[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: tMaqui, Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae, is a berry with one of the highest antioxidantactivities known, and which is exploited from the wild as raw material for nutraceutical products. Thepresent work studies factors that might affect fruit quality in further industrial processing and proposesHPTLC fingerprint methods for routine quality control of metabolites and radical scavengers. Polyphenoland anthocyanin concentrations in fruit were determined in cultivated maqui. Polyphenol concentrationdid not vary significantly during the ripening process, but differed from one growing season to another(2.1 and 2.8 g GAE/100 g dry weight). Anthocyanin concentration increased during maturation from 0.07to 1.13 g Cy-3-glu/100 g dry weight, whereas antioxidant ORAC value remained stable (194–241 �molTE/g DW). Anthocyanins were concentrated only in the fleshy parts of ripe fruits (4.2 g Cy-3-glu/100 gDW), while other polyphenols were found in the seeds (2.1 g GAE/100 g DW). Polyphenol and anthocyanincontents did not decrease during desiccation, cooling or freezing processes. Desiccation approximatelydoubled sugar contents, from 24.5◦Brix in fresh to 50◦Brix in dry fruit. Frozen fruit retained their solublesolids content and anthocyanins, while polyphenols increased.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Industrial Crops and Products
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postharvest sunscald on apples is a physiological disorder that develops on the skin during cold storage. The symptoms develop only on sun-exposed sections of the fruit with or without sun-injury and they appear as superficial dark-brown patches. In order to determine the role of different antioxidant systems in sunscald development, fruit with different sun exposures and sun-injury levels on the tree were harvested and stored at 0 °C for up to 4 months. Ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH), AsA–GSH recycling enzymes activities and transcripts levels, and flavonoids and carotenoid concentrations were monitored monthly. Unexposed fruit (shaded) did not develop sunscald. On sun-exposed sections of the fruit, sunscald incidence increased and appeared closer to harvest, as sunburn severity increased. Total ascorbic acid (AsA) was the highest on fruit with no sunburn symptoms (shaded and sun-exposed), but over 90% of it was in its oxidized form. There were no clear differences for any of the AsA–GSH recycling enzyme activities or transcription levels between sun exposures levels during cold storage.
All quercetin glycosides were higher in fruit with sun-injury compared to those sun-exposed or shaded throughout the storage period. In severe sunburned or shaded fruit, quercetin glycosides represented 73% and 10% of total phenolic content, respectively. Quercetin glycosides contents at harvest were highly correlated with sunscald appearance in storage.
Sunscald symptoms appearance was associated with lower quercetin glycosides concentration on fruit skin. The results indicate that the AsA–GSH cycle does not play a direct role in ‘sunscald’ development on Granny Smith apples. Instead, quercetin glycosides appear to be directly related with sunscald expression postharvest, i.e. the higher their concentration in the tissue, the faster the accumulation of their brown oxidative products.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Postharvest Biology and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are the most abundant phenol compound group in apples, the concentration of which varies with the cultivars and climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature, solar radiation, sunburn damage of the peel and the state of development of fruit on total phenol concentrations, quercetin glycosides and antioxidant activity. Three assays were conducted during the 2008/09 season to evaluate aforementioned variables on these parameters. The following season, the effect of the state of development on the fruit was evaluated. Sunburn increased phenol concentrations from 5.5 to 8.7 mg CAE∗ g FW-1. In relation to the state of development of the fruit, phenol concentrations decreased from 14 to 1.3 mg CAE∗ g FW-1 between 32 DAFB to harvest, respectively. Fruit that was bagged until one month before harvest had significantly higher concentrations of quercetin rutinoside (28 mg∗g-1FW), galactoside (484 mg∗g-1FW) and glucoside (54 mg∗g-1FW) than fruit that remained bagged until harvest (6, 161 and 21 mg∗g-1FW, respectively). Temperature did influence phenol concentrations. This study determined that sunburn, the state of development and bagging the fruit are factors that determine phenol concentration in apples.