[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laboratory confirmation of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is based on detection of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies. Platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) are a widely available surrogate for platelet-activating antibodies.
Defining the optical density (OD) reactivity profiles of a PF4/heparin EIA in reference subject and patient populations and the correlation of the EIA results (expressed in OD units) with the prevalence of platelet-activating antibodies.
Using quantile regression we determined the 97.5th percentile of PF4/heparin-immunoglobulin G (IgG) EIA reactivities in non-heparin-treated individuals [blood donors (n = 935)] and patients before heparin therapy (n = 1207). In patients with suspected HIT, we compared the correlation of EIA-IgG reactivities (Greifswald laboratory; n = 2821) and the heparin-induced platelet activation assay (HIPA) with the correlation of reactivities of another EIA-IgG (McMaster laboratory; n = 1956) with the serotonin-release assay (SRA).
PF4/heparin-IgG EIA OD reactivities had a lower OD 97.5th percentile in blood donors compared with patient groups before heparin treatment (P < 0.001). The percentage of sera testing positive in the functional assays strongly correlated with PF4/heparin-IgG EIA OD reactivities in both laboratories with very similar results (correlation coefficient > 0.9) when normalized OD ranges (maximum OD divided by 10) were used instead of absolute OD values.
Results of PF4/heparin-IgG EIA should not be reported as only positive or negative as there is no single acceptable cut-off value. Instead, reporting PF4/heparin-IgG EIA OD results in ranges allows for risk-stratified prediction for presence of platelet-activating antibodies. Use of normalized OD ranges permits a standardized approach for inter-laboratory comparisons.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by anti-platelet factor 4/heparin (PF4/H) immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies, which activate platelets. In some patients, anti-PF4/H antibodies are already detectable before cardiac surgery. Whether preoperative presence of antibodies confers adverse prognosis and which particular antibody classes (IgG, IgA, IgM) might be implicated are unknown.
We prospectively screened 591 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for heparin-dependent antibodies by PF4/H immunoassay (separately for IgG, IgA, and IgM) and platelet activation test at preoperative baseline and at days 6 and 10. All patients received heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin postsurgery regardless of antibody status and were followed for postoperative complications, frequency of HIT, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality.
Anti-PF4/H antibodies of any class were detected at preoperative baseline in 128 (21.7%) of 591 patients: IgG n = 44 (7.4%), IgA n = 36 (6.1%), and IgM n = 79 (13.4%); some patients had >1 antibody class. Neither IgG nor IgA was a risk factor for any adverse outcome parameter. However, preoperative presence of IgM antibodies was associated with an increased risk for nonthromboembolic complications (all complications combined: hazard ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.15-2.61) and a longer in-hospital stay (P = .02), but without evidence for increased risk of thrombotic complications or subsequent HIT.
Patients with preoperative anti-PF4/H antibodies of IgG and IgA class are not at increased risk for thrombotic or nonthrombotic adverse events, whereas those with baseline anti-PF4/H IgM had an increased risk of nonthrombotic adverse outcomes but not of subsequent HIT or thrombosis. Because IgM antibodies do not cause HIT, they could represent a surrogate marker for other heparin-independent risk factors.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · American heart journal