Howard A Riina

CUNY Graduate Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (104)236.65 Total impact

  • Matthew B Potts · Howard A Riina

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · World Neurosurgery
  • E Nossek · D Zumofen · E Nelson · E Raz · M B Potts · K G Desousa · O Tanweer · M Shapiro · T Becske · Howard A Riina
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    ABSTRACT: The use of minimally porous endoluminal devices (MPEDs) such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has been described for the treatment of brain aneurysms. The benefit of using MPEDs to assist embolization of a direct high-flow carotid cavernous fistula resulting from a ruptured cavernous carotid artery aneurysm is not well documented. We describe our experience with deploying a tailored multidevice PED construct across the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) wall defect in combination with transarterial coil embolization using the "jailed microcatheter" technique. A 59-year-old woman presented with acute left-sided ophthalmoplegia. Diagnostic cerebral angiography demonstrated a ruptured giant cavernous carotid aneurysm with fistulous outflow via the ipsilateral left superior ophthalmic vein and into the pterygoid venous plexi bilaterally. Via the Marksman microcatheter, a total of three PEDs measuring 4.5 mm × 18 mm, 4.5 mm × 20 mm, and 4.75 mm × 16 mm were telescoped within the ICA across the aneurysm neck. Coiling of the aneurysm fundus and cavernous sinus via the "jailed" Rapidtransit microcatheter was subsequently achieved. A 2-year follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated stable obliteration of the aneurysm and the fistula, coincident with complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. Based on our long-term clinical and angiographic results, we advocate that the presented method be a valid treatment option for selected cases.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Acta Neurochirurgica

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · World Neurosurgery
  • D W Zumofen · M Shapiro · T Becske · E Raz · M B Potts · H A Riina · P K Nelson
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment options for nonsaccular posterior cerebral artery aneurysms include a range of surgical and endovascular reconstructive and deconstructive methods. However, no truly satisfactory treatment option is available to date for lesions arising from the P1 and P2 segments. The purpose of the present case series is to investigate both the efficacy and safety of the Pipeline Embolization Device in treating these challenging aneurysms. We present a series of 6 consecutive patients who underwent endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular P1 or P2 segment aneurysms between January 2009 and June 2013. Aneurysm location included the P1 segment in 2 patients and the P2 segment in 4 patients. Mean aneurysm diameter was 23 mm (range, 5-44 mm). Mean length of the arterial segment involved was 10 mm (range, 6-19 mm). Clinical presentation included mass effect in 4 patients and perforator stroke and subacute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1 patient each. Endovascular reconstruction was performed by using 1 Pipeline Embolization Device in 5 patients and 2 overlapping Pipeline Embolization Devices in the remaining patient. Angiographic aneurysm occlusion was immediate in 1 patient, within 6 months in 4 patients, and within 1 year in the remaining patient. Index symptoms resolved in 4 patients and stabilized in the remaining 2. No new permanent neurologic sequelae and no aneurysm recurrence were recorded during the mean follow-up period of 613 days (range, 540-725 days). Endovascular reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular aneurysms arising from the P1 and P2 segments compares favorably with historical treatment options in terms of occlusion rate, margin of safety, and neurologic outcome. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
  • Zumofen DW · Shapiro M · Becske T · Raz E · Potts MB · Riina HA · Nelson PK
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment options for nonsaccular posterior cerebral artery aneurysms include a range of surgical and endovascular reconstructive and deconstructive methods. However, no truly satisfactory treatment option is available to date for lesions arising from the P1 and P2 segments. The purpose of the present case series is to investigate both the efficacy and safety of the Pipeline Embolization Device in treating these challenging aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a series of 6 consecutive patients who underwent endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular P1 or P2 segment aneurysms between January 2009 and June 2013. RESULTS: Aneurysm location included the P1 segment in 2 patients and the P2 segment in 4 patients. Mean aneurysm diameter was 23 mm (range, 5-44 mm). Mean length of the arterial segment involved was 10 mm (range, 6-19 mm). Clinical presentation included mass effect in 4 patients and perforator stroke and subacute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1 patient each. Endovascular reconstruction was performed by using 1 Pipeline Embolization Device in 5 patients and 2 overlapping Pipeline Embolization Devices in the remaining patient. Angiographic aneurysm occlusion was immediate in 1 patient, within 6 months in 4 patients, and within 1 year in the remaining patient. Index symptoms resolved in 4 patients and stabilized in the remaining 2. No new permanent neurologic sequelae and no aneurysm recurrence were recorded during the mean follow-up period of 613 days (range, 540-725 days). CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular aneurysms arising from the P1 and P2 segments compares favorably with historical treatment options in terms of occlusion rate, margin of safety, and neurologic outcome. