Hideki Yamochi

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (320)924.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ability of tin atoms to form stable Sn-M bonds with transition metals was used to prepare transition metal complexes with tin(II) phthalocyanine in neutral, monoanionic, and dianionic states. These complexes were obtained via the interactions of [Sn(IV)Cl2Pc(3-)](•-) or [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) radical anions with {Cp*Mo(CO)2}2, {CpFe(CO)2}2, {CpMo(CO)3}2, Fe3(CO)12, {Cp*RhCl2}2, or Ph5CpRu(CO)2Cl. The neutral coordination complexes of Cp*MoBr(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(2-)]·0.5C6H4Cl2 (1) and CpFe(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(2-)]·2C6H4Cl2 (2) were obtained from [Sn(IV)Cl2Pc(3-)](•-). On the other hand, the coordination of transition metals to [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) yielded anionic coordination complexes preserving the spin on [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-). However, in the case of {cryptand[2,2,2](Na(+))}{CpFe(II)(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(4-)]}(-)·C6H4Cl2 (4), charge transfer from CpFe(I)(CO)2 to [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) took place to form the diamagnetic [Sn(II)Pc(4-)](2-) dianion and {CpFe(II)(CO)2}(+). The complexes {cryptand[2,2,2](Na(+))}{Fe(CO)4[Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-)} (5), {cryptand[2,2,2](Na(+))}{CpMo(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(2-)Sn(II)Pc(3-)(•-)]} (6), and {cryptand[2,2,2](Na(+))}{Cp*RhCl2[Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-)} (7) have magnetic moments of 1.75, 2.41, and 1.75 μB, respectively, owing to the presence of S = 1/2 spins on [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) and CpMo(I)(CO)2 (for 6). In addition, the strong antiferromagnetic coupling of spins with Weiss temperatures of -35.5 -28.6 K was realized between the CpMo(I)(CO)2 and the [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) units in 6 and the π-stacking {Fe(CO)4[Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-)}2 dimers of 5, respectively. The [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) radical anions substituted the chloride anions in Ph5CpRu(CO)2Cl to form the formally neutral compound {Ph5CpRu(II)(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(3-)]} (8) in which the negative charge and spin are preserved on [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-). The strong antiferromagnetic coupling of spins with a magnetic exchange interaction J/kB = -183 K in 8 is explained by the close packing of [Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-) in the π-stacked {Ph5CpRu(II)(CO)2[Sn(II)Pc(3-)](•-)}2 dimers.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Inorganic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Solvent free and solvent containing salts of C60.- with the triphenylmethylphosphonium cations, (Ph3MeP+)(C60.-) (1) and (Ph3MeP+)(C60.-)C6H5CN (2), have been obtained. The salts show different structures and physical properties. Salt 1 comprises of double chains from C60.- with triangular molecular arrangement and short interfullerene center-to-center distances of 10.079(1)-10.103(1) Å. No dimerization is observed in 1 preserving unpaired spins down to 1.9 K. Weiss temperature of Θ = -60 K indicates strong antiferromagnetic coupling of spins. In spite of that, no magnetic ordering is observed down to 1.9 K showing that 1 has strong frustration of spins (f = Θ/TN > 30) due to triangular fullerene lattice. Salt 2 additionally contains solvent C6H5CN and has layered structure with fullerene hexagons. Interfullerene center-to-center distances vary in the fullerene layers in the 9.921(2)-10.066(2) Å range. Fullerenes form diamagnetic singly-bonded (C60-)2 dimers reversibly in pairs with shortest interfullerene center-to-center distance of 9.921(2) Å below 220 K.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · New Journal of Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained a new cation radical salt of bis(ethylenedithio) tetrathiafulvalene (ET) with kappa-type packing motif, kappa-(ET)(2)Ag(CN)[N(CN)(2)], by electrooxidation. In the salt, each ET layer is separated by polymeric {Ag(CN)[N(CN)(2)](-)}(infinity) layers, which are composed of Ag(I) ions trigonally coordinated to form an infinite zigzag chain of -NC-Ag-NC-Ag with pendant dicyanamides. The salt undergoes a superconducting transition with a midpoint critical temperature (T-c) of 6.6K and an onset T-c of 7.2 K, thereby indicating the highest T-c among ET superconductors formed with a polymeric Ag(I) complex anion.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the Physical Society of Japan