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apple is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world owing to its year-round presence and its clear contribution to human health. One of the characteristics of the apples influenced by the cultivar, tissue type (peel or pulp), the mineral nutrition and the climatic zone among others, is their antioxidant activity, which is fundamentally due to their phenol compounds and flavonoid content. Chile is the main apple exporter in the southern hemisphere and the second major exporter at the world level. The present study shows the sugar content and mineralogical characteristics of peel, chemical characteristics of the peel and entire fruit, phenols and antioxidant activity in the peel and the pulp of different apple cultivars in Chile. In terms of sugars in the peel, the concentrations of saccharose and fructose are double that of glucose, with the cultivars Galaxy and Fuji having the highest concentrations. With respect to minerals in the peel, potassium and nitrogen notably have the highest concentrations in all of the cultivars. Proximal chemical analysis showed significantly higher values of crude fibre, proteins and ether extract in the peel than in the complete fruit. Finally, phenol concentrations and antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the peel than the entire fruit or only the pulp. Notably, flavonol concentration in cv. Galaxy was 17 times and in green cultivar (Granny Smith) only 6.7 times as high as in other cvs. In percentage terms, clear differences were observed in the composition of phenolic compounds between the peel and pulp.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sun-injury (=sunscald, sunburn) in fruit crops is caused by photodynamic reactions on heated fruit sections exposed to direct sunlight. There is evidence supporting the oxidative nature of this disorder. Nevertheless, there are other physiological events, typically observed in water-stressed plants, such as water relations and osmoregulation that greatly influence external and internal quality of sun-injured fruit and have poorly addressed in the literature. Apple tissues (skin and flesh) with different levels of sun exposure and sun-injury (mild, moderate (Mod), severe (Sev)) were sampled at different growing stages during 2011 and 2012, in Royal Gala and Fuji. Water, solutes, and turgor potentials, relative water content (RWC), carbohydrates concentration (sucrose, sorbitol, glucose, fructose), internal ethylene concentration (IEC), and textural curves were determined. Skin water potential decreased with fruit development and it was significantly more negative in sun-injured tissue compared to unexposed ones. Solutes potential also decreased in skin and flesh with increasing sun damage, but the opposite was found in turgor potential. Fruit RWC at harvest decreased with increasing sunburn severity. Sun exposure induced sorbitol and glucose accumulation in fruit peel and flesh. Tissue with Mod and Sev sunscald showed higher IEC early in the season. Fruit shape and firmness were also altered by sun exposure. The results might indicate that sun-exposed tissue via more negative water potentials activates an abiotic stress-response cascade, perhaps mediated by sugars and ethylene, to cope with the environmental stress caused by high irradiance and heat, whose consequences are peculiar fruit quality traits.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Scientia Horticulturae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buddleja globosa Hope (matico) is a Chilean plant used by native medicine mainly in the treatment of wound healing and as an anti‐inflammatory agent. We have developed a standardized hydroalcoholic extract from matico leaves, in terms of total polyphenolic content. This extract may be useful in accelerating the wound healing process. To this end, we studied the in vivo effects of this extract in a rat model, in terms of general homeostasis. Data showed that oral treatment of adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats with this extract, for up to 12 days, did not alter their hemogram and clinical chemistry parameters. In addition, we showed that topical treatment with the same extract was able to accelerate wound healing in these animals, most likely through shortening the inflammatory stage of the healing process. Altogether, our data demonstrate that local effects of this particular