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device is an effective treatment option for select intracranial aneurysms. However, concerns for the patency of eloquent branch arteries covered by the Pipeline Embolization Device have been raised. We aimed to examine the patency of the anterior choroidal artery and clinical sequelae after ICA aneurysm treatment. We prospectively analyzed all patients among our first 157 patients with ICA aneurysms treated by the Pipeline Embolization Device who required placement of at least 1 device across the ostium of the anterior choroidal artery. The primary outcome measure was angiographic patency of the anterior choroidal artery at last follow-up. Age, sex, type of aneurysm, neurologic examination data, number of Pipeline Embolization Devices used, relationship of the anterior choroidal artery to the aneurysm, and completeness of aneurysm occlusion on follow-up angiograms were also analyzed. Twenty-nine aneurysms requiring placement of at least 1 Pipeline Embolization Device (median = 1, range = 1-3) across the anterior choroidal artery ostium were identified. At angiographic follow-up (mean = 15.1 months; range = 12-39 months), the anterior choroidal artery remained patent, with antegrade flow in 28/29 aneurysms (96.5%), while 24/29 (82.7%) of the target aneurysms were angiographically occluded by 1-year follow-up angiography. Anterior choroidal artery occlusion, with retrograde reconstitution of the vessel, was noted in a single case. A significant correlation between the origin of the anterior choroidal artery from the aneurysm dome and failure of the aneurysms to occlude following treatment was found. After placement of 36 Pipeline Embolization Devices across 29 anterior choroidal arteries (median = 1 device, range = 1-3 devices), 1 of 29 anterior choroidal arteries was found occluded on angiographic follow-up. The vessel occlusion did not result in persistent clinical sequelae. Coverage of the anterior choroidal artery origin with the Pipeline Embolization Device, hence, may be considered reasonably safe when deemed necessary for aneurysm treatment. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms (ACA) are defined as aneurysms arising from the ACA distal to the anterior communicating complex (Acomm). They account for 6% of all intracranial aneurysms. Ruptured distal ACA aneurysms represented 4.4% of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) cohort. Whereas the majority of unruptured distal ACA aneurysms are found incidentally, ruptured distal ACA aneurysms come to clinical attention primarily with classic manifestations of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) including thunderclap headache, and acute loss of consciousness. More specific clinical findings may include acute onset of uni- or bilateral parasagittal cortical syndrome, supplementary motor area syndrome, cingulate syndrome, and a variety of frontal lobe syndromes resulting either from mass effect, or stroke. Typical ACA aneurysms arise either from a given set of arterial branching points (bifurcation type), or along the tortuous ACA segments primarily around the genu of the corpus callosum (sidewall type). Common features relevant for therapy include small size, unfavorable dome to neck ratio, and the presence of an eloquent branch arising from a broad aneurismal base. Atypical aneurysms include saccular and fusiform aneurysms of traumatic, mycotic, and AVM associated etiology.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebrobasilar (VB) circulation aneurysms represent 8 to 15% of cerebral aneurysms. Basilar artery (BA) tip aneurysms are by far the most frequent subgroup, accounting for 51% of cases. High predisposition for rupture is a characteristic feature of posterior circulation aneurysms. The cumulative 5-year risk of rupture is 2.5% for aneurysms smaller than 7 mm, and 15% for aneurysms larger than 7 mm. In cases of rupture, VB circulation aneurysms have a particularly dismal prognosis with a survival rate of only 32% at 48 hours. Saccular VB circulation aneurysms are likely congenital in origin. In contrast, fusiform VB aneurysms embody a complex and heterogeneous variety of segmental arterial wall disease, likely reflecting diversity in etiology and clinical presentation. Both pathoanatomic and clinical evidence suggests a dissecting sub- population that tends to present with hemorrhage or acute ischemia. However, the majority comes to clinical attention either incidentally, or secondary to ischemic stroke or mass effect, spanning a broad spectrum from dolichoectasia to complex, giant, often partially thrombosed aneurysms with circumferential arterial wall involvement as a common defining attribute. In 1961, C.G. Drake, introducing invasive therapy, pioneered direct surgical clipping of VB aneurysms. The introduction of the surgical microscope to neurosurgery by M.G. Yasargil and P. Donaghy in the late 1970s greatly influenced the surgical results. Since the 1990s, endovascular techniques gradually