Janice Lander

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (19)45.54 Total impact

  • Fay Warnock · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: This review appraises trends in the neonatal pain research literature. We searched the literature produced from 1941 to 2001. Information about the model of pain, measures of pain, design, and sample characteristics is included for each citation. Gaps in knowledge are attributed to specific conceptual and methodological problems, including the lack of basic knowledge about pain behavior, over-reliance on an invasive short-term pain model, pain measurement issues, and lack of knowledge about confounders. Ethological research methods could be used to expand basic knowledge about newborn pain.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
  • Tanis Schisler · Janice Lander · Susan Fowler-Kerry
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety is an important component of children's pain and is routinely assessed in pain research. Two forms of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory have been used frequently by researchers investigating children's pain and state anxiety (form C-1 and Y-1). We were unable to find psychometric information about this tool when used with a population of hospitalized children. Therefore, we undertook to assess reliability and validity, and identify problem items using data from 881 hospitalized children (aged 5-18 years) whom we had tested. Considering results of all analyses together, we concluded that the tools lack validity and reliability, and contain many problem items that are in need of revision.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
  • Fay F Warnock · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of pediatric day surgery tonsillectomy. A total of 129 children, aged 5-16 years, and their parents were recruited from three urban hospitals which provided pediatric day surgery. Children reported pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) in day surgery and then daily at home for 7 days. Parents reported outcomes of surgery, including fluid intake, nausea, vomiting and sleep disturbances. They also recorded analgesic administration. Three main results related to extent and duration of pain, quality of management of pain, and effect of pain on utilization of health services. Tonsillectomy caused considerable pain which lasted more than 7 days. Pain followed a trajectory of intense or moderately intense pain for the first 3 days followed by a gradual decline over the next 4 days. In general, post-tonsillectomy pain was poorly managed by health professionals and parents. An unexpected observation was that children who had a bupivacaine infiltration of the tonsil fossa during surgery had significantly more pain in the evening of surgery than children who did not have an infiltration. The increase in postoperative pain experienced by those who had the infiltration was attributed to quality of pain management. Children with persistent pain (those who did not follow the typical trajectory) were likely to be taken to a medical practitioner. One-third of the sample made unscheduled visits to practitioners with most occurring from Day 4 to Day 7 of the follow-up.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1998 · Pain
  • Marilyn J. Hodgins · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Children's strategies for coping with the pain and distress of venipuncture were examined in this descriptive study. Eighty-five children (aged 5-13 years) were interviewed prior to and following blood collection. Prior to the procedure, children reported pain expectations and coping strategies that might be used. Self-reports of the pain experienced and coping strategies used were obtained immediately after the procedure. Twenty-seven different strategies were identified from the children's responses. These strategies were subsequently grouped into 11 coping categories: Active Involvement in Procedure, Behavior-Regulating Cognitions, Cognitive Reappraisal, Direct Efforts to Maintain Control, Diversionary Thinking, Emotion-Regulating Cognitions, Information Seeking, Reality-Oriented Working Through, Reliance on Health-Care Interventions, Support Seeking, and Avoidance and Catastrophizing. Direct Efforts to Maintain Control was the most frequently used category. Age and gender differences were observed in both number and type of strategies reported by the children. Further research is needed to examine the observed relationship between the type of coping strategies generated and the children's pain experience.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Nursing Research
  • Janice Lander · Susan Fowler-Kerry
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    ABSTRACT: Samenvatting Een 3 × 6 factor ontwerp met een dubbelblinde controle en een placebo-controle werd toegepast voor het onderzoeken van het effect van tens-behandeling tegen pijn die optreedt door venapunctie. De drie behandelgroepen bestonden uit een tens-groep, een placebo-tens-groep en een controlegroep. De proefpersonen werden ingedeeld in zes leeftijdsgroepen per twee jaar (leeftijden: 5–17 jaar). Tijdens de onderzoekperiode werden 896 kinderen, die naar het poliklinisch laboratorium van een algemeen ziekenhuis kwamen, getoetst en namen 514 kinderen deel aan het gehele onderzoek. De gegevens die voorafgaand aan de venapunctie werden verzameld betroffen onder meer de verwachte pijn en de mate van angst. Na de venapunctie werd de pijnintensiteit gemeten met een verticale visueel-analoge schaal (vas) en het pijngevoel werd beoordeeld aan de hand van de gelaatsschaal van McGrath.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · Stimulus

