, treatment was limited to medical therapy until 2008. Since then, alternative percutaneous therapies have been introduced and have proven to be safe and effective in patients with secondary MR. Edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip system is applied worldwide for primary and secondary MR. Randomized data do not support its application in low-risk patients with primary MR. Results from ongoing and future randomized trials will clarify its impact on important clinical endpoints in high-risk and inoperable patients. The Carillon device is a percutaneous indirect annuloplasty technique introduced in 2009 for secondary MR. Clinical data for the novel Cardioband system, using a different intra-atrial annuloplasty technique, have been gathered from more than 40 patients and the system recently received CE mark approval. Other percutaneous repair devices and implantable valves are under development and may be introduced into clinical practice soon. The percutaneous interventional therapy of MR is a highly dynamic field of cardiovascular medicine and has the potential to improve quality of life as well as morbidity and mortality in selected patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Herz

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In this prespecified BRAVE 4 substudy we examined the antiplatelet and anticoagulant efficacy of clopidogrel plus heparin vs. prasugrel plus bivalirudin in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: 26 patients received clopidogrel/heparin, 25 patients received prasugrel/bivalirudin and 20 additional untreated patients served as controls. Platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood impedance aggregometry. Dynamic platelet adhesion and aggregate formation to collagen were quantified under flow conditions. Coagulation tests included activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR) as well as rotational thrombelastography (ROTEM®). Analyses were performed 3 and 72h after drug administration. Results: At 3, but not at 72h we observed a significant increase in the inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (P<0.01), but not to arachidonic acid, collagen or thrombin receptor agonist in the prasugrel/bivalirudin group compared to the clopidogrel/heparin group. Inhibition of platelet adhesion to collagen under flow was significantly stronger in the prasugrel/bivalirudin group at 3 and 72h after drug administration (P<0.01). APTT was significantly higher in the clopidogrel/heparin group (P<0.05) and INR was significantly higher in the prasugrel/bivalirudin group (P<0.01) 3h after drug administration. Concerning ROTEM® analysis the drug combinations did not differ in reducing clot formation time (CFT) and both combinations did not influence maximum clot firmness (MCF) compared to the controls. Conclusions: We could demonstrate a more pronounced inhibition of platelet aggregation as well as platelet adhesion and aggregate formation to collagen under flow in prasugrel plus bivalirudin treated patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Thrombosis Research
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is high in diabetic patients while diagnosis of early stage of CAD remains demanding. This study evaluates prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for long-term outcome to predict cardiac events in oligosymptomatic diabetic patients. A cohort of 108 consecutive diabetic patients without angina pectoris or known CAD, undergoing CCTA was included. 1379 consecutive patients without diabetes were defined as a control group. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS), segment involvement score (SIS) and the segment stenosis score (SSS) were documented. The end point was a composite of cardiac events defined as all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. Follow up period was 66.0 ± 14.2 month. 98 % of initially enrolled patient were followed. During follow-up period 10 cardiac events within the diabetic cohort and 48 within the non-diabetic cohort were observed. Annual event rate in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 1.74 and 0.64 % respectively. In diabetic patients a multivariate analysis showed significant prognostic value over Framingham Score for SIS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.98 (95 % CI 1.02, 8.72; p = 0.047) and SSS (HR 4.47, 95 % CI 1.21, 16.49; p = 0.025), while CACS did not add prognostic value in this cohort. Annual event rate was 0 % in diabetic patients with SIS = 0 and 3.9 % in diabetic patients with SIS ≥ 8. CCTA allows for improved risk prediction for subsequent cardiac events in oligosymptomatic diabetic patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The international journal of cardiovascular imaging

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Der Kardiologe
  • Jörg Hausleiter