became a compelling alternative. Over the last decade, several large trials led support to the endovascular approach. Nowadays, en- dovascular strategies are well established for an ever-increasing subset of ruptured and unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present flow-based results from the early stage design cycle, based on computational modeling, of a prototype flow-diverter device, known as the 'Sphere', intended to treat bifurcation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature. The device is available in a range of diameters and geometries and is constructed from a single loop of NITINOL(®) wire. The 'Sphere' reduces aneurysm inflow by means of a high-density, patterned, elliptical surface that partially occludes the aneurysm neck. The device is secured in the healthy parent vessel by two armatures in the shape of open loops, resulting in negligible disruption of parent or daughter vessel flow. The device is virtually deployed in six anatomically accurate bifurcation aneurysms: three located at the Basilar tip and three located at the terminus bifurcation of the Internal Carotid artery (at the meeting of the middle cerebral and anterior cerebral arteries). Both steady state and transient flow simulations reveal that the device presents with a range of aneurysm inflow reductions, with mean flow reductions falling in the range of 30.6-71.8% across the different geometries. A significant difference is noted between steady state and transient simulations in one geometry, where a zone of flow recirculation is not captured in the steady state simulation. Across all six aneurysms, the device reduces the WSS magnitude within the aneurysm sac, resulting in a hemodynamic environment closer to that of a healthy vessel. We conclude from extensive CFD analysis that the 'Sphere' device offers very significant levels of flow reduction in a number of anatomically accurate aneurysm sizes and locations, with many advantages compared to current clinical cylindrical flow-diverter designs. Analysis of the device's mechanical properties and deployability will follow in future publications.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Endovascular embolization is typically reserved as an adjuvant therapy in the management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), either for preoperative devascularization or preradiosurgical volume reduction. Curative embolization plays a limited role in AVM treatment but several studies have shown that it is possible, especially with later-generation liquid embolic agents. Given the complexity of AVM anatomy and the recent controversies over the role of any intervention in AVM management, it is critical that the cerebrovascular community better define the indications of each treatment modality to provide quality AVM management. In this review, the authors evaluate the role of curative AVM embolization. Important considerations in the feasibility of curative AVM embolization include whether it can be performed reliably and safely, and whether it is a durable cure. Studies over the past 20 years have begun to define the anatomical factors that are amenable to complete endovascular occlusion, including size, feeding artery anatomy, AVM morphology, and endovascular accessibility. More recent studies have shown that highly selected patients with AVMs can be treated with curative intent, leading to occlusion rates as high as 100% of such prospectively identified lesions with minimal morbidity. Advances in endovascular technology and techniques that support the efficacy and safety of curative embolization are discussed, as is the importance of superselective diagnostic angiography. Finally, the durability of curative embolization is analyzed. Overall, while still unproven, endovascular embolization has the potential to be a safe, effective, and durable curative treatment for select AVMs, broadening the armamentarium with which one can treat this disease.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Neurosurgical FOCUS
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent techniques of endoluminal reconstruction with flow-diverting stents have not been incorporated into treatment algorithms for cavernous carotid aneurysms. This study examines the authors’ institutional experience and a systematic review of the literature for outcomes and complications using the Pipeline Embolization Device in unruptured cavernous carotid aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search for cavernous carotid aneurysms from a prospectively collected data base of aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device at our institution was performed. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory values; intrainterventional data; and data at all follow-up visits were collected. A systematic review of the literature for complication data was performed with inquiries sent when clarification of data was needed. RESULTS: Forty-three cavernous carotid aneurysms were included in the study. Our mean radiographic follow-up was 2.05 years. On last follow-up, 88.4% of the aneurysms treated had complete or near-complete occlusion. Aneurysm complete or near-complete occlusion rates at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months were 81.4%, 89.7%, and 100%, respectively. Of patients with neuro-ophthalmologic deficits on presentation, 84.2% had improvement in their visual symptoms. Overall, we had a 0% mortality rate and a 2.3% major neurologic complication rate. Our systematic review of the literature yielded 227 cavernous carotid aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device with mortality and morbidity rates of 0.4% and 3.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diversion for large unruptured cavernous carotid aneurysms can yield high efficacy with low complications. Further long-term data will be helpful in assessing the durability of the cure; however, we advocate a revisiting of current management paradigms for cavernous carotid aneurysms.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    Omar Tanweer · Taylor A Wilson · Eleni Metaxa · Howard A Riina · Hui Meng