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel antiperovskite charge-transfer (CT) solids composed of a tetraselenafulvalene radical cation (TSF˙+), a dianionic molybdenum cluster unit [Mo6X14]2−, and a halogen anion (Y−) (X, Y = Cl, Br) were prepared by electrocrystallization. Their crystal structures and magnetic properties with regard to spin frustration are discussed together with those of isostructural tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) CT solids previously reported. Both TSF and TTF salts have an apex sharing distorted octahedral spin lattice with a rhombohedral R space group. The calculated overlap integrals based on the crystal structures and insulating nature of the TSF salts indicate that they are Mott insulators. Their spin susceptibilities obeyed the Curie–Weiss law and exhibited an antiferromagnetic ordering at lower temperatures for the TSF salts (Néel temperature, TN = 3.0 K for X = Y = Cl and 5.5 K for X = Y = Br) than the TTF salts. The Curie–Weiss temperatures (\textbarΘCW\textbar ∼ 1.6–6.3 K) for the TSF salts are lower than those of the TTF salts. For the TSF salts, spin-flop behavior was detected at 3.2 T for X = Y = Cl and 1.5 T for X = Y = Br at 1.9 K. Due to both the distortion of the octahedral geometry of the spin lattice and the anisotropic molecular orientation, the geometrical spin frustrations in TSF and TTF systems are weakened
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Materials Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: The family of materials (EDO-TTF)2XF6 represents quasi-one-dimensional quarter filled systems exhibiting insulator-to-metal (I-M) phase transition at thermal equilibrium. (EDO-TTF)2PF6 is known to undergo a photoinduced I-M conversion with cooperative response to light excitation. Herewe use femtosecond pump-probe experiments to study the photoresponse of (EDO-TTF)2SbF6 made of a larger counteranion SbF6 compared to the well studied (EDO-TTF)2PF6. In the early stage of the photoinduced process, we reveal a multicomponent coherent oscillating feature. The evolution of this feature with excitation density and temperature points to the local nature of the photoswitching in (EDO-TTF)2SbF6. At longer time scale, we did not detect the features associated with the transformation to the M phase, albeit observed in the PF6 derivative. We propose a Scenario whereby the bigger size of the counteranion in (EDO-TTF)2SbF6 hinders the establishment of this transformation at macroscopic scale.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Physical Review B
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Crystalline anionic coordination complexes (PPN+){CpMo(CO)2(η2-C60)}− (1), (PPN+){CpMo(CO)2- (η2-C70)}−·0.5C6H14 (2) and (PPN+){Cp*Mo(CO)2(η2-C60)}−·C6H5CN·C6H4Cl2 (3) containing cyclopentadienyl (1, 2) and pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (3) molybdenum dicarbonyl η2-coordinated to fullerenes have been obtained by the reaction of the (PPN+)(fullerene•−) salt with the {Cp(*)Mo(CO)3(2)}2 dimers (PPN+ is bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium cation). The {CpMo(CO)2(η2-C60(70))}− anions contain neutral C60 and C70. The optical properties and geometry of the CpMo(CO)2 moieties in 1 and 2 are similar to those in (PPN+)-{CpMo(0)(CO)3}−. The analysis of optical data for 3 shows that η2-coordinated C60 molecules are more negatively charged in 3 than in 1 and 2. Complexes 1–3 show weak EPR signals indicating that the major part of the samples is EPR silent and diamagnetic. Diamagnetism of the anions in 1–3 is explained by the chemical bond formation between the initially paramagnetic CpMoI(CO)2 and (fullerene)•− units. The DFT calculations for 1 and 3 support the diamagnetic singlet ground state for both complexes, in which the singlet–triplet energy gaps calculated at the M11/cc-pVTZ-PP/cc-pVDZ level of theory are about 1.27 and 0.95 eV, respectively. According to the calculations, C60 molecules are more negatively charged in 3 than in 1 and that can be explained by stronger back donation from the molybdenum moieties to fullerenes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Coordination of two bridging cobalt atoms to fullerenes by the η(2) type in {Co(dppe)}2{μ2-η(2):η(2)-η(2):η(2)-[(C60)2]}·3C6H4Cl2 [1; dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] triggers fullerene dimerization with the formation of two intercage C-C bonds of 1.571(4) Å length. Coordination-induced fullerene dimerization opens a path to the design of fullerene structures bonded by both covalent C-C bonds and η(2)-coordination-bridged metal atoms.