[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asians and Pacific Islanders are typically aggregated in United States (US) cancer statistics even though the few studies that have considered subgroups separately have found marked differences in cancer incidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence rates separately for US Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian and Vietnamese women overall and by age at diagnosis, histologic subtype and stage at diagnosis. Age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percent changes (APC) of new, primary breast cancer diagnosed in the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry of Northern California (1990-2002) were calculated using SEER*Stat. In women under 50 years of age, annual incidence rates decreased for Japanese (APC = -4.1, p = 0.02) and Filipinas (APC = -1.9, p = 0.11), and increased or fluctuated in other subgroups over the study period. In women 50 years or older, rates of invasive breast cancer increased for most subgroups, except Filipinas (APC = -1.3, p = 0.32), and in Japanese until 1998-2000. Rates of breast cancer in situ increased in most subgroups from 1990 to 2002, as did rates of lobular breast cancer for Chinese (APC = +7.46, p < 0.01) women. In Japanese women, rates of lobular breast cancer were highest in 1995-1997 and decreased thereafter. Our data support the notion that the prevalence of established risk factors influence breast cancer incidence, as breast cancer rates increased for more recently immigrated groups and decreased among more established groups, and may suggest leads into other avenues of research, such as genetic differences, that may explain differences in incidence rates among Asian subgroups.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor access to or inadequate health insurance contributes to disparities in cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer registry "payer source" data is collected by many cancer registries in the United States and has been used to compare cancer outcomes across insurance types.
We evaluated the validity of cancer registry data on patient Medicaid status against enrollment data from Medi-Cal, California's Medicaid program.
Data from the statewide California Cancer Registry for persons under age 65 years diagnosed with 1) any cancer in 1998 and 1999 or 2) with invasive cervical cancer between 1996 and 1999 were obtained and linked probabilistically to Medi-Cal enrollment files. We compared registry Medicaid status, determined from payer source information, against linkage results and used crosstabulations to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. These measures were compared across different hospital and patient characteristics and cancer types.
Cancer registry Medicaid status data had poor sensitivity (48%), good specificity (98%), and moderate positive predictive value (77%). Measures of validity did not vary substantially by cancer type, stage, patient age, sex, vital status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or diagnosing hospital size. Registry data undercounted the number of Medicaid patients by 52% and incorrectly assigned Medicaid as a payer to approximately 2% of patients.
As a result of the poor validity of cancer registry Medicaid status data, caution should be used when interpreting cancer outcomes by insurance type calculated from registry payer source data. Linkage of registry data to Medicaid enrollment files represents a more accurate means of identifying Medicaid insurance status.