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are degenerative vascular pathologies that manifest as abnormal dilations of the arterial wall. They arise with different morphologies in different types of blood vessels under different hemodynamic conditions. Although treated as different pathologies, we examine common pathways in their hemodynamic pathogenesis in order to elucidate mechanisms of formation. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. Current concepts on pathogenesis and hemodynamics were collected and compared. Results CAs arise as saccular dilations on the cerebral arteries of the circle of Willis under high blood flow, high wall shear stress (WSS), and high wall shear stress gradient (WSSG) conditions. AAAs arise as fusiform dilations on the infrarenal aorta under low blood flow, low, oscillating WSS, and high WSSG conditions. While at opposite ends of the WSS spectrum, they share high WSSG, a critical factor in arterial remodeling. This alone may not be enough to initiate aneurysm formation, but may ignite a cascade of downstream events that leads to aneurysm development. Despite differences in morphology and the structure, CAs and AAAs share many histopathological and biomechanical characteristics. Endothelial cell damage, loss of elastin, and smooth muscle cell loss are universal findings in CAs and AAAs. Increased matrix metalloproteinases and other proteinases, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation also contribute to the pathogenesis of both aneurysms. Conclusion Our review revealed similar pathways in seemingly different pathologies. We also highlight the need for cross-disciplinary studies to aid in finding similarities between pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
  • Matthew B Potts · Howard A Riina
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    ABSTRACT: The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, DOI of original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2014.08.046. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · World Neurosurgery
  • Phillip Cezayirli · Omar Tanweer · Howard A. Riina

    No preview · Article · May 2014 · World Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: : Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are a considerable source of morbidity and mortality for patients who harbor them. Although our understanding of this disease has improved, it remains in evolution. Advances in our ability to treat these malformations and the modes by which we address them have also improved substantially. However, the variety of patient clinical and disease scenarios often leads us into challenging and complex management algorithms as we balance the risks of treatment against the natural history of the disease. The goal of this article is to provide a focused review of the natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, to examine the role of stereotactic radiosurgery, to discuss the role of endovascular therapy as it relates to stereotactic radiosurgery, and to look toward future advances. ARE, adverse radiation effectARUBA, A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous MalformationsAVF, arteriovenous fistulaAVM, arteriovenous malformationDAVF, dural arteriovenous fistulaMMP, matrix metalloproteinaseSRS, stereotactic radiosurgery.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Neurosurgery
  • Omar Tanweer · Taylor A Wilson · Howard A Riina

    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · World Neurosurgery
  • Taylor A Wilson · Omar Tanweer · Paul P Huang · Howard A Riina
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    ABSTRACT: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass and intracranial stenting (ICS) are both revascularization procedures that have emerged as treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). This study describes and compares recent trends in utilization and outcomes of intracranial revascularization procedures in the United States using a population-based cohort. It also investigates the association of ICS and EC-IC bypass with periprocedural morbidity and mortality, unfavorable discharge status, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for patients with ICAD who underwent EC-IC bypass or ICS during the years 2004-2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, perioperative complications, outcomes, and discharge data were collected. There were 627 patients who underwent ICS and 249 patients who underwent EC-IC bypass. Patients who underwent ICS were significantly older (P < 0.001) with more comorbidities (P = 0.027) than those who underwent EC-IC bypass. Patients who underwent EC-IC bypass experienced higher rates of postprocedure stroke (P = 0.014), but those who underwent