standardized matico extract are likely to retain their wound healing properties while not altering the general homeostasis of the animals. We discuss these results in terms of the possible pharmacological applications of this extract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apple is one of the most widely consumed fresh fruits in the world. It constitutes a major contribution of phytochemical compounds to the diet, which are associated with a reduced risk to develop degenerative diseases. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conventional and organic management of apple cultivation, the stage of development and sunburn damage on polyphenol concentrations, antioxidant activity and pigments in three apple cultivars. Two experiments were carried out during the 2009/2010 season to study (1) the effect of the type of management and the development stage of the fruit during the season on the concentration and content of total and specific phenolics, antioxidant activity in the whole fruit, and pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins) in the peel of cvs. Gala (Galaxy and Brookfield), Granny Smith and Fuji (Raku Raku and Stripped) and (2) the effect of the type of management and the presence of sunburn at harvest on phenolics concentrations and antioxidant activity in both the whole fruit and peel, as well as pigments in peel, in two cultivars. Phenolics concentrations and antioxidant activity increased in the first weeks of fruit development and then decreased until harvest. The concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoids tended to decrease throughout the season, while anthocyanin concentration increased. In the case of tissue damaged by sunburn, phenolics concentrations and antioxidant activity were higher in damaged fruit, while changes in pigment concentrations varied according to the cultivar. The practices of conventional and organic management did neither influence significantly phenolics and pigments concentrations and antioxidant activity, except at certain stages of fruit development.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El alto contenido de principios activos con poder antioxidante que poseen las hojas de Ugni molinae, arbusto componente del sotobosque nativo, motivaron la búsqueda de material promisorio para su cultivo. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dos procedencias del límite norte de distribución de la especie y el efecto de la exposición y edad de la hoja sobre su concentración de taninos y flavonoides. El ensayo de enraizamiento se realizó en cama caliente con estacas provenientes de 10 plantas madres de cada procedencia. Al cabo de tres meses se logró enraizamiento en más del 70 % de las estacas superando la procedencia Cordillera de Los Andes a la procedencia Cordillera de la Costa. La aplicación de hormona de enraizamiento a la base de las estacas (1,5 mg g-1 AIB), mejoró significativamente el porcentaje de enraizamiento y la calidad de las raíces formadas. Para la cuantificación de principios activos se cosecharon hojas de cinco plantas de sol y cinco plantas de sombra de cada procedencia. Las hojas de sol presentaron mayor concentración de flavonoides que las hojas de sombra en ambas procedencias. Las hojas de sol de la Cordillera de Los Andes contenían más taninos que las hojas de sombra de la misma procedencia. La edad de la hoja no influyó en su concentración de principios activos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) is a medicinal plant native to the central zone of Chile and part of the sclerophyll forest. More than 2000tons of dried leaves exported annually are wild collected. To develop a cultivation system that supports sustainable production of boldo leaves, we have studied growth and harvest of boldo under different light and soil water conditions. The leaf yield per plant as well as the alkaloid and essential oil content were the same for plants grown under shade and for plants exposed to full sun. The only difference between the shaded and the full sun plants was a higher percentage of stem in the harvested product of shade grown plants. This result would permit the intercropping of boldo in forest plantations without affecting the leaf yield and medicinal quality. The excellent adaptation to dry conditions was confirmed, as the different treatments of soil water led to similar leaf yields and plant heights. Plants submitted to water stress produced fewer but longer shoots and contained less essential oil. None of the treatments except water stress affected the medicinal quality requirements of alkaloid or essential oil concentration in the leaves. Wild collected leaves are inexpensive because of low production costs. To be able to compete with wild supplied leaves in the international market, we have evaluated high density plantings as a way to lower costs of a cultivated product by mechanizing harvest. High planting densities led to loweryielding individuals, but leaf yield per area increased. Plant height and the percentage of leaves in the harvested product was the same for densities of 8- and 16 plants m−2. The leaves produced by cultivated boldo generally fulfill the requirements described in the European Pharmacopoeia. We conclude that boldo can be successfully cultivated under the described cultivation conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buddleja globosa is a medicinal shrub native to Chile. Its leaves have been traditionally used for wound and ulcer healing. Different medicinal properties, such as outstanding antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and analgesic activities have been shown. Today, all raw materials for pharmaceutical process are coming from wild collection or recently established crops but not from selected plants. Studies of the genetic or environmental variability of the species would permit the optimization of yield and quality factors through the selection of genetic material or suitable production sites and management techniques.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Industrial Crops and Products