    No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · Survey of Anesthesiology
  • Wendy Duggleby · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess older adults to determine (a) the course of postoperative pain, (b) influences of pain and analgesics on mental status, and (c) relationships among age, mental status and pain. Sixty adults, aged 50-80 yr, who had total hip replacement surgery were included in this study. All subjects had met a preoperative criterion for mental status. Data collection took place over 5 days following surgery. Pain intensity and distress were assessed three times a day for 5 days. Recalled night pain intensity, pain distress, and sleep disturbance from pain were assessed daily in the early morning prior to assessment of mental status. Although no within day or day-to-day pain patterns were observed, the greatest decreases in pain occurred during the first 2 days. Night pain also improved after the third day. One-third of subjects recorded one or more episodes where mental status declined below criterion after surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that pain, not analgesic intake, predicted mental status decline. Age was not related to pain or mental status. In general, pain was poorly managed in this group of subjects. The results suggest an explanation for acute confusion in older patients after surgery and recommend improved pain management.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
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    Janice Lander · Susan Fowler-Kerry
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    ABSTRACT: A 3 x 6 factorial design with a double blind and placebo control was employed to investigate the effect of TENS treatment on pain produced by venipuncture. The three treatment groups consisted of TENS, placebo-TENS and control. Subjects were blocked into six 2-year age groups (ages: 5-17 years). During the period of the study, 896 children attending the outpatient laboratory of a general hospital were screened and 514 children completed the study. The data which were collected before venipuncture included expected pain and state anxiety. Following venipuncture, pain intensity was measured with a vertical visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain affect was assessed with McGrath's faces scale. Significant main effects for treatment and age groups were obtained. Pain intensity and affect were lowest for the TENS group and highest for the control group. The pain scores were greatest for lower age groups and lowest for higher age groups. The results of this study support the use of TENS for children's pain and the need for interventions for children's procedural pain.
    Preview · Article · Mar 1993 · Pain
  • Janice Lander · Susan Fowler-Kerry · Shannon Oberle
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    ABSTRACT: Several aspects of venipuncture technique were evaluated to assess their relationship to reported pain. Subjects were 514 children aged 5-17 who had venipuncture performed by a technician in a hospital outpatient laboratory. A research assistant timed the duration of venipuncture and then obtained visual analogue pain scores from the children following venipuncture. Blood volume obtained from venipuncture was also measured. The technician who performed the procedure, amount of blood drawn, and time required to complete the venipuncture did not contribute to the prediction of children's pain. Age and anxiety, which were treated as covariates, were significant predictors of pain. The distribution of pain experienced by children was positively skewed and about one-third of children were above the mean pain score. From the results of this study, venipuncture pain can be recommended for the study of issues in children's pain. Further, the findings recommend the development and utilization of interventions to reduce children's venipuncture pain.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
  • Janice Lander · Marilyn Hodgins · Susan Fowler-Kerry
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized to explore expected, experienced and recalled pain, and anxiety. Subjects were 138 children (5-17 yr) who were attending an outpatient laboratory for venipuncture. They reported state anxiety and expected visual analogue scale pain prior to having venipuncture. Following venipuncture, they reported sensory and affective pain. Two months afterward, subjects were contacted and asked to recall sensory and affective pain from the venipuncture. Analysis of data determined that children's recall of pain was quite good although better for affective pain than sensory pain. Prediction accuracy for pain was not good. From analysis it was determined that overestimation of pain was related to anxiety but not to greater experienced pain. Four patterns of responses were identified when prediction and recall accuracy were further examined. These patterns were designated as realism, irrelevance, over-reaction and denial. It was suggested that these patterns of response may provide clues about avoidance and coping behavior for children's pain. In general, the results of this study did not support previous research. It was demonstrated that various statistical techniques which have been employed in research on this topic have influenced the interpretation of pain prediction and recall data.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Behaviour Research and Therapy