ICS experienced higher rates of death (P = 0.006). Among asymptomatic patients, the rates of postprocedure stroke (P = 0.341) and death (P = 0.887) were similar between patients who underwent ICS and those who underwent EC-IC bypass. Among symptomatic patients, however, there was a higher rate of postprocedure stroke in patients who underwent EC-IC bypass (P < 0.001) and a higher rate of death among patients who underwent ICS (P = 0.015). The ideal management of patients with ICAD cannot yet be defined. Although much data from randomized and prospective trials on revascularization have been collected, many questions remain unanswered. There still remain cohorts of patients, specifically patients who have failed aggressive medical management, where not enough evidence is available to dictate decision-making. In order to further elucidate the safety and efficacy of these intracranial revascularization procedures, further clinical trials are needed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Surgical Neurology International
  • Daniel Zumofen · Matthew Potts · Omar Tanweer · Howard A. Riina
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Embolization of cerebral and spinal neoplasms is performed for highly vascular tumors including hemangioblastomas, paragangliomas, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas, meningiomas, and selected metastases. While diagnostic angiography may contribute to clarify the tumoral arterial supply, superselective infusion of embolics may effectively obliterate the tumoral vascular bed. At present, determinants of safe and effective presurgical embolization remain under debate. Methods: We investigate and illustrate the endovascular technique, ideal timing, and effectiveness of presurgical embolization of cerebral and spinal tumors performed at the NYU Langone Medical Center. Results: Detailed diagnostic angiography is key to identify the arterial supply to the tumor, to consistently recognize dangerous external carotid-to-internal carotid anastomoses, and to detect the highly variable arterial supply to cranial nerves and neuronal structures. Meticulous technique is essential for performing safe and effective tumor embolization that causes tumor necrosis and facilitates subsequent resection by limiting intraoperative blood loss. Although general anesthesia precludes the use of provocative testing, it does improve patient comfort and enhances the accuracy of angiography by limiting motion artifact. Additionally, electrophysiology may provide an additional degree of safely when general anesthesia is used. Embolization may be best performed within a week prior to the scheduled surgery to allow for effective tumor necrosis while avoiding neovascularization. Embolic agents include a range of liquids, particulates, or coils. Selecting the most advantageous agent is performed in light of the desired degree of tumor penetration, the presence or possibility of a dangerous anastomosis, and the ability to navigate the microcatheter in a safe position for superselective infusion of embolics. Although the most effective embolization is obtained with small particles that penetrate the tumoral bed at the capillary level, these agents are also the most dangerous to use by putting cranial nerves and normal structures such as the retina and myelon at risk. Conclusion: In depth knowledge of anatomy, meticulous technique, and the proper choice of the embolic material determine the safety and effectiveness of preoperative tumor embolization that may contribute to surgical success.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Central European neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Angioplasty and intracranial stenting (ICS) are both endovascular revascularization procedures that have emerged as treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Some believe angioplasty alone is better, while others believe stenting is better. This study examines recent trends in utilization and outcomes of angioplasty alone and ICS in the United States using a population-based cohort. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for patients with ICAD who underwent angioplasty or ICS from 2005 to 2010. There were 1115 patients (angioplasty: n=495, ICS: n=620) with ICAD who underwent endovascular revascularization. Over time, the number of endovascular revascularization procedures increased. The percentage of symptomatic patients (p=0.015) as well as in the number of comorbidities of patients treated (p<0.001) also increased. Combined post-procedure stroke and death rates were 16% and 28.9% for angioplasty and ICS, respectively (p<0.001). A larger percentage of angioplasty patients presented symptomatically compared to those who underwent ICS (p<0.001). Angioplasty appears to be associated with higher rates of peri-procedural complications; however, that may represent patient selection bias. Further studies are needed to identify patients who would benefit from revascularization and to clarify the roles of angioplasty and ICS.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Clinical neurology and neurosurgery

Publication Stats

1k Citations
236.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011-2015
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003-2012
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2010
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (AZ, USA)
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States