[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective in chloroplasts in rice, termed albino leaf 1 (al1), which exhibits distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading the al1 seedling to lethal. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the numbers of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of the Arabidopsis rap mutants indicated that AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene and the altered splices were occurred at the 3’UTR of AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of AL1 gene results in the altered expression of chloroplast associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundances of photosynthesis associated proteins are significantly altered, as well as a group of metabolism associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in the altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the rRNA. Taken together, we propose that the AL1, particularly the AL1a and c isoform, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Small RNAs (smRNAs) including miRNAs and siRNAs are critical for gene regulation and plant development. Among the highly diverse
siRNAs, trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) have been shown to be plant-specific. In Arabidopsis, eight TAS loci belonging to four families (TAS1, TAS2, TAS3, and TAS4) have been identified, and bioinformatics analysis reveals that the sequence of TAS3 is highly conserved in plants. In this study, the function of TAS3 ta-siRNA (tasiR-ARF) has been revealed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) on polarity establishment and stage transition from vegetative to reproductive development by over-expressing Osta-siR2141. Osta-siR2141 replaced miR390 in the miR390 backbone for ectopic expression in rice, and overexpression of Osta-siR2141 caused disturbed vascular bundle development and adaxialization in polarity establishment. Transgenic lines also
displayed abnormal shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and retarded growth at the vegetative stage. Molecular analysis revealed
that overexpression of Osta-siR2141 resulted in the down-regulation of miR166 and the up-regulation of class III homeodomain-leucine zipper genes (HD-ZIPIIIs) in the vegetative stage but not in the reproductive stage. Moreover, overexpression of Osta-siR2141 in Arabidopsis disturbed polarity establishment and retarded stage transition, suggesting that tasiR-ARF was functionally conserved in rice
Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Experimental Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A rice proteinase inhibitor (PI) gene OsPI8-1 was identified. Belonging to the potato inhibitor I family, this gene contains a 201bp coding region with no introns and encodes a deduced protein of 66 amino acids which holds a PI domain. There are two uniform gene copies, OsPI8-1a and OsPI8-1b, with direct-repeat arrangement and an interval span of 13 kb on rice chromosome 8, corresponding to the site of BAC clone P0528B09 (Accession No. AP004703). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays showed that both OsPI8-1a and OsPI8-1b can be expressed in wild-type 'Zhonghua No.11'. To investigate the physiological functions of OsPI8-1 in plant development, we analyzed the expression patterns of the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by OsPI8-1 promoter at different developmental stages and tissues. It was demonstrated that no GUS signals were detected in the roots. Despite that very high GUS expression was examined in the shoot apical meristem, no detectable GUS activity in the developmental domains of leaf primordium was observed. OsPI8-1 promoter showed an obvious wound-induced response in mature leaves. Little GUS activity was detected in young nodes and internodes at the seedling stage, but active GUS expression was observed near the nodes on mature culms. In the developing stage of the anther, GUS signal was specifically located in the middle layer and the endothecium between the epidermis and tapetum. In the germinating seed, GUS expression was gradually accumulated in the side of scutellar epithelium close to the embryo. These tissue-specific accumulations suggested that OsPI8-1 has multiple endogenous roles on developmental regulation. In this report, the inhibitor function of OsPI8-1 to proteolytic enzymes and the potential influence of their poise on plant development (such as seed germination, tapetum degeneration, programmed cell death, etc.) were discussed.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of plant physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Insertional mutagenesis based on maize Activator/Dissociator (Ac/Ds) transposons is becoming a major approach used to produce a saturated mutant collection in rice. In this research, Ds-T-DNA transformed homozygotes were crossed with Ac-T-DNA transformed homozygotes in order to establish an Ac/Ds transposon system in rice. The successive investigation of Ds transposition from F1 to F5 generations indicated that the frequencies of germinal transposition increased over successive generations and reached 54.2%