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of iterative image reconstruction (IR) of images for radiation dose reduction in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Therefore, IR in combination with 30% tube current reduction was compared with standard scanning with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction. Lately, new IR techniques with advanced raw data processing have been introduced by different computed tomography vendors, thus allowing for either image noise reduction at unchanged radiation dose levels or radiation dose reductions at comparable image noise levels. In this prospective, multicenter, multivendor noninferiority trial, we randomized 400 consecutive patients to 1 of 2 groups: a control group using standard FBP image reconstruction and standard tube current or an interventional group using IR technique and 30% tube current reduction. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate noninferiority in image quality (IQ) in the IR group. IQ was assessed on a 4-point scale (1, nondiagnostic IQ; 4, excellent IQ). Secondary endpoints included total radiation dose estimates and the rate of downstream testing during 30-day follow-up. Median IQ in the IR group was noninferior compared with the conventional FBP group (IR, 3.5 [interquartile range: 3.0 to 4.0]; FBP, 3.4 [interquartile range: 2.8 to 4.0], p for noninferiority < 0.016). The radiation exposure was significantly lower in the IR group (median dose-length-product 157 [interquartile range: 114 to 239] vs. 222 [interquartile range: 141 to 319] mGy · cm for IR vs. FBP, respectively, p < 0.0001). The rate of downstream testing did not differ significantly (7.7% vs. 7.9% for IR vs. FBP, respectively, p = 0.94). Coronary CTA image quality is maintained with the combined use of a 30% reduced tube current and IR algorithms when compared with conventional FBP image reconstruction techniques and standard tube current. (Prospective Randomized Trial On RadiaTion Dose Estimates Of CT AngIOgraphy In PatieNts: NCT01453712). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess the incidence of aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the second (SXT) versus third-generation (S3) balloon-expandable SAPIEN prosthesis in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Of 634 patients undergoing TAVI in our centre from May 2010 to July 2014, 354 were treated with the SXT and 100 with the S3 prosthesis. The primary outcome was the incidence of more-than-mild post-TAVI AR at discharge. Secondary outcomes were 30-day incidence of all-cause death, any bleeding complications and need for new pacemaker. The incidence of the primary outcome was 2.0% vs. 8.8%, p<0.01 with S3 compared to SXT, and S3 use was the only independent predictor of post-TAVI AR (odds ratio 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.89). At 30 days, there were no differences in mortality (1.0% vs. 4.2%, p=0.13) and pacemaker rate (12.0% vs. 10.5%, p=0.59) between S3 and SXT. S3-treated patients less frequently had bleeding complications (24.0% vs. 41.8%, p<0.01) and more often had permanent new left bundle branch block (22.0% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001). Compared to the SXT, the use of the S3 prosthesis substantially reduces post-TAVI aortic regurgitation. Longer follow-up is needed to assess if this finding translates to better clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Data describing the prevalence, characteristics and management of coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and treatment strategies of CTO identified by CCTA. Methods We identified 23 745 patients who underwent CCTA for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) from the prospective international CCTA registry. Baseline clinical data were collected, and allocation to early coronary revascularisation performed within 90 days of CCTA was determined. Multivariable hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression reporting OR with 95% CI was performed. Results The prevalence of CTO was 1.4% (342/23 745) in all patients and 6.2% in patients with obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). The presence of CTO was independently associated with male sex (OR 3.12, 95% CI 2.39 to 4.08, p<0.001), smoking (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.64, p<0.001), diabetes (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.11, p=0.001), typical angina (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.06, p=0.008), hypertension (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.88, p=0.003), family history of CAD (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67, p=0.04) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.07, p<0.001). Most patients with CTO (61%) were treated medically, while 39% underwent coronary revascularisation. In patients with severe CAD (≥70% stenosis), CTO independently predicted revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.06 to 5.66, p<0.001), but not by percutaneous coronary intervention (p=0.83). Conclusions CTOs are not uncommon in a contemporary CCTA population, and are associated with age, gender, angina status and CAD risk factors. Most individuals with CTO undergoing CCTA are managed medically with higher rates of surgical revascularisation in patients with versus without CTO. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01443637.