  • Wendy Duggleby · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was compared with nurse-administered intermittent intramuscular (IM) injections of morphine in older adults during their postoperative recovery. Data analyses indicated that the PCA and IM groups did not differ in pain intensity, pain distress, and satisfaction. The PCA group had significantly less sleep disturbance from pain than the IM group. Neither group was considered to have acceptable pain management.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1992 · Clinical Nursing Research
  • Susan Fowler-Kerry · Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Examined venipuncture pain and anxiety among 90 male and 90 female children and adolescents (5 to 17 years) who were attending a hospital laboratory. The purpose of the study was to assess sex differences in pain. Ss reported state anxiety and expected pain prior to having venipuncture and sensory and affective pain following venipuncture. Analysis of data determined that male and female were alike regarding age, state anxiety, expected pain, and perceived sensory and affective venipuncture pain. From analysis of pain estimation errors, it was found that males were significantly more likely to underestimate pain and females were significantly more likely to overestimate pain. These findings were discussed in terms of implications for coping research and for clinical practice
    No preview · Article · Jan 1992 · Journal of Pediatric Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of venipuncture pain and anxiety was conducted with 180 consecutively referred children and their parents. Analysis indicated that younger children report more venipuncture pain than older children. Anxiety was related to both age and pain. As well, anxiety was lowest among children with no previous venipuncture experience and among those with the greatest experience.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
  • Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: From research reports published over the last 20 years, it appears that moderate to severe uncontrolled pain may be the norm for hospitalized patients despite recent advances in the management of pain. Research on the extent of under-management of pain and the factors associated with it is examined and summarized in this paper. Methodological imperfections of the research are identified. Several explanations for pain under-management have been proposed and these are reported. A clinical decision making model is also reviewed and it is suggested that this model could be applied to pain management problems. Further, it is suggested that this model may be very useful in developing educational interventions to improve health practitioners' clinical skills in pain management.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1990 · Pain
  • Janice Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Research has indicated that approximately three-quarters of patients in acute care hospitals experience moderate to severe pain. It is thought that inadequately controlled pain is the result of poor clinical performance on the part of nurses and physicians. Faculty knowledge about pain mechanisms and pharmacology have been targeted as the source of their poor performance. In addition, practitioners may have fallacious beliefs about narcotics and pain. This study examined some of the misconceptions nurses have about addiction and pain management. A number of fallacies were identified. These included a very strong opiophobia or fallacy about addiction liability of narcotics even under conditions of normal hospital use.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1990 · British journal of addiction
  • J Lander · S Fowler-Kerry · A Hill

    No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières
  • J Lander · S Fowler-Kerry · A Hargreaves
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that women report more pain than men when pain is induced in the laboratory. As sex differences in perceived pain have not been established with clinical or endogenous pain, research was undertaken to compare reported pain of males and females arising from one of three sources. Two groups of adults and one group of children were studied. Analysis indicated no sex differences in reported clinical or endogenous pain for children or adults.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1989 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
  • Susan Fowler-Kerry · Janice Ramsay Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers have come to understand a great deal about pain mechanisms, especially in the past 30 years. This understanding has spawned the development of a number of psychological pain control strategies which have been extensively assessed for use with adults. Less is known about pain control strategies in children. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of 2 cognitive strategies (suggestion and music distraction) in reducing pain in children. Two hundred children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, receiving routine immunization injections were randomly assigned to one of the intervention groups in this factorial study. The groups were designated as: distraction, distraction with suggestion, suggestion and control. Subjects reported their pain using a 4-point pain scale. Distraction was found to significantly decrease pain whereas suggestion did not. Combining suggestion and distraction did not further enhance pain relief compared to use of distraction alone. Age was found to be an important determinant of the success of distraction. Furthermore, age was found to be related to amount of pain reported by children regardless of type of treatment. The results of this study support the use of music distraction in the reduction of injection pain in children.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1987 · Pain