in F3 generation. The Ds transposition pattern revealed that a Ds transposition induced an approximately 170-bp deletion of T-DNA sequence and another Ds transposition carried a 272-bp T-DNA sequence. Using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR), some flanking sequences
of the Ds element were amplified. Analyses of 17 Ds-flanking sequences showed that five Ds were inserted into gene regions. The Ds could transpose not only to the linked sites but also to the unlinked sites. The frequency of inter-chromosomal transposition
of Ds was 33.3%.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Chinese Science Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: High-yield cultivars are characterized by erect leaf canopies that optimize photosynthesis and thus favor increased biomass. Upward curling of the leaf blade (called rolled leaf) can result in enhanced erect-leaf habit, increase erect duration and promote an overall erect leaf canopy. The rice mutant R05, induced through transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion, had the rolled-leaf trait. The leaves in the wild type demonstrated natural drooping tendencies, resulting in decreasing leaf erection indices (LEIs) during senescence at the 20th day after flowering. Conversely, LEIs of the leaves in R05 remained high, even 20-day post-flowering. We applied T-DNA tagging and isolated a rolled-leaf gene from rice which, when over-expressed, could induce upward curling of the leaf blade. This gene encodes for a protein of 1,048 amino acids including the PAZ and PIWI conserved domains, belonging to the Argonaute (AGO) family. There are at least 18 members of the AGO family in rice. According to high-sequence conservation, the rolled-leaf gene in rice could be orthologous to the Arabidopsis ZIP/Ago7 gene, so we called it OsAGO7. These results provide a possible opportunity for implementing OsAGO7 gene in crop improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Transgenic plants with Ds element distributed over different loci on chromosome 4 (Fig. 1) and the homozygous transformants with Ac transposase gene were established through Agrobacterium-mediated approach. In this study, the plants carrying Ds element from different loci were crossed with the plant carrying Ac transposase individually. The plants of F(1) generation carrying both Ds element and Ac transposase were used to produce the F(2) populations (Table 1). Analysis of the F(2) generation by the PCR method revealed that the excision frequencies of Ds element were higher in the telomeric region of chromosome 4 than in the centromeric region (Fig. 4). These results showed that the insertion site of Ds element has strong effect on its excision frequency. We suggest that the special construct of chromosome near the insertion site of Ds element is related to the excision frequency of the Ds element.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Zhi wu sheng li yu fen zi sheng wu xue xue bao = Journal of plant physiology and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: T-DNA integration is a key step in the process of plant transformation, which is proven to be important for analyzing T-DNA integration mechanism. The structures of T-DNA right borders inserted into the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome and their flanking sequences were analyzed. It was found that the integrated ends of the T-DNA right border occurred mainly on five nucleotides “TGACA” in inverse repeat (IR) sequence of 25 bp, especially on the third base “A”. However, the integrated ends would sometimes lie inward of the IR sequence, which caused the IR sequence to be lost completely. Sometimes the right integrated ends appeared on the vector sequences rightward of the T-DNA right border, which made the T-DNA, carrying vector sequences, integrated into the rice genome. These results seemingly suggest that the IR sequence of the right border plays an important role in the process of T-DNA integration into the rice genome, but is not an essential element. The appearance of vector sequences neighboring the T-DNA right border suggested that before being transferred into the plant cell from Agrobacterium, the entire T-DNA possibly began from the left border in synthesis and then read through at the right border. Several nucleotides in the T-DNA right border homologous with plant DNA and filler DNAs were frequently discovered in the integrated position of T-DNA. Some small regions in the right border could match with the plant sequence, or form better matches, accompanied by the occurrence of filler DNA, through mutual twisting, and then the T-DNA was integrated into plant chromosome through a partially homologous recombination mechanism. The appearance of filler DNA would facilitate T-DNA integration. The fragments flanking the T-DNA right border in transformed rice plants could derive from different parts of the inner T-DNA region; that is, disruption and recombination could occur at arbitrary positions in the entire T-DNA, in which the homologous area was comparatively easier to be disrupted. The structure of flanking sequences of T-DNA integrated in the rice chromosome presented various complexities. These complexities were probably a result of different patterns of recombination in the integrating process. Some types of possible integrating mechanism are detailed.
