[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma's (MM) incidence is rising faster than that of any other cancer in the US and the overall survival at 5 years is less than 10%. B cell associated protein 31 (BAP31) is overexpressed in most MMs and might be a promising target for immunotherapy of this disease.
Firstly, we investigated the expression profiles of human BAP31 (hBAP31) and mouse BAP31 (mBAP31) in human and mouse normal tissues, respectively. The expression level of hBAP31 in human MMs and mBAP31 in B16 melanoma cells was also analyzed. Then we constructed novel mBAP31 DNA vaccines and tested there ability to stimulate mBAP31-specific immune responses and antitumor immunity in B16 melanoma-bearing mice.
For the first time, we found that protein expression of hBAP31 were dramatically upregulated in human MMs when compared with human normal tissues. Predominant protein expression of mBAP31 was found in mouse B16 melanoma cells but not in mouse important organs. When mice were immunized with mBAP31 DNA vaccines, strong cellular response to mBAP31 was observed in the vaccinated mice. CTLs isolated from immunized mice could effectively kill mBAP31-positive target mouse B16 melanoma tumor cells in vitro and vaccination with mBAP31 DNA vaccines had potent anti-tumor activity in therapeutic model using B16 melanoma cells.
These are the first data supporting a vaccine targeting BAP31 that is capable of inducing effective immunity against BAP31-expressing MMs and will be applicable to human MMs and hBAP31 DNA vaccine warrants investigation in human clinical trials.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hu County is a serious hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) epidemic area, with notable fluctuation of the HFRS epidemic in recent years. This study aimed to explore the optimal model for HFRS epidemic prediction in Hu.
Three models were constructed and compared, including a generalized linear model (GLM), a generalized additive model (GAM), and a principal components regression model (PCRM). The fitting and predictive adjusted R2 of each model were calculated. Ljung-Box Q tests for fitted and predicted residuals of each model were conducted. The study period was stratified into before (1971-1993) and after (1994-2012) vaccine implementation epochs to avoid the confounding factor of vaccination.
The autocorrelation of fitted and predicted residuals of the GAM in the two epochs were not significant (Ljung-Box Q test, P>.05). The adjusted R2 for the predictive abilities of the GLM, GAM, and PCRM were 0.752, 0.799, and 0.665 in the early epoch, and 0.669, 0.756, and 0.574 in the recent epoch. The adjusted R2 values of the three models were lower in the early epoch than in the recent epoch.
GAM is superior to GLM and PCRM for monthly HFRS case number prediction in Hu County. A shift in model reliability coincident with vaccination implementation demonstrates the importance of vaccination in HFRS control and prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Hu County ranked third of all counties in China in 2010. Although this county has provided a HFRS vaccination program freely since 1994, the impact of HFRS remains quite substantial. In order to continue the vaccination program effectively and control HFRS, a detailed understanding of the effect of the vaccination program should be undertaken. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was employed to examine the temporal trends of HFRS incidences, mortality rate and vaccination compliance. Temporal cluster analysis was performed to detect time periods of high HFRS risk. Cross correlation analysis was conducted to detect the correlation between HFRS incidence and vaccination compliance. Wavelet analysis was employed to detect the shift of the periodicity of HFRS. Between 1971 and 2011, the HFRS incidence and mortality rate ranged from 9.53/100,000 to 300.57/100,000 and 0 to 24.91/100,000, respectively, with a fluctuating but distinctly declining trend (incidence: Z=-34.38, P<0.01; mortality rate: Z=-23.44, P<0.01). The vaccination compliance ranged from 4.55% to 83.67%, with a distinctly increasing trend (Z=1621.70, P<0.01). The most likely temporal cluster of the HFRS epidemic was between 1983 and 1988 (RR=3.44, P<0.01) or 1979-1988 (RR=3.18, P<0.01) with different maximum temporal cluster size. There was a negative correlation between HFRS incidence and vaccination compliance when the lagged year was 1 and 2 (cross correlation coefficient=-0.51 and -0.55). The periodicity of HFRS epidemic was prolonged from about 5 years during 1976-1988 to 15 years after 1988, especially after the start of HFRS vaccination in 1994. In conclusion, the increase in vaccination compliance may play an important role in HFRS control and prevention in Hu County, China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The special working environment of helicopter pilots, such as high altitudes and high temperatures, may give them a special health status. There has been little research on helicopter pilot health issues in China. The aim of this study was to gain a clear understanding of the disease spectrum in helicopter pilots and to provide a scientific basis for disease control and prevention in this population.
The annual aeromedical examination records and inpatient records of 516 helicopter pilots were collected by random sampling. The prevalence and sick leave time associated with each disease were computed. Spearman rank correlation analysis was employed to explore the relationship between prevalence and sick leave duration.
The organ systems with the highest prevalence of disease were the digestive system (32.36%), cardiovascular system (18.60%), and musculoskeletal system (12.40%), while those with the longest associated sick leave periods were the digestive system (574 d), musculoskeletal system (532 d), and nervous system (323 d). There were no significant correlations between prevalence and sick leave times of diseases in any system (r = 0.64). The diseases with the highest prevalence were fatty liver (9.88%), hyperlipidemia (6.98%), and polypoid lesion of the gallbladder (3.49%), while those with the longest sick leave times were ground syncope (157 d), chronic gastritis (145 d), and lumbar disc herniation (91 d).
Pilot health and performance were most affected by diseases of the digestive and musculoskeletal systems. Although not highly common, aero-related diseases (i.e., ground syncope) were also noteworthy for their long sick-leave times.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hainan Province is the main area threatened by malaria in China. However, the epidemiologic patterns of malaria in this region are not yet defined. In this study, we determined the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Hainan during 1995-2008 by using wavelet and cluster quantitative approaches. The results indicated a decreasing secular trend and obvious seasonal fluctuation of malaria in Hainan. In addition, the characteristic annual peak of malaria could not be detected after 2005. The southcentral region of Hainan has remained an area of relatively high malaria risk, but the incidence of P. falciparum malaria increased significantly in the southeast and southwest regions during 2002-2008. These findings identify epidemic patterns of malaria in Hainan, and are applicable for designing an effective and dynamic public health campaign to combat malaria in this region.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances ever known. The early detection of these toxins could bear more time for appropriate medical intervention. The standard method for detecting BoNTs is the mouse bioassay, which is time consuming (up to 4 days) and requires a large number of laboratory animals. The immunologic detection methods could detect the toxins within a day, but most of these methods are less sensitive compared with the mouse bioassay due to the lack of high-affinity antibodies. Recently, the recombinant H(C) subunit of botulinum neurotoxin type A (rAH(C)) was expressed as an effective vaccine against botulism, indicating that the rAH(C) could be an effective immunogen that raises the monoclonal antibody (mAb) for detecting BoNT/A. After immunized BALB/c mice with rAH(C), 56 mAbs were generated. Two of these mAbs were selected to establish a highly sensitive sandwich chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), in which FMMU-BTA-49 and FMMU-BTA-22 were used as capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) based on molecular weight of rAH(C) and BoNT/A reached 0.45 pg mL(-1). This CLEIA can be used in the detection of BoNT/A in matrices such as milk and beef extract. This method has 20-40 fold lower LOD than that of the mouse bioassay and takes only 3 h to complete the detection, indicating that it can be used as a valuable method to detect and quantify BoNT/A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of strategies have been used to improve the efficacy of the DNA vaccine for the treatment of tumors. These strategies, ranging from activating CD4+ T cell, manipulating antigen presentation and/or processing to anti-angiogenesis, focus on one certain aspect in the functioning of the vaccine. Therefore, their combination is necessary for rational DNA vaccines design by synergizing different regimens and overcoming the limitations of each strategy.
A DNA fragment (HSV) encoding the C terminal 37 amino acids of human chorionic gonadotropin β chain (hCGβ), 5 different HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes from human survivin and the third and fourth extracellular domains of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was inserted into the sequence between the luminal and transmembrane domain of human lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 cDNA for the construction of a novel DNA vaccine.
This novel vaccine, named p-L/HSV, has a potent antitumor effect on the LL/2 lung carcinoma model in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. The immunologic mechanism involved in the antitumor effect referred to the activation of both cellular and humoral immune response. In addition, the tumor vasculature was abrogated as observed by immunohistochemistry in p-L/HSV immunized mice. Furthermore, the immunized mice received an additional boost with p-L/HSV 6 months later and showed a strong immune recall response.
The present study indicates that the strategies of combining antitumor with antiangiogenesis and targeting the tumor antigen to the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway cooperate well. Such a study may shed new light on designing vaccine for cancer in the future.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of Gene Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract-Non-binary low-density parity-check (NB-LDPC) codes can achieve better error-correcting performance than binary LDPC codes when the code length is moderate. In this paper, we give the different initial step for different modulation and present a hardware implementation of the extended min-sum (EMS) decoding algorithm for non-binary LDPC codes. Moreover, an FPGA simulation over GF(16) is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the presented techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly specific and sensitive microplate chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was established and validated for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognizes different epitopes of SEB was selected from 20 SEB-specific mAbs, and the experimental conditions were examined and optimized for the development of the CLEIA. This method exhibited high performance with a dynamic range of 0.01-5 ng/mL, and the measured limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng/mL. Intra- and interassay coefficient variations were all lower than 13% at three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, and 2 ng/mL). For specificity studies, when this method was applied to test staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C1, and D, no cross-reactivity was observed. It has been successfully applied to the analysis of SEB in a variety of environmental, biological and humoral matrices such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, and human urine and serum. The aim of this article is to show that the highly sensitive, specific, and simple microplate CLEIA, based on a pair of highly specific monoclonal antibodies, has potential applications for quantifying SEB in public health and military reconnaissance.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Analytical Chemistry