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Inorganic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic approaches to iridium complexes of metal phthalocyanines (Pc) and fullerene anions have been developed to give three types of complexes. The compound{(Cp*IrIIII2)SnIIPc(2−)}·2C6H4Cl2 (1) (Cp* is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) is the first crystalline complex of a metal phthalocyanine in which an iridium(III) atom is bonded to the central tin(II) atom of Pc via a Sn-Ir bond length of 2.58 Å. In (TBA+)(C60•-){(Cp*IrIIII2)SnIIPc(2−)}·0.5C6H14 (2), the {(Cp*IrIIII2)SnIIPc(2−)} units cocrystallize with (TBA+)(C60•-) to form double chains of C60•- anions and closely packed chains of {(Cp*IrIIII2)SnIIPc(2−)}. Interactions between the fullerene and phthalocyanine subsystems are realized through π-π stacking of the Cp* groups of {(Cp*IrIIII2)SnIIPc(2−)} and the C60•- pentagons. Furthermore, the spins of the C60•- are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled in the chains with an exchange interaction J/kB = −31 K. Anionic (TBA+){(Cp*IrIICl)(η2-C60-)}·1.34C6H4Cl2 (3) and (TBA+){(Cp*IrIII)(η2-C60-)}·1.3C6H4Cl2·0.2C6H14 (4) are the first transition metal complexes containing η2-bonded C60- anions, with the Cp*IrIICl and Cp*IrIII units η2-coordinated to the 6-6 bonds of C60-. Magnetic measurements indicate diamagnetism of the {(Cp*IrIICl)(η2-C60-)} and {(Cp*IrIII)(η2-C60-)} anions due to the formation of a coordination bond between two initially paramagnetic Cp*IrIICl or Cp*IrIII groups and C60•- units. DFT calculations support a diamagnetic singlet ground state of 4, in which the singlet-triplet energy gap is greater than 0.8 eV. DFT calculations also indicate that the C60 molecules are negatively charged.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Organometallics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Radical anion salts of metal-containing and metal-free phthalocyanines [MPc(3−)].−, where M=Cu(II), Ni(II), H2, Sn(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV)O, and V(IV)O (1–10) with tetraalkylammonium cations have been obtained as single crystals by phthalocyanine reduction with sodium fluorenone ketyl. Their formation is accompanied by the Pc ligand reduction and affects the molecular structure of metal phthalocyanine radical anions as well as their optical and magnetic properties. Radical anions are characterized by the alternation of short and long CN(imine) bonds in the Pc ligand owing to the disruption of its aromaticity. Salts 1–10 show new bands at 833–1041 nm in the NIR range, whereas the Q- and Soret bands are blue-shifted by 0.13–0.25 eV (38-92 nm) and 0.04–0.07 eV (4–13 nm), respectively. Radical anions with Ni(II), Sn(II), Pb(II), and Ti(IV)O have S=1/2 spin state, whereas [Cu(II)Pc(3−)].− and [V(IV)OPc(3−)].− containing paramagnetic Cu(II) and V(IV)O have two S=1/2 spins per radical anion. Central metal atoms strongly affect EPR spectra of phthalocyanine radical anions. Instead of narrow EPR signals characteristic of metal-free phthalocyanine radical anions [H2Pc(3−)].− (linewidth of 0.08–0.24 mT), broad EPR signals are manifested (linewidth of 2–70 mT) with g-factors and linewidths that are strongly temperature-dependent. Salt 11 containing the [Na(I)Pc(2−)]− anions as well as previously studied [Fe(I)Pc(2−)]− and [Co(I)Pc(2−)]− anions that are formed without reduction of the Pc ligand do not show changes in molecular structure or optical and magnetic properties characteristic of [MPc(3−)].− in 1–10.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Chemistry - A European Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of a spin-disordered quantum state was predicted theoretically by Wannier in 1950 and Anderson in 1973. Various target materials had been considered before the discovery in 2003 of the first quantum spin liquid (QSL) system: a Mott insulator κ-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3, where ET is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. The family of dimer-type ET conductors κ-(ET)2X (where X = an anion) exhibits various conduction profiles ranging from insulators to metals to superconductors depending on the counter anion. In κ-(ET)2X, the anion molecules form characteristic patterns of anion openings, on each of which an ET dimer corresponding to a single spin site is positioned, namely a key-keyhole relation. The topological consideration of the crystal structure affords the information on both a spin geometry (t’/t) and electron correlation (U/W), where t and t’ are interdimer transfer interactions with an isosceles triangular geometry, and U and W are the on-site Coulomb repulsion energy and bandwidth, respectively. The QSL system κ-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3 is characterized by a spin lattice containing nearly equilateral triangles (t’/t = 1.09) with strong electron correlations (U/W = 0.93) at room temperature. The temperature dependences of t’/t and U/W are bases to understand the transport and magnetic behaviors of κ-(ET)2X. κ-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3 has a superconducting state next to the QSL state under pressure without passing through an antiferromagnetic state. Here, the design of QSL systems next to a superconducting state is discussed based on the crystal and the electronic structures and physical properties of κ-(ET)2X using the key-keyhole relation and temperature variant band parameters t, t’, U, and W.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Radical anion salt (PPN+){Sn(IV)Pc(3-)Cl2}·- (1) was obtained by the reduction of tin(IV) phthalocyanine dichloride {Sn(IV)Pc(2-)Cl2} with (PPN+)(C60·-) (PPN+ is bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)- ammonium cation). It was shown that the reduction is centered mainly on the Pc ligand providing the appearance of a new band in the spectrum of 1 in the NIR range at 1006 nm and blue-shift of Soret and Q-bands of Sn(IV)Pc(2-)Cl2. The alternation of short and long C–N(imine) bonds for two oppositely located isoindole units in 1 indicates possible disruption of aromaticity of the Pc ligand under reduction. Salt 1 has effective magnetic moment of 1.69 mB at 300 K corresponding to the contribution of one noninteracting S = 1/2 spin per formula unit and manifests antiferromagnetic coupling of spins with Weiss temperature of -7.3 K in the 400–30 K range. The salt shows a broad EPR signal with g = 1.9957 and linewidth of 19.3 mT at room temperature. The signal splits into two components below 120 K. Strong broadening of the EPR signal and shift of g-factors to smaller values in comparison with the EPR signal from radical anions of metal-free phthalocyanine {H2Pc(3-)}·- were attributed to the contribution of the {Sn(III)Pc(2-)Cl2}- admixture with paramagnetic Sn(III). There are p–p stacking one-dimensional chains composed of {Sn(IV)Pc(3-)Cl2}·- in 1 along the a axis with weak overlapping between phenylene groups of phthalocyanine radical anions. The calculated HOMO–HOMO overlap integral is 0.0033 and the SOMO–SOMO overlap integral is only 0.0004. Metallic conductivity is not realized in 1 most probably due to weak SOMO–SOMO overlapping.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines
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    ABSTRACT: Coordination nickel-bridged fullerene polymer [{Ni(Me3P)2}(μ-η(2),η(2)-C60)]∞ (1) has been obtained via reduction of a Ni(II)(Me3P)2Cl2 and C60 mixture. Each nickel atom is linked in the polymer with two fullerene units by η(2)-type Ni-C(C60) bonds of 2.087(8)-2.149(8) Å length. Nickel atoms are coordinated to the 6-6 bonds of C60 as well as two trimethylphosphine ligands to form a four-coordinated environment around the metal centers. Fullerene cages approach very close to each other in the polymer with a 9.693(3) Å interfullerene center-to-center distance, and two short interfullerene C-C contacts of 2.923(7) Å length are formed. Polymer chains are densely packed in a crystal with interfullerene center-to-center distances between fullerenes from neighboring polymer chains of 9.933(3) Å and multiple interfullerene C···C contacts. As a result, three-dimensional dense fullerene packing is formed in 1. According to optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, fullerenes are neutral in 1 and nickel atoms have a zerovalent state with a diamagnetic d(10) electron configuration. The density functional theory calculations prove the diamagnetic state of the polymer with a singlet-triplet gap wider than 1.37 eV.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Inorganic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: A compound containing fullerene dimers bonded through two nickel atoms, {Ni(Ph3P)}(2)(mu(2)-eta(2), eta(2)-C-60)(2) .2C(6)H(4)Cl(2) (1), has been obtained as single crystals. The fullerenes are neutral in 1, showing a zero-valent state of Ni. The nickel atoms are bonded in an eta(2) coordination mode with Ni-C distances of 2.001(3)-2.037(3) angstrom and a close approach of the fullerenes with a 9.716 angstrom center to center distance. The DFT calculations showed a diamagnetic signlet ground state for this dimer
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    Ken Onda · Hideki Yamochi · Shin-Ya Koshihara
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    ABSTRACT: Phenomena that occur in nonequilibrium states created by photoexcitation differ qualitatively from those that occur at thermal equilibrium, and various physical theories developed for thermal equilibrium states can hardly be applied to such phenomena. Recently it has been realized that understanding phenomena in nonequilibrium states in solids is important for photoenergy usage and ultrafast computing. Consequently, much effort has been devoted to revealing such phenomena by developing various ultrafast observation techniques and theories applicable to nonequilibrium states. This Account describes our recent studies of diverse photoinduced dynamics in a strongly correlated organic solid using various ultrafast techniques.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Accounts of Chemical Research
