J. Singal

University of Richmond, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States

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Publications (36)88.64 Total impact

  • J. Singal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray photon flux -- the so called LogN-LogS relation -- and photon spectral index for blazars, based on the third extragalactic source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, and considering the photon energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV. The dataset consists of the 774 blazars in the so-called "Clean" sample detected with a greater than approximately seven sigma detection threshold and located above $\pm$20 deg Galactic latitude. We use non-parametric methods verified in previous works to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation between the flux and photon index. The intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law with a high flux power-law index of -2.43$\pm$0.08 and a low flux power-law index of -1.87$\pm$0.10. The intrinsic photon index distribution can be represented by a Gaussian with mean of 2.62$\pm$0.05 and width of 0.17$\pm$0.02. We also report the intrinsic distributions for the sub-populations of BL Lac and FSRQ type blazars separately and these differ substantially. We then estimate the contribution of FSRQs and BL Lacs to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation. Under the simplistic assumption that the flux distributions probed in this analysis continue to arbitrary low flux, we calculate that the best fit contribution of FSRQs is 35% and BL Lacs 17% of the total gamma-ray output of the Universe in this energy range.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    J. Singal · A. Kogut · E. Jones · H. Dunlap
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    ABSTRACT: We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    Vahe Petrosian · Jack Singal
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    ABSTRACT: Active galactic nuclei jets are detected via their radio and/or gamma-ray emissions while the accretion disks are detected by their optical and UV radiation. Observations of the radio and optical luminosities show a strong correlation between the two luminosities. However, part of this correlation is due to the redshift or distances of the sources that enter in calculating the luminosities from the observed fluxes and part of it could be due to the differences in the cosmological evolution of luminosities. Thus, the determination of the intrinsic correlations between the luminosities is not straightforward. It is affected by the observational selection effects and other factors that truncate the data, sometimes in a complex manner (e.g. Antonucci (2011) and Pavildou et al. (2010)). In this paper we describe methods that allow us to determine the evolution of the radio and optical luminosities, and determine the true intrinsic correlation between the two luminosities. We find a much weaker correlation than observed and sub-linear relations between the luminosities. This has a significant implication for jet and accretion disk physics.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • Jack Singal · Allan Ko · Vahe Petrosian
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss an analysis of the redshift evolutions and distributions of the gamma-ray luminosity and photon spectral index of flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) type blazars. We utilize data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, with redshfits as determined from optical spectroscopy by Shaw et al. We find that FSRQs have evolved significantly in luminosity but negligibly in photon index, and contribute in toto roughly 20% of the total gamma-ray output of the Universe.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • Vahe Petrosian · Jack Singal · Lukasz Stawarz
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    ABSTRACT: The dichotomy of jet dominated versus accretion disk dominated AGNs or “radio-loud” vs “radio-quiet” quasars can be investigated by a simultaneous determination of the relative shape and evolution of the radio and optical luminosity functions, and the distribution of the radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio to optical luminosities. This can be done from a multivariate data set containing observed fluxes, redshift, spectra, etc. We emphasize that when dealing with a multivariate data set it is imperative to first determine the true correlations, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, among the variables (e.g. Luminosity-luminosity, redshift-luminosity) before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables (e.g. Luminosity functions and density evolution). We use data from several sources including the SDSS (Data Release 7) and FIRST radio catalogs, with well defined optical and radio flux limits, and employ the non-parametric methods developed by Efron and Petrosian, designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions and evolution with redshift from data truncated due to observational biases. We determine the density and the luminosity evolutions in both wavebands, which shows significantly higher radio than optical luminosity evolution. From these we obtain true distribution of the radio loudness parameter which shows no sign of bi-modality and indicates that quasars were more radio loud at earlier epochs.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    J. Singal · Allan Ko · V. Petrosian
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    ABSTRACT: We present the redshift evolutions and distributions of the gamma-ray luminosity and photon spectral index of flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) type blazars, using non-parametric methods to obtain the evolutions and distributions directly from the data. The sample we use for analysis consists of almost all FSRQs observed with a greater than approximately 7 sigma detection threshold in the first year catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, with redshfits as determined from optical spectroscopy by Shaw et al. We find that FSQRs undergo rapid gamma-ray luminosity evolution, but negligible photon index evolution, with redshift. With these evolutions accounted for we determine the density evolution and luminosity function of FSRQs, and calculate their total contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation, resolved and unresolved, which is found to be 16(+10/-4)%, in agreement with previous studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been observed up to redshifts $z \approx 9.5$ can be good probes of the early universe and have the potential of testing cosmological models. The analysis by Dainotti of GRB Swift afterglow lightcurves with known redshifts and definite X-ray plateau shows an anti-correlation between the \underline{rest frame} time when the plateau ends (the plateau end time) and the calculated luminosity at that time (or approximately an anti-correlation between plateau duration and luminosity). We present here an update of this correlation with a larger data sample of 101 GRBs with good lightcurves. Since some of this correlation could result from the redshift dependences of these intrinsic parameters, namely their cosmological evolution we use the