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical outcome of patients with severe primary and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) and heart failure or significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who underwent percutaneous mitral valve repair (pMVR) is yet not well known. This study compares midterm outcome of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (EF ≤30%) versus patients with slightly or moderately reduced or normal LVEF (EF >30%) after pMVR. One hundred thirty-six consecutive patients were enrolled: 42 patients displayed severe left ventricular dysfunction, group 1 (logistic EuroSCORE I 27.7 ± 21.8%; secondary MR in 37 patients), and 94 patients displayed slightly or moderately reduced or normal LVEF, group 2 (logistic EuroSCORE I 17 ± 18.2%; secondary MR in 21 patients). The primary efficacy endpoint was death of any cause, repeat mitral valve intervention, and/or New York Heart Association class ≥III, which was reached in 31% of patients in group 1 versus 40% in group 2 (p = 0.719) at a median follow-up of 371 days. MR, graded by transthoracic echocardiography, was reduced in both groups (p <0.001) and New York Heart Association class improved in each group (p <0.001), with no differences between groups (p >0.05). In conclusion, at midterm follow-up, the pMVR provided significant clinical benefits with comparable results achieved both in patients with significantly reduced and in patients with moderately reduced to normal LVEF. Thus, pMVR represents a feasible and effective treatment in high-risk patients who otherwise have limited therapeutic options and no safe option to reduce MR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The American Journal of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard of care after cardiac arrest of any cause. However, its impact on on-treatment platelet reactivity and clinical outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock and undergoing PCI with P2Y12 receptor inhibitor treatment is less clear. For the ISAR-SHOCK registry, 145 patients with AMI, cardiogenic shock and primary PCI in two centers (Deutsches Herzzentrum München and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich) between January 2009-May 2012 were analysed. Of these, 64 (44%) patients received TH treatment. The median [IQR] ADP-induced platelet aggregation following thienopyridine loading dose administration (clopidogrel in 95 and prasugrel in 50 patients) did not differ between the two groups (419 [283-684] for TH vs. 355 [207-710] AU x min for non-TH patients, P=0.22). After 30days follow-up, no significant differences were observed between both groups for mortality (42 vs. 44 %, HR: 0.93, 95% CI [0.56-1.53], p=0.77), MI (6 vs. 6%, HR: 0.99 95% CI [0.27-3.7], p=0.99) and TIMI minor bleedings (17 vs. 17%, HR 0.99 95% CI [0.45-2.18], p=0.98). TIMI major bleedings were numerically higher in the TH vs. non-TH cohort (25 % vs. 12 %, HR: 2.1 95% CI [0.95-4.63], p=0.07). Three definite stent thrombosis (ST) were observed in this registry and all STs occurred in the TH group of patients (p=0.09). Results of this registry suggest that TH does not negatively impact on platelet reactivity in shock patients receiving either clopidogrel or prasugrel. The numerically higher rate of major bleedings and the clustering of STs in the TH cohort warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Thrombosis Research
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    ABSTRACT: To assess long-term outcome and parameters associated with poor and favorable outcome in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) ≤25% and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (pMVR). There is no data on long-term outcome in this cohort of patients. We analyzed all 34 patients with a LV-EF ≤25% and severe MR treated with pMVR in 2 university hospitals from 2009 to 2012. Mitral regurgitation could be successfully reduced to grade ≤2 in 30 patients (88%). Long-term follow-up (up to 5 years) revealed a steep decline of the survival curve reaching 50% already 8 month after pMVR. In contrast, estimated survival of the remaining patients showed a favorable long-term outcome. Patients deceased during the first year presented with higher right ventricular tricuspid pressure gradient (RVTG) (44.5 ± 8.4 mmHg vs. 35.2 ± 15.4 mmHg, P = 0.035) and worse RV-function (P = 0.014) prior to the procedure. One-year mortality of patients with pulmonary hypertension and depressed RV-function (n = 22) was very high (77%) compared to the remaining patients (n = 12, mortality rate of 0%, P = 0.0001). Although pMVR lead to a successful reduction of MR in patients with a LV-EF ≤25%, 1-year mortality in this cohort was very high. However, a subgroup of patients showed a favorable long-term outcome after pMVR. Especially the right ventricular parameters sustained RV-function and absence of pulmonary hypertension-easily assessed with echocardiography-might be used to identify this subgroup and encourage pMVR in these patients. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a clinical cardiac risk algorithm for stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease based upon angina typicality and coronary artery disease risk factors. Between 2004 and 2011, 14,004 adults with suspected coronary artery disease referred for cardiac imaging were followed: 1) 9,093 patients for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (CCTA-1) followed for 2.0 years; 2) 2,132 patients for CCTA (CCTA-2) followed for 1·6 years, and 3) 2,779 patients for exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) followed for 5.0 years. A best-fit model from CCTA-1 for prediction of death or myocardial infarction was developed, with integer values proportional to regression coefficients. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistic. The validated model was tested for estimation of the likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as ≥50% stenosis, as compared to method of Diamond and Forrester. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included prevalent angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease. In CCTA-1, best-fit model discriminated individuals at risk of death or myocardial infarction (C-statistic 0·76). The integer model ranged from 3-13, corresponding to 3-year death risk or myocardial infarction of 0·25% to 53·8%. When applied to CCTA-2 and MPS cohorts, the model demonstrated C-statistics of 0·71 and 0·77. Both best-fit (C=0·76, 95% CI 0·746-0·771) and integer models (C=0·71, 95% CI 0·693-0·719) performed better than Diamond and Forrester (C=0·64; 95% CI, 0·628-0·659) for estimating obstructive coronary artery disease. For stable symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease, we developed a history-based method for prediction of death and obstructive coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The American journal of medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to develop a clinical model that identifies patients with and without high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Although current clinical models help to estimate a patient's pre-test probability of obstructive CAD, they do not accurately identify those patients with and without high-risk coronary anatomy. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected multinational coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) cohort was conducted. High-risk anatomy was defined as left main diameter stenosis ≥50%, 3-vessel disease with diameter stenosis ≥70%, or 2-vessel disease involving the proximal left anterior descending artery. Using a cohort of 27,125, patients with a history of CAD, cardiac transplantation, and congenital heart disease were excluded. The model was derived from 24,251 consecutive patients in the derivation cohort and an additional 7,333 nonoverlapping patients in the validation cohort. The risk score consisted of 9 variables: age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, history of peripheral vascular disease, and chest pain symptoms. Patients were divided into 3 risk categories: low (≤7 points), intermediate (8 to 17 points) and high (≥18 points). The model was statistically robust with area under the curve of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) in the validation cohort. Patients who scored ≤7 points had a low negative likelihood ratio (<0.1), whereas patients who scored ≥18 points had a high specificity of 99.3% and a positive likelihood ratio (8.48). In the validation group, the prevalence of high-risk CAD was 1% in patients with ≤7 points and 16.7% in those with ≥18 points. We propose a scoring system, based on clinical variables, that can be used to identify patients at high and low pre-test probability of having high-risk CAD. Identification of these populations may detect those who may benefit from a trial of medical therapy and those who may benefit most from an invasive strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised about radiation dose of coronary CT angiography. Although high-pitch acquisition technique yields high potential for radiation dose savings, it is more vulnerable to artifacts, which impair diagnostic image quality. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 scan strategies for coronary CT angiography: a high-pitch helical scan first or a conventional scan first strategy. In this prospective, multicenter trial, we randomized 303 consecutive patients with a low and stable heart rate to either of the aforementioned mentioned strategies. Intravenous β-blockers were administered to achieve target heart rates. All scans were performed on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner. In case of nondiagnostic image quality, coronary CT angiography was allowed to be repeated. The primary end point was to demonstrate noninferior image quality in the high-pitch group. Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1: nondiagnostic, 4: excellent). Secondary end point was total radiation dose. In the high-pitch helical first group, repeat scanning was necessary in 21 patients compared with 14 patients in the conventional first scan group (P = .25). Image quality in the high-pitch group was noninferior compared to the conventional scan group (3.81 ± 0.35 vs 3.83 ± 0.37; P for noninferiority <.0001). The total effective radiation dose estimate was 58% lower in the high-pitch group (2.0 ± 2.4 vs 4.7 ± 4.8 mSv; P < .0001). In patients with a low and stable heart rate diagnostic image quality can be maintained with a high-pitch helical scan first strategy while 58% of radiation dose can be saved. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,172.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012-2015
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997-2015
    • Technische Universität München
      • • Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II
      • • German Heart Centre Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995-2014
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      • • Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001-2012
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      • • Division of Cardiology
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Yonsei University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Ottawa
      • Division of Medical Oncology
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Klinikum Garmisch-Partenkirchen
      Markt Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Department of Cardiology and Angiology
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany