Mohammad Reza Haghshenas

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Shari-i-Tajan, Māzandarān, Iran

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Publications (43)39.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease. In Iran human cases of the disease were reported in some regions including Nur County (Mazandaran Province, northern Iran). Therefore, this study investigated high risk behavior of people involved in meat industry and animal husbandry in different districts of Nur County. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 314 livestock and meat industry workers including shepherds and animal keepers, butchers, slaughters, chefs, veterinary physicians and veterinary staff to monitor their high risk behaviors regarding CCHF from July to December 2012 in Nur County. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square and binary regression test at 0.05 significance level. Results: Two hundred eighty nine individuals were interviewed and filled out the questionnaire with an average age of 43.7 ± 14.4 of whom 84.4% were male. Odds ratio (OR) of high risk practices including slaughtering and contact with fresh flesh and blood of livestock of males compared with females was 3.35 (OR = 3.35, CI 95%: 1.73-6.47). High risk individuals living in rural and mountainous areas of Baladeh had significantly longer history of contact with livestock and had more high risk behaviors including slaughtering and contact with fresh flesh and blood of livestock, eating raw liver, and removing ticks from animals' body or squashing them with unprotected hand (P < 0.001). Lack of protective clothing in high risk individuals in highland areas (OR = 9.24, CI 95%: 2.66-32.13) and Baladeh district (OR = 9.80, CI 95%: 2.78-34.53) was significantly higher than the rest of the studied areas. Conclusion: The results clearly showed extensive high risk practice in individuals involved in livestock in Nur County. Such behaviors and lack of management programs may increase the occurrence and epidemics of CCHF in the region especially in West of Mazandaran Province where current CCHF cases are reported.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24), a unique tumor suppressor gene, has killing activity in a broad spectrum of cancer cells. Herein, plasmids producing mda-7 proteins fused to different RGD peptides (full RGD4C and shortened RGD, tRGD) were evaluated for apoptosis induction with a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2. The study aim was to improve the apoptosis potency of mda-7 by tethering to RGD peptides. Three plasmids including mda-7, mda-7-RGD and mda-7-tRGD genes beside a control vector were transfected into Hep-G2 cells. After 72 hours incubation, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, the rate of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry using PI/annexin staining. To detect early events in apoptosis, 18 hours after transfection, expression of the BAX gene was quantified by real time PCR. Modeling of proteins was also performed to extrapolate possible consequences of RGD modification on their structures and subsequent attachment to receptors. In MTT assays, while all mda-7 forms showed measurable inhibition of proliferation, unmodified mda-7 protein exhibited most significant effect compared to control plasmid (P<0.001). Again, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant apoptosis induction by simple mda-7 gene but not for those RGD-fused mda-7 proteins. These findings were also supported by expression analysis of BAX gene (P<0.001). Protein modelling analysis revealed that tethering RGD at the end of IL-24/Mda7 disrupt attachment to cognate receptor, IL-20R1/ IL-20R2. In conclusion, fusion of RGD4C and shortened RGD peptides to carboxyl terminal of mda7, not only reduce apoptosis property in vitro but also disrupt receptor attachment as demonstrated by protein modelling.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
  • Touraj Farazmandfar · Mohammad Reza Haghshenas · Majid Shahbazi
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    ABSTRACT: Today, Lentiviral vectors are favorable vectors for RNAi delivery in anti-HIV therapeutic approaches. Nevertheless, problems such as the specific recognition of target cells and uncontrolled expression of the transgene can restrict their use in vivo. Herein we present a new HIV-inducible promoter to express anti-HIV shRNA by RNA Pol II in mammalian cells. We likewise showed that a novel third- generation lentiviral vector system with more safety and a specific tropism to the target cells. The new promoter, CkRhsp, was constructed from the chicken β-actin core promoter with the R region of HIV-1 LTR fused upstream of minimal hsp70 promoter. This system was induced by HIV-1 Tat, and activates transcription of two shRNAs against two conserved region of HIV-1 transcripts produced in two steps of the virus life cycle. We also mimicked HIV-1 cell tropism by using the HIV-1 envelope in structure of third-generation lentiviral vector. The new fusion promoter efficiently expressed shRNA in a Tat-inducible manner. HIV-1 replication was inhibited in transient transfection and stable transduction assays. The new viral vector infected only CD4+ cells. CkRhsp promoter may be safer than other inducible promoters for shRNA-mediated gene therapies against HIV. The use of the wild envelope in the vector packaging system may provide the specific targeting T lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells for anti-HIV-1 therapeutic approaches in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Human Gene Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, and genetic factors have been shown to be associated with its risk. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that induces IFN-γ production and is involved in T helper type 1 development. To determine the role of IL-18 gene in thyroid cancer susceptibility, we conducted a case-control study, and genotyped five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-18 gene (-656 G/T (rs1946519), -607 C/A (rs1946518), and -137 G/C (rs187238) in the promoter region and +113 T/G (rs360718) and +127 C/T (rs360717) in 5'-untranslated region) in 105 patients with thyroid cancer and 148 healthy controls from Iranian population. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele-specific primer-PCR were used for genotyping. The association of different genotypes with thyroid cancer, tumor type, and the tumor stage was analyzed. Comparing all of the patient population with the controls, TT genotype at position -656 G/T was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer [31/105 (30.1 %) vs 19/148 (13.1 %), p = 0.002, OR 2.90, CI 1.40-5.70]. No association with thyroid cancer was found at other positions (-607 C/A, -137 G/C, +113 T/G, and +127 C/T). Excluding the patients with medullary carcinoma, and including only the ones with thyroid cancer derived from the follicular epithelium, nearly the same results were observed regarding the genotypes at position -656 G/T. Furthermore, significantly decreased risk of thyroid cancer derived from the follicular epithelium was observed upon inheritance of the homozygote genotype (CC) at position +127 C/T (40/94 (42.5 %) versus 84/148 (56.8 %) in patients and controls, respectively (OR 0.56, 95 % CI for OR 0.32-0.98, p = 0.04). Haplotype analysis indicated that among 32 possible haplotypes, TAGTT haplotype frequency was significantly higher in patients than in controls [12/188 (6.4 %) vs 2/292 (0.7 %), p = 0.0008] and this difference resisted Bonferroni correction (n = 19) and significant level set at 0.003. Nearly the same results were observed after excluding the patients with medullary carcinoma. No association was found between the SNPs and the stage of tumor. Our results suggest the increased susceptibility to thyroid cancer in subjects with TT genotype at position -656 G/T of the promoter of IL-18 gene, as well as TAGTT haplotype emerged from five studied SNPs in IL-18 gene. The data also suggest that the inheritance of +127 CC genotype may protect individuals from thyroid cancer derived from follicular epithelium.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Endocrine
  • Mohammad Reza Haghshenas · Bijan Khademi · Zahra Faghih · Abbas Ghaderi · Nasrollah Erfani
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between salivary gland tumors and immune system has not been well inspected. We aimed to investigate the distribution of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)regulatory T (Treg) cells, CTLA4(+)CD4(+)lymphocytes, as well asIL-17 producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) (Th17 and Tc17) lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and a group of healthy controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 27 patients with salivary gland tumors (19 benign and 8 malignant; mean age of 49.2±18.3), as well as19 age/sex matched healthy donors. Fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to stain the cell surface markers, as well as intracellular molecules following cell-membrane fixation and permeabilization. The stained cells were acquired on a FACSCalibur four-color flowcytometer and analyzed by CellQuest Pro software package. The data were presented as mean percentages±SEM. Results indicated that the patients with malignant salivary gland tumors have increased percentage of Treg cells (7.74±1.1) and intracellular CTLA4 (inCTLA4)-positive CD4(+)lymphocytes (8.18±1.77) in comparison to the patients with benign tumors (4.38±0.56 for Treg cells and 3.83±0.56 for CTLA4(+)CD4(+) cells), as well as control subjects (2.34±0.28 for Treg cells and 2.22±0.25 for CTLA4(+)CD4(+) cells) (p≤0.001). Conversely these patients had reduced percentage of Th17 cells (0.84±0.14) comparing to the patients with benign tumors(2.09±0.31)as well as control subjects (2.31±0.23) (p≤0.001).In addition, the ratio of Th17/Treg lymphocytes was significantly lower in both malignant (0.12±0.03) and benign (0.48±0.09) tumors in comparison to control subjects (1.26±0.23) (p<0.001). The mean percentage of Tc17 cells in patients with benign (1.14±0.15) and malignant (0.60±0.13) tumors was nearly similar to those in control subjects (0.83±0.14) but the mean expression intensityofIL-17 by these cells was significantly higher in patients with malignant tumors (11.06±1.26) than controls (7.61±0.69) (p=0.01). Increase in the prevalence of regulatory lymphocytes, Treg cells and CTLA4+CD4+ lymphocytes, as well as the imbalance of Th17/Treg ratio may suggest the contribution of these immune effector cells in the progression of salivary gland tumors. From immune-regulatory point of view, these data also suggest that benign salivary gland tumors might fall between healthy and malignant conditions. The immunity to salivary gland tumors, as well as the findings presented here merits more in-depth investigation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Immunology Letters
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    ABSTRACT: HBV infection is a major global health problem and ten genotypes (A to J) and multiples subtypes of HBV have been identified, and they show some distinct geographic distributions. The available data on HBV genotype in Iran are very heterogeneous and limited. Therefore in this study, we tried to identify the HBV genotypes by using polymerase chain reaction. In this cross-sectional study, HBV- positive serum samples of 122 patients with chronic hepatitis from 2011 to 2014 were studied. HBV-DNA was extracted from plasma samples using QIAamp(®) MiniElute(®) Virus Spin Kit (Qiagen). Plasma samples from HBsAg positive were confirmed the presence of HBV nucleic acid and determined the genotypes of HBV genome by PCR using the DNA PCR kit (Cinagene) with Taq-DNA polymerase enzyme and type of specific primers. All samples were examined in the virology laboratory of Sari Medical School. The mean age of patients were 45 ± 25 (range, 20 to 70) year that 70 (57.37%) patients were male and 52 (42.62%) were female. The majority of HBV positive patients had a major surgery (44% patients) and then 32% patients followed by intra familial of hepatitis B virus infected and 11% of HBV positive patients had a history of blood transfusions. In this study, 91(74.59%) had genotype D, 7(5.73%) genotype B and 24(19.67%) genotype D and B. This study indicates that the genotype D is the most frequent followed by the mixed genotypes D and B and genotype B in our region. Prevalence and incidence of HBV genotypes are with distributed among of areas and different genotypes may show different responses with antiviral therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Medical Archives
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    Tahoora Mousavi · Shervin Ziabakhsh-Tabary · Ali Ghaemiyan · Mohammad Reza Haghshenas
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem in the worldwide that associated with significant morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. The available data on HBV distribution and genotyping of HBV are very heterogeneous. Therefore in this study, we tried to indicate the prevalence of HBV infections in cardiac catheterization patients referred to health centers in the north of Iran and identified the HBV genotypes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this cross-sectional study, we studied 2650 patients who underwent selective coronary artery angiography and coronary artery bypass grafting in Mazandaran heart center, Sari, Iran from 2011 to 2013. All serum samples were examined to detect HBsAg by ELISA test. HBV-DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive samples using Mini Elute Kit from Qiagen and determined the genotypes of HBV by PCR using the Master Mix kit with Taq-DNA polymerase enzyme and with type of specific primers. All samples were examined in the virology laboratory of Sari Medical School. The mean age of patients was 59.7±10.9 (range, 20 to 81) year that 1590 (60%) patients were male and 1060 (40%) were female. Seventeen cases (0.08 %) were found with hepatitis B virus infection, and the highest rates of infection were reported among those aged 40-60 years old in this study. We found genotype D the predominant type in this study. This study indicates that the prevalence of HBV endemicity in the north of Iran is low and genotype D is the only genotype in patients infected with HBV.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Medical Archives