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sun-damage (sunburn) in apples is one of the main causes in Chile for rejection of apples for export cultivated in areas with high temperatures and high levels of sunlight. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of sunburn on the peel (exocarp) and flesh (mesocarp) of different apple cultivars (cvs) in terms of pigment, phenolics content and antioxidant activity. During 2006/07 to 2008/09 seasons two assays were carried out: (1) concentration of total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in the peels of cvs Fuji, Braeburn and Granny Smith, with and without sunburn; and (2) pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins), total phenolics, total antioxidant activity and quercetins (Q) in different areas of the peel and flesh of cv Fuji apples. The antioxidant activity in apple peel on the exposed side at severe (SL2) (1.7±2.4 mg*g FW-1) and moderate levels of damage (SL1) (11.2±0.9 mg*g FW-1) was significantly higher than that found in peel of undamaged or healthy fruit (SL0) exposed to direct sunlight (7.0±0.9 mg*g FW-1). The same relationship for sun-damaged and un-damaged tissue was observed in the concentration of phenolics. The concentration of Q glycosylates in the peel of Fuji apples with SL2 and SL1 damage at both the center of the exposed side and its surroundings was significantly higher than that of the unexposed side. Q galactoside presented the highest concentration in both healthy and damaged fruit. Q glucoside showed the highest increase in sun-damaged fruit, while Q arabinoside decreased in relative terms. A decrease in chlorophylls and anthocyanins, and an increase in carotenoids were also observed in sun-damaged fruit. The fact that sun-damaged apples presented a higher concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, given the favorable effects of these on human health, represents an alternative commercial opportunity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of deaths worldwide. Many of their risk factors have been identified but, for their continued study, research centering on new murine models is of interest. In this study, a high fat diet (HFD) and a normal diet (ND) (25 and 4.4% fat, respectively) were tested over a 40-day period to induce the same metabolic alterations in CF-1 mice in two separate experiments. The parameters measured for these effects corresponded to the weight of ingested food and water, to the weight of the mice and their selected organs (adipose tissue, gastrocnemius, liver and heart), to their biochemical profile (glycemia, blood uric nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, proteins and albumin) and to the percentage of fat in their livers. The biochemical profile of the CF-1 mice fed a diet high in fat but balanced in proteins (16.9%) showed statistically significant increases in glycemia, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. A statistically significant increase in the weight of adipose tissue was also observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the muscular mass of either of the groups of mice, but a high percentage of fat was found in the liver. The results lead to the conclusion that CF-1 mice fed a HFD develop metabolic alterations that correspond to an equivalent metabolic syndrome. This is important in the evaluation of the effects of various interventions, such as food, exercise and molecules, on metabolic alterations in mice induced by the intake of a HFD.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) is a tree with medicinal properties native to Chile. Its bark contains polygodial and drimenol in unknown quantities, with antimicrobial and antinociceptive activity. The purpose of the present study was to quantify polygodial and drimenol concentrations in leaves of five populations of D. winteri and one of Drimys andina from different regions of Chile, by GC analysis of the hexane extract. The concentration of these compounds was also determined in the bark of one of the D. winteri populations. In dried leaves mean concentrations of 0.99% for polygodial and 0.011% for drimenol could be observed, both differing significantly among the studied populations. It is concluded that polygodial and drimenol are present in the leaves and the bark of D. winteri and in D. andina leaves, this being the first report of the presence of these compounds in the latter species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gastroprotective