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    ABSTRACT: The compound containing fullerene dimers bonded through two nickel atoms {Ni(Ph3P)}2(gapta2-eta2,eta2-C60)2∙2C6H4Cl2 (1) has been obtained as single crystals. Fullerenes are neutral in 1 showing zero-valent state of Ni. Nickel atoms are bonded with the gapta2 coordination with Ni-C distances of 2.001(3)-2.037(3) Å and close approach of fullerenes with 9.716 Å center-to-center distance. The DFT calculations showed diamagnetic singlet ground state for this dimer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: TTF derivatives decorated with four aryls through the sulfur bridges are employed to form the donor-acceptor type inclusion complexes with fullerenes. The key factor for the formation of inclusion complexes is the introduction of structural flexibility in TTF molecules along with the molecular size matching with fullerene. Crystallographic study indicates that the structures of the resulting complexes are stabilized by multidimensional intermolecular interaction network consisting of TTF cores, peripheral aryls, and fullerenes, which in turn gives rise to the electronic communication between the donor and acceptor as proved by the solid state absorption spectra. Moreover, the fullerene molecules form the two-dimensional sheet structure in the complexes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Two salts containing fullerene C60 and indium(III) bromide phthalocyanine (Pc) radical anions have been obtained as single crystals: (TBA+)3(C60˙−){InIII(Br)(Pc)˙−}(Br−)·C6H4Cl2 (1) and (TEA+)2(C60˙−){InIII(Br)(Pc)˙−}·C6H4Cl2·C6H14 (2) where TBA+ and TEA+ are tetrabutyl- and tetraethylammonium cations, respectively. The presence of both radical anions is supported by spectra of 1 and 2 in the NIR and IR-ranges. The salts contain zigzag C60˙− chains with 10.136 and 10.383 Å center-to-center (ctc) distances in 1 and a uniform ctc distance of 10.186 Å in 2. In 1, the C60˙− radical anions are dimerized in the 180–140 K range to form singly bonded (C60−)2 dimers, whereas they remain monomeric in 2. Effective packing of planar In(Br)(Pc)˙− and spherical C60˙− is attained by introducing fullerene spheres between the phenylene substituents of Pc allowing the formation of multiple van der Waals contacts between them. The effective magnetic moment of 1 at 300 K is 2.35μB, indicating a contribution of both C60˙− and In(Br)(Pc)˙− species having S = 1/2 spin state. There is strong antiferromagnetic coupling of spins between fullerenes in the chains and fullerenes and phthalocyanines in the monomeric phase of 1 with the Weiss temperature of −120 K in the 300–180 K range. The formation of diamagnetic (C60−)2 dimers switches off magnetic coupling and magnetically isolates In(Br)(Pc)˙− (Weiss temperature is only −1 K in the 140–10 K range). Magnetic behavior of 2 is described by the Curie–Weiss law with weak ferromagnetic coupling of spins with Θ = +7.6 K in the 50–300 K range. Both salts manifest single Lorentzian EPR lines at room temperature with g = 1.9911 and a linewidth (ΔH) of 25.4 mT (1) and g = 1.9956 and ΔH = 7.5 mT (2) which can be attributed to both C60˙− and In(Br)(Pc)˙− species having strong exchange interaction. An asymmetric signal with the main component at g = 1.989–1.965 in the dimeric phase of 1 was attributed to the In(Br)(Pc)˙− radical anions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Fullerene salt {(Ph3P)3Au(+)}2(C60(•-))2(C60)·C6H4Cl2 (1) containing (Ph3P)3Au(+) cations with the C3v symmetry has been obtained as single crystals. Hexagonal corrugated fullerene layers formed in 1 alternate with the layers consisting of (Ph3P)3Au(+) and C6H4Cl2 along the c axis. According to IR spectra and peculiarities of the crystal structure, the charge on fullerenes in the layers is evaluated to be -1 for two and close to zero for one C60. These fullerenes have different cationic surroundings, and positively charged gold atoms approach closer to C60(•-). Charged and neutral fullerenes are closely packed within hexagonal layers with an interfullerene center-to-center distance of 10.02 Å and multiple short van der Waals C···C contacts. The distances between C60(•-) are essentially longer with an interfullerene center-to-center distance of 10.37 Å due to corrugation of the layers, and no van der Waals contacts are formed in this case. As a result, each C60(•-) has only three negatively charged fullerene neighbors with rather long interfullerene distances providing only weak antiferromagnetic interaction of spins in the fullerene layers with a Weiss temperature of -5 K.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Inorganic Chemistry

Publication Stats

5k Citations
924.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991-2015
    • Kyoto University
      • Division of Chemistry
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 1982-2010
    • Osaka University
      • • Department of Macromolecular Science
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1986-1995
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Solid State Physics
      Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kobe University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1990
    • Okayama University
      • Faculty of Science
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 1985-1988
    • Nagoya University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan