Publications (23)105.86 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: An increasing proportion of adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings are aged >50 years. Older populations on ART appear to have heightened risk of death, but little is known about factors influencing mortality in this population. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational multisite cohort study including all adult patients (>= 15 years) initiating ART between 2003 and 2013 in programmes supported by Medecins Sans Frontieres across 12 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. Patients were stratified into two age groups, >50 years and 15 to 50 years. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore factors associated with mortality. Results: The study included 41,088 patients: 2591 (6.3%) were aged >50 years and 38,497 (93.7%) were aged 15 to 50 years. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the age group >50 years [367 (14.2%) deaths; mortality rate 7.67 deaths per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, CI: 6.93 to 8.50)] compared to the age group 15 to 50 years [3788 (9.8%) deaths; mortality rate 4.18 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.05 to 4.31)], p<0.0001. Higher CD4 levels at baseline were associated with significantly reduced mortality rates in the 15 to 50 age group but this association was not seen in the >50 age group. WHO Stage 4 conditions were more strongly associated with increased mortality rates in the 15 to 50 age group compared to populations >50 years. WHO Stage 3 conditions were associated with an increased mortality rate in the 15 to 50 age group but not in the >50 age group. Programme region did not affect mortality rates in the >50 age group; however being in an Asian programme was associated with a 36% reduced mortality rate in populations aged 15 to 50 years compared to being in an African programme. There was a higher overall incidence of Stage 3 WHO conditions in people >50 years (12.8/100 person-years) compared to those 15 to 50 years (8.1/100 person-years) (p<0.01). The rate of Stage 4 WHO conditions was similar (5.8/100 versus 6.1/100 respectively, p=0.52). Mortality rates on ART associated with the majority of specific WHO conditions were similar between the 15 to 50 and >50 age groups. Conclusions: Older patients on ART in resource-limited settings have increased mortality rates, but compared to younger populations this appears to be less influenced by baseline CD4 count and WHO clinical stage. HIV treatment programmes in resource-limited settings need to consider risk factors associated with mortality on ART in older populations, which may differ to those related to younger adults.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The cascade of HIV diagnosis, care and treatment (HIV care cascade) is increasingly used to direct and evaluate interventions to increase population antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, a key component of treatment as prevention. The ability to compare cascades over time, sub-population, jurisdiction or country is important. However, differences in data sources and methodology used to construct the HIV care cascade might limit its comparability and ultimately its utility. Our aim was to review systematically the different methods used to estimate and report the HIV care cascade and their comparability. Methods: A search of published and unpublished literature through March 2015 was conducted. Cascades that reported the continuum of care from diagnosis to virological suppression in a demographically definable population were included. Data sources and methods of measurement or estimation were extracted. We defined the most comparable cascade elements as those that directly measured diagnosis or care from a population-based data set. Results and discussions: Thirteen reports were included after screening 1631 records. The undiagnosed HIV-infected population was reported in seven cascades, each of which used different data sets and methods and could not be considered to be comparable. All 13 used mandatory HIV diagnosis notification systems to measure the diagnosed population. Population-based data sets, derived from clinical data or mandatory reporting of CD4 cell counts and viral load tests from all individuals, were used in 6 of 12 cascades reporting linkage, 6 of 13 reporting retention, 3 of 11 reporting ART and 6 of 13 cascades reporting virological suppression. Cascades with access to population-based data sets were able to directly measure cascade elements and are therefore comparable over time, place and sub-population. Other data sources and methods are less comparable. Conclusions: To ensure comparability, countries wishing to accurately measure the cascade should utilize complete population-based data sets from clinical data from elements of a centralized healthcare setting, where available, or mandatory CD4 cell count and viral load test result reporting. Additionally, virological suppression should be presented both as percentage of diagnosed and percentage of estimated total HIV-infected population, until methods to calculate the latter have been standardized.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In vitro, disulfiram activated HIV transcription in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency and in a pilot clinical study increased plasma HIV RNA in individuals with adequate drug exposure. We assessed the effect of disulfiram on HIV transcription in a dose-escalation study. Methods: In this prospective dose-escalation study, to optimise disulfiram exposure we included adults with HIV on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, with plasma HIV RNA of less than 50 copies per mL and a CD4 cell count greater than 350 cells per μL. Participants were allocated sequentially to one of three dosing groups (500 mg, 1000 mg, and 2000 mg) and received disulfiram daily for 3 days. Only the staff who did laboratory assays were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change in cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA in CD4 cells. The primary analysis method was a negative binomial regression, with the number of copies as the outcome variable and the input total RNA or plasma volume as an exposure variable, which is equivalent to modelling copies or input. We used these models to estimate changes from before disulfiram to timepoints during and after disulfiram administration. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01944371. Findings: Of 34 participants screened for eligibility at The Alfred Hospital (Melbourne, VIC, Australia), and San Francisco General Hospital (San Francisco, CA, USA), 30 people were enrolled between Sept 24, 2013, and March 31, 2014. The estimated fold increases in cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA from baseline were 1·7 (95% CI 1·3-2·2; p<0·0001) to the timepoint during disulfiram treatment and 2·1 (1·5-2·9; p<0·0001) to the timepoint after disulfiram in the 500 mg group; 1·9 (1·6-2·4; p<0·0001) and 2·5 (1·9-3·3; p<0·0001) in the 1000 mg group; and 1·6 (1·2-2·1; p=0·0026) and 2·1 (1·5-3·1; p=0·0001) in the 2000 mg group. No deaths occurred, and no serious adverse events were noted. Disulfiram was well tolerated at all doses. Interpretation: Short-term administration of disulfiram resulted in increases in cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA at all doses, consistent with activating HIV latency. Disulfiram may be suited for future studies of combination and prolonged therapy to activate latent HIV. Funding: The Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
Dataset: Supplemental material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. More than 11.7 million people are currently receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and focused efforts are needed to ensure high levels of adherence and to min- imize treatment failure. Recently, international targets have emphasized the importance of long-term virological suppression as a key measure of program performance. Methods. We systematically reviewed publications and conference abstracts published between January 2006 and May 2013 that reported virological outcomes among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected adults receiving first-line ART for up to 5 years in LMICs. Summary estimates of virological suppression after 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of ART were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis. Intention-to-treat (ITT) anal- ysis assumed all participants who were lost to follow-up, died, or stopped ART as having virological failure. Results. Summary estimates of virological suppression remained >80% for up to 60 months of ART for all 184 in- cluded cohorts. ITT analysis yielded 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2–77.2) suppression after 6 months and 61.8% (95% CI, 44.0–79.7) suppression after 48 months on ART. Switches to second-line ART were reported scarcely. Conclusions. Among individuals retained on ART, virological suppression rates during the first 5 years ofARTwere high (>80%) and stable. Suppression rates in ITT analysis declined during 4 years.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. More than 11.7 million people are currently receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and focused efforts are needed to ensure high levels of adherence and to minimize treatment failure. Recently, international targets have emphasized the importance of long-term virological suppression as a key measure of program performance. Methods. We systematically reviewed publications and conference abstracts published between January 2006 and May 2013 that reported virological outcomes among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected adults receiving first-line ART for up to 5 years in LMICs. Summary estimates of virological suppression after 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of ART were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis assumed all participants who were lost to follow-up, died, or stopped ART as having virological failure. Results. Summary estimates of virological suppression remained >80% for up to 60 months of ART for all 184 included cohorts. ITT analysis yielded 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2–77.2) suppression after 6 months and 61.8% (95% CI, 44.0–79.7) suppression after 48 months on ART. Switches to second-line ART were reported scarcely. Conclusions. Among individuals retained on ART, virological suppression rates during the first 5 years of ART were high (>80%) and stable. Suppression rates in ITT analysis declined during 4 years.
Article: 90-90-90: How do we get there?