Efron-Petrosian method to estimate the luminosity and time evolution and to correct for this effects to determine the intrinsic nature of this correlation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been observed up to redshifts z approx 9.5 can be good probes of the early universe and have the potential of testing cosmological models. The analysis by Dainotti of GRB Swift afterglow lightcurves with known redshifts and definite X-ray plateau shows an anti-correlation between the rest frame time when the plateau ends (the plateau end time) and the calculated luminosity at that time (or approximately an anti-correlation between plateau duration and luminosity). We present here an update of this correlation with a larger data sample of 101 GRBs with good lightcurves. Since some of this correlation could result from the redshift dependences of these intrinsic parameters, namely their cosmological evolution we use the Efron-Petrosian method to reveal the intrinsic nature of this correlation. We find that a substantial part of the correlation is intrinsic and describe how we recover it and how this can be used to constrain physical models of the plateau emission, whose origin is still unknown. The present result could help clarifing the debated issue about the nature of the plateau emission.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Jack Singal · J. Brian Langton · Rafe Schindler
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss a novel use of the Geant4 simulation toolkit to model molecular transport in a vacuum environment, in the molecular flow regime. The Geant4 toolkit was originally developed by the high energy physics community to simulate the interactions of elementary particles within complex detector systems. Here its capabilities are utilized to model molecular vacuum transport in geometries where other techniques are impractical. The techniques are verified with an application representing a simple vacuum geometry that has been studied previously both analytically and by basic Monte Carlo simulation. We discuss the use of an application with a very complicated geometry, that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope camera cryostat, to determine probabilities of transport of contaminant molecules to optical surfaces where control of contamination is crucial.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
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    ABSTRACT: This white paper describes the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), whose goal is the study of dark energy and related topics in fundamental physics with data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). It provides an overview of dark energy science and describes the current and anticipated state of the field. It makes the case for the DESC by laying out a robust analytical framework for dark energy science that has been defined by its members and the comprehensive three-year work plan they have developed for implementing that framework. The analysis working groups cover five key probes of dark energy: weak lensing, large scale structure, galaxy clusters, Type Ia supernovae, and strong lensing. The computing working groups span cosmological simulations, galaxy catalogs, photon simulations and a systematic software and computational framework for LSST dark energy data analysis. The technical working groups make the connection between dark energy science and the LSST system. The working groups have close linkages, especially through the use of the photon simulations to study the impact of instrument design and survey strategy on analysis methodology and cosmological parameter estimation. The white paper describes several high priority tasks identified by each of the 16 working groups. Over the next three years these tasks will help prepare for LSST analysis, make synergistic connections with ongoing cosmological surveys and provide the dark energy community with state of the art analysis tools. Members of the community are invited to join the LSST DESC, according to the membership policies described in the white paper. Applications to sign up for associate membership may be made by submitting the Web form at http://www.slac.stanford.edu/exp/lsst/desc/signup.html with a short statement of the work they wish to pursue that is relevant to the LSST DESC.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The design of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) requires a camera system of unprecedented size and complexity. Achieving the science goals of the LSST project, through design, fabrication, integration, and operation, requires a thorough understanding of the camera performance. Essential to this effort is the camera modeling which defines the effects of a large number of potential mechanical, optical, electronic or sensor variations which can only be captured with sophisticated instrument modeling that incorporates all of the crucial parameters. This paper presents the ongoing development of LSST camera instrument modeling and details the parametric issues and attendant analysis involved with this modeling.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    J. Singal · V. Petrosian · L. Stawarz · A. Lawrence
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the radio and optical luminosity evolutions and the true distribution of the radio loudness parameter R, defined as the ratio of the radio to optical luminosity, for a set of more than 5000 quasars combining SDSS optical and FIRST radio data. We apply the method of Efron and Petrosian to access the intrinsic distribution parameters, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population exhibits strong positive evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with somewhat greater radio evolution than optical. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolutions and local radio and optical luminosity functions. The intrinsic distribution of the radio loudness parameter R is found to be quite different than the observed one, and is smooth with no evidence of a bi-modality in radio loudness. The results we find are in general agreement with the previous analysis of Singal et al. 2011 which used POSS-I optical and FIRST radio data.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Jack Singal · V. Petrosian
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new determination of the radio and optical luminosity evolution with redshift of quasars from data that is flux-limited in both bands. The methods employed are non-parametric and can deal with the detection selection biases to determine the intrinsic distributions directly from the observational data. Using data from several sources including the SDSS Data Release 7 quasar catalog, we show that as a population quasars were more radio loud at earlier epochs, with implications for the evolving physics of AGN and the contribution of quasars as a source class to the cosmic radio background radiation. Quantifying the differential evolutions allows a reconstruction of the intrinsic distribution of radio loudness as a function of redshift, and the reconstructed intrinsic distribution differs markedly from the observed one, in particular favoring the conclusion that quasars form a continuum rather than distinct radio loud and radio quiet sub-populations.