abietane diterpene ferruginol has been shown to present high cytotoxicity. In order to obtain active compounds with less cytotoxicity, 18 semisynthetic ferruginol derivatives and totarol were assessed for their gastroprotective effects in the HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesion model in mice, as well as for cytotoxicity in human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) and human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). At 20 mg kg(-1), the greatest gastroprotective effects were provided by abieta-8,11,13-triene (1), abieta-8,11,13-trien-12-yl-2-chloropropanoate (8), abieta-8,11,13-trien-12-yl propenoate (9), 12-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-abieta-8,11,13-triene (17) and 12-(beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-abieta-8,11,13-triene (18), all of which were as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg kg(-1), reducing gastric lesions by 69, 76, 67, 72 and 61%, respectively. No relation was observed between lipophilicity and the gastroprotective effect. Compounds that showed the greatest cytotoxicity towards AGS cells were ferruginol (2), the corresponding formate (5), acetate (6), propionate (7), 8, 9, 12-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-abieta-8,11,13-triene (16), 18 and totarol (20) (IC50 18-44 microM). Ferruginol and compounds 5-9, 16, 18 and 20 were the most toxic compounds against fibroblasts (IC50 19-56 microM), with a correlation to AGS cells. The derivative 19 was much more active against AGS cells than towards fibroblasts. The best activity/cytotoxicity ratio was found for compound 17, with a lesion index comparable with lansoprazole at 20 mg kg(-1) and cytotoxicity >1000 microM towards MRC-5 and AGS cells, respectively. In conclusion, some derivatives showed a better gastroprotective effect/cytotoxicity ratio than the parent compound ferruginol. A total of 13 new compounds are reported here for the first time.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gastroprotective effect of the sesquiterpene cyperenoic acid and seven semi-synthetic derivatives was assessed in the HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. At doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1), cyperenoic acid showed a dose-dependent gastroprotective effect reducing the lesions by 45 and 75% at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively. Seven derivatives of the sesquiterpene were prepared and their gastroprotective activity compared at 50 mg kg(-1). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in fibroblasts and AGS cells. At 50 mg kg(-1), patchoulan-15-oic acid (compound 8) presented the best gastroprotective effect, reducing the gastric lesions by 86%, with a similar effect to lansoprazole at 20 mg kg(-1). The gastroprotective effect of cyperenol, cyperenoic acid methyl ester and the ethylamide and butylamide from cyperenoic acid were in the same range, reducing the gastric lesions by 72-77%. Cyperenol and cyperenoic acid methyl ester, however, were more cytotoxic with IC50 (concentration that produces a 50% inhibitory effect) values of 44 and 75, 48 and 75 microM against AGS cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The best gastroprotective effect with lower cytotoxicity was found for the compound 8, cyperenoic acid and the p-anisidyl derivative 7.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The triterpene oleanolic acid 1 and its semisynthetic derivatives 2-7 were assessed for gastroprotective and ulcer-healing effect using human epithelial gastric cells (AGS) and human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). The ability of the compounds to protect the AGS cells against the damage induced by sodium taurocholate (NaT), to stimulate the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and prostaglandin E(2) content, to enhance AGS and MRC-5 cell proliferation and to scavenge superoxide anion in vitro was studied. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed towards MRC-5 and AGS cells. In addition, the gastroprotective activity of the compounds was assessed in vivo using the HCl/EtOH-induced ulcer model in mice. All the assayed compounds displayed a significant reduction of AGS cells damage after incubation with NaT. None of the studied compounds was active as a superoxide anion scavenger nor stimulated the GSH content in AGS cell cultures. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 6 were able to increase the prostaglandin content in AGS cell cultures. Concerning the proliferation assays, a significant stimulating effect was observed for compounds 3 and 7 on AGS cells and for 1 and 7 on MRC-5 fibroblasts. Regarding cytotoxicity, derivatives 2, 4, 6 and 7 were less toxic than the parent compound oleanolic acid. Our results strongly support the predictive capacity of the in vitro assessment of gastroprotective activity allowing the reduction of experimental animals.