(Managing editor: Li-Hui ZHAO)
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Gama-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. The GCS gene has been cloned in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, but has still not been reported in rice. From rice mutant population generated from T-DNA insertion, we cloned the rice GCS gene from mutant L395 by T-DNA tag cloning method, and named it OsGCS (Genbank accession No. AJ508915). Full length OsGCS cDNA clones were obtained from a rice cDNA library by the PCR method. A comparison of the genome and cDNA sequence (Genbank accession No. AJ508916) shows that OsGCS gene is composed of 15 exons and 14 introns and coding a 493-amino acid protein. The OsGCS gene is highly homologous with the AtGCS gene in the coding region but completely different in the promoter region. The putative transcription start site (TSS) confirmed by RT-PCR was located 211 bp upstream of the translation start codon "ATG". In mutant L395, a single T-DNA copy was integrated between the second intron and second exon of OsGCS gene, causing one nucleotide deletion in the second exon and two nucleotide deletions in the second intron. No significant differences were found in Cd(2+) stress tolerance, rice GCS gene expression level and GSH content between mutant L395 and Zhonghua 11. It is possible that another GCS gene on chromosome 7 might complement function of OsGCS gene on chromosome 5.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Zhi wu sheng li yu fen zi sheng wu xue xue bao = Journal of plant physiology and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Over 3000 rice plants with T-DNA carrying a Ds element were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediation. Using inverse PCR methodology, 590 unique right flanking sequences of T-DNA (Ds) were retrieved from independent transformants and classified into six main types on the basis of the origin of filler DNA between the right border of T-DNA and flanking sequence of rice genome. Type I sequences were the most common and showed canonical integration that T-DNA right border was followed by rice genome sequence with or without filler DNA of no more than 50 bp, while type II sequences displayed a vector-genome combination that T-DNA right border was followed by a vector fragment and then connected with rice genome sequence. The location and distribution of 340 type I and II flanking sequences on the rice chromosome were determined using BLAST analysis. The 340 Ds insertions at an average interval of 0.8 megabase (Mb) constructed a basic framework of Ds starter points on whole rice chromosomes. The frequency of T-DNA (Ds) inserted into the exons of predicted genes on chromosome one was 21%. Knowledge of T-DNA (Ds) locations on chromosomes will prove to be a useful resource for isolating rice genes by Ds transposon tagging as these Ds insertions can be used as starting lines for further mutagenesis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Science in China Series C Life Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Transposon tagging was used to isolate genes in higher plant. In this study, a delayed heading mutant caused by T-DNA insertion in rice was identified. Genetic analysis of the mutant showed that the three types of phenotype, normal heading, delayed heading and overly delayed heading in the segregating populations derived from the T-DNA heterozygotes fit the ratio of 1:2:1. Test for Basta resistance showed the delayed heading plants were all resistant while the normal heading plants were susceptible, and the ratio of resistant and susceptible plants was 3:1, which indicated that the delayed heading mutant was co-segregated with Basta resistance. The delayed heading mutant caused by T-DNA insertion was confirmed by T-DNA detection using PCR method. This delayed heading mutant will be used for isolation of the tagged gene in rice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Zhi wu sheng li yu fen zi sheng wu xue xue bao = Journal of plant physiology and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A rolled-leaf mutant was obtained in a T-DNA(containing bar gene and Ds element) insertion population, which consist of transgenic japonica rice Zhonghua 11 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Through self-hybridization of three generations, one of trait-purified mutants (R1-A2) was obtained and used as parent to cross with variety Zhonghua 11. The leaves of 36 F1 plants investigated were rolled and resistant to herbicide Basta. Among 852 F2 plants, the segregation ratio of rolled leaves to normal leaves(645:207) was consistent with 3:1. All rolled-leaf plants were resistant to herbicide Basta, and all normal leaf plants were sensitive to herbicide Basta. These results showed that the trait of rolled-leaf is co-segregated with Basta resistance. The total DNA of 45 rolled-leaf plants and 30 normal leaf plants in F2 population were amplified to test the presence of T-DNA by Ds primers. The results showed that the positive band were amplified in all rolled-leaf plants, but not in every normal leaf plant. In F1B1 progenies, all plants which derived from backcross parent R1-A2 were rolled leaves; while variety Zhonghua 11 was used as backcross parent, the segregation ratio of rolled-leaf to normal leaf was consistent with 1:1. Taking these data together, it indicated that the rolled-leaf mutant was co-segregation with T-DNA and controlled by single dominant gene.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Shi yan sheng wu xue bao
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A rice brittle culm mutant bcm581-1 which derived from the Ds transposone transformation population was found, but the mutant was identified that it was not to be induced by Ds transposone insertion through PCR. The examination of the vascular bundle and cortical fibre cells in culm under the light and electron microscope showed that, the number of cortical vascular bundle of mutant was much more, the hollow among the cortical vascular bundle was deeper, and the cell walls of cortical fibre cells were thinner than the normal. The test of culm mechanics intensity showed that the load, elongation, strain, and stress of bcm581-1 were 5-9 times lower than normal. The moisture content and the wide fibre content of culm were test, the former was 3.5% higher, but the latter was 8.12% lower than normal. The analysis of genetic segregation in F2 and F1B1 population indicated that the brittle culm mutant was controlled by one recessive gene.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Shi yan sheng wu xue bao