    No preview · Article · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts z > 9.3 are fascinating objects to study due to their still unexplained relativistic outburst mechanisms and a possible use to test cosmological models. Our analysis of all GRB afterglows with known redshifts and definite plateau (100 GRBs) reveals not only that the luminosity L* X (Ta ) - break time T* a correlation, called hereafter LT, (Dainotti et al. 2010a) is confirmed with higher value of the Spearman correlation coefficient for the new updated sample, but also reveals its intrinsic nature throughout the analysis of the Efron & Petrosian (1992) test. The above mentioned test is performed to check if there is redshift evolution in both the luminosity and time. This test shows that the correlation still holds probing that its nature is intrinsic and it is not due to selection biases. The novelty of this approach is that the Efron & Petrosian method has been applied for the first time for a two parameter correlation that involves not only luminosities, but also time. Notwithstanding the intrinsic nature of the correlation, the correction of the observables for the effect of redshift evolution does not lead to a significantly tighter correlation and thus to a better redshift estimator. Therefore, the usage of the L* a correlation is limited, at least with the present data analysis, to constrain physical models of plateau emission. With an enlarged data sample in the future the aim will be to make the luminosity time correlation a useful redshift estimator.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • Vahe Petrosian · J. Singal · M. Ajello
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    ABSTRACT: We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray flux and photon index for the 352 blazars detected above ±20º Galactic latitude by the Fermi-LAT in its first year catalog. Because of the observational selection effects the data is truncated severely. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian to reconstruct the intrinsic distribution of fluxes (the so-called LogN-LogS relation) and the true distribution of spectral index. Our method accounts robustly for the selection biases in the data and determines the correlations among the variables. Given the flux distribution, we estimate the contribution of blazars to the extragalactic gamma-ray background.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011
  • Vahe Petrosian · J. Singal
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    ABSTRACT: We use non-parametric methods developed by Efron and Petrosian for simultaneous determination of the radio and optical luminosity functions, the correlations and cosmological evolutions of quasars,using a flux limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes. From these we determine the distribution and evolution of of the radio loudness parameter R (the ratio of radio to optical luminosity). These methods are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. We find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We also find a strong density evolution. We compare the distribution of the radio loudness obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations, and find a significant difference between the two distributions and find no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011
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    J. Singal · V. Petrosian · M. Ajello
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    ABSTRACT: We present a determination of the distributions of the photon spectral index and gamma-ray flux—the so-called log N-log S relation—for the 352 blazars detected with a greater than approximately 7σ detection threshold and located above ±20° Galactic latitude by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in its first year catalog. Because the flux detection threshold depends on the photon index, the observed raw distributions do not provide the true log N-log S counts or the true distribution of the photon index. We use the non-parametric methods developed by Efron and Petrosian to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation between the two variables. We demonstrate the robustness of our procedures using a simulated data set of blazars and then apply these to the real data and find that for the population as a whole the intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law with high and low indices of –2.37 ± 0.13 and –1.70 ± 0.26, respectively, and the intrinsic photon index distribution can be represented by a Gaussian with mean of 2.41 ± 0.13 and width of 0.25 ± 0.03. We also find the intrinsic distributions for the sub-populations of BL Lac and flat spectrum radio quasar type blazars separately. We then calculate the contribution of Fermi blazars to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation. Under the assumption that the flux distribution of blazars continues to arbitrarily low fluxes, we calculate the best-fit contribution of all blazars to the total extragalactic gamma-ray output to be 60%, with a large uncertainty.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use absolutely calibrated data from the ARCADE 2 flight in 2006 July to model Galactic emission at frequencies 3, 8, and 10 GHz. The spatial structure in the data is consistent with a superposition of free-free and synchrotron emission. Emission with spatial morphology traced by the Haslam 408 MHz survey has spectral index βsynch = –2.5 ± 0.1, with free-free emission contributing 0.10 ± 0.01 of the total Galactic plane emission in the lowest ARCADE 2 band at 3.15 GHz. We estimate the total Galactic emission toward the polar caps using either a simple plane-parallel model with csc |b| dependence or a model of high-latitude radio emission traced by the COBE/FIRAS map of C II emission. Both methods are consistent with a single power law over the frequency range 22 MHz to 10 GHz, with total Galactic emission toward the north polar cap T Gal = 10.12 ± 0.90 K and spectral index β = –2.55 ± 0.03 at reference frequency 0.31 GHz. Emission associated with the plane-parallel structure accounts for only 30% of the observed high-latitude sky temperature, with the residual in either a Galactic halo or an isotropic extragalactic background. The well-calibrated ARCADE 2 maps provide a new test for spinning dust emission, based on the integrated intensity of emission from the Galactic plane instead of cross-correlations with the thermal dust spatial morphology. The Galactic plane intensity measured by ARCADE 2 is fainter than predicted by models without spinning dust and is consistent with spinning dust contributing 0.4 ± 0.1 of the Galactic plane emission at 23 GHz.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the absolute temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no emissive windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual emission from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic emission. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 ± 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 ± 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 ± 2.1 (K) (ν/ν0)–2.599 ± 0.036 from 22 MHz to 10 GHz (ν0 = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 ± 0.001 K.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2σ upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of μ < 6 × 10–4 and |Y ff| < 1 × 10–4. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 ± 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of –2.57 ± 0.05.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

354 Citations
88.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • University of Richmond
      • Department of Physics
      Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
  • 2009-2012
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2005-2007
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, California, United States