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365065
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Operational research to identify factors predicting poor clinical outcomes is critical to maximize patient care and prolong first-line regimens for those receiving free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India. We sought to identify social or clinical factors amenable to intervention that predict virological outcomes after 12 months of ART. We examined a retrospective cohort of consecutive adults initiating free nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Individuals remaining in care 12 months post-ART initiation were tested for HIV viral load and surveyed to identify barriers and facilitators to adherence, and to determine clinic travel times and associated costs. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting HIV viral load >200 copies/mL after 12 months of ART. Of 230 adults initiating ART, 10% of patients died, 8% transferred out, 5% were lost to follow-up, and 174/230 (76%) completed 12 months of ART, the questionnaire, and viral load testing. HIV viral load was <200 copies/mL in 140/174 (80%) patients. In multivariate models, being busy with work or caring for others (OR 2.9, p < 0.01), having clinic transport times ≥ 3 hours (OR 3.0, p = 0.02), and alcohol use (OR 4.8, p = 0.03) predicted viral load >200 copies/mL after 12 months of ART. Clinical outcomes following ART are related to programmatic factors such as prolonged travel time and individual factors such as being busy with family or using alcohol. Simple interventions that alter these factors should be evaluated to improve clinical outcomes for populations receiving free ART in similar settings.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish estimates of viral suppression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data on viral suppression after 12 months of ART in LMICs were collected from articles published in 2003 to 2011 and from abstracts of conferences held between 2009 and 2011. Pooled proportions for on-treatment and intention-to-treat populations were used as summary estimates. Random-effects models were used for heterogeneous groups of studies (I (2) > 75%). Overall, 49 studies covering 48 cohorts and 30 016 individuals met the inclusion criteria. With thresholds for suppression between 300 and 500 copies of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) per ml of plasma, 84.3% (95% confidence interval, CI: 80.4-87.9) of the pooled on-treatment population and 70.5% (95% CI: 65.2-75.6) of the intention-to-treat population showed suppression. Use of different viral RNA thresholds changed the proportions showing suppression: to 84% and 76% of the on-treatment population with thresholds set above 300 and at or below 200 RNA copies per ml, respectively, and to 78%, 71% and 63% of the intention-to-treat population at thresholds set at 1000, 300 to 500, and 200 or fewer copies per ml, respectively. The pooled estimates of viral suppression recorded after 12 months of ART in LMICs provide benchmarks that other ART programmes can use to set realistic goals and perform predictive modelling. Evidence from this review suggests that the current international target - i.e. viral suppression in > 70% of the intention-to-treat population, with a threshold of 1000 copies per ml - should be revised upwards.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with <100 % adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU). Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (2003-2011) and HIV conference abstracts (2009-2011). Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as "tracing studies" if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing) for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n = 187,666) met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001), higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p = .006), higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p = .04) and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p = .02). Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes.
Dataset: Material S1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) prevention and assessment strategy, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in partnership with HIVResNet, includes monitoring of HIVDR early warning indicators, surveys to assess acquired and transmitted HIVDR, and development of an accredited HIVDR genotyping laboratory network to support survey implementation in resource-limited settings. As of June 2011, 52 countries had implemented at least 1 element of the strategy, and 27 laboratories had been accredited. As access to antiretrovirals expands under the WHO/Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Treatment 2.0 initiative, it is essential to strengthen HIVDR surveillance efforts in the face of increasing concern about HIVDR emergence and transmission.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infected people have higher mortality than non-infected. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) predicts higher mortality in many chronic illnesses but data in people with HIV is limited. We evaluated 878 HIV infected individuals followed from 1995 to 2005. Cox proportional hazards for all-cause mortality were estimated for SES measures and other factors. Mixed effects analyses examined how SES impacts factors predicting death. The 200 who died were older, had lower CD4 counts, and higher viral loads (VL). Age, transmission category, education, albumin, CD4 counts, VL, hunger, and poverty predicted death in univariate analyses; age, CD4 counts, albumin, VL, and poverty in the multivariable model. Mixed models showed associations between (1) CD4 counts with education and hunger; (2) albumin with education, homelessness, and poverty; and (3) VL with education and hunger. SES contributes to mortality in HIV infected persons directly and indirectly, and should be a target of health policy in this population.
University of VicVic, Catalonia, Spain