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a premalignant mucocutaneous disease in which genetic factors and immune responses play a major role. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a co-inhibitory molecule that down-regulates immune responses to prevent autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene in +49 A/G position and OLP. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with OLP (16 males, 19 females, with a mean age of [± standard deviation (SD)] 55.92 [± 12.83]) and 105 sex- and aged-matched healthy subjects (48 males, 57 females, with a mean age of [± SD] 56.82 [± 14.71]) were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA of both groups was extracted from white blood cells and then CTLA-4 genotypes and allele frequencies were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The data were collected and examined using Pearson’s Chi square test (SPSS version 11.5). Results: In the patient group, AA, AG, and GG genotypes occurred in position 49 A/G in the CTLA-4 gene with the frequency of 19 (55.9%), 11 (31.4%), and 3 (8.8%), respectively. With respect to the control group, they occurred with the frequency of 58 (55.2%), 39 (37.1%), and 8 (7.6%), respectively. As far as the frequency of A and G alleles in this position was concerned, we had, respectively, 49 (74.24%) and 17 (25.75%) for patients and, respectively, 155 (73.80%) and 55 (26.19%) for the control group. The calculated values were not significantly different between these groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Polymorphisms of CTLA-4 genes in position +49 A/G did not show any significant relationship with each other in OLP patients in Shiraz, Iran.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    Mohammad Reza Haghshenas · Mohsen Arabi · Tahoora Mousavi
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem as a cause of liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. It is estimated that 350 million people live with chronic infection and about one million people die every year from complication of this chronic disease in the world. So far, ten HBV genotypes (A-J) has been identified which show a geographical distribution. Throughout the world, carrier variability rate for hepatitis B infection is estimated to be 0.1% to 20%, with regions classified as having low endemicity (<2%), intermediate endemicity (2-7%) and high endemicity (>8%). The prevalence of hepatitis B infection is estimated at 2 to 7 percent In Iran. After HBV vaccination program the prevalence of hepatitis B infection has been reported less than 2%, so Iran can be considered one of the countries with low HBV infection endemicity. In Iran several studies were shown that the only genotype of HBV(100%)was found genotype D as the prominent type in some provinces, but some studies reported genotype B(5%)as well as genotype D(95%).The distribution of HBV genotypes may guide us in determining disease burden, prognosis and antiviral responses. So, it is important to know the epidemiologically of HBV genotyping as well.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Materia Socio Medica
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor draining lymph nodes form the first line of defense against tumor dissemination. Lymphocyte subpopulations activated during anti-tumor response determine the outcome of host-tumor interaction. In the present study we explored the percentages of different subtypes of CD4+ lymphocytes, including regulatory cells (TFR, CD25-, and CD25+ Treg cells), helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh cells), and the expression level of their cognate cytokines (IFNγ, IL4, and IL17) in tumor draining lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer, and compared the results between node negative (LN-) and node positive (LN+) patients. Forty seven sentinel and auxiliary lymph nodes with or without tumor involvement were collected from untreated breast cancer patients undergoing surgical resection. Mononuclear cells obtained from fresh homogenized lymph nodes were subjected to surface and intracellular staining by flow cytometry. The results revealed the presence of a newly identified subtype of regulatory T cells, TFR, as well as CD25- Treg cells in TDLNs of the breast cancer patients. In addition, evaluation of different helper and regulatory subgroups of CD4+ T lymphocytes showed that upon metastasis of tumor cells to lymph nodes together with the progression of the disease stage, the immune responses changed from an inflammatory to an inhibitory state, as evidenced by a reduction in pro-inflammatory and anti-tumor cytokines, IL17 and IFNγ, as well as an increase in pro-tumorigenic phenotypes, Th2 and Treg cells. This situation may provide a favorable condition for tumor growth and spread.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Immunology letters
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    ABSTRACT: Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Gene polymorphism may be a risk factor for diabetic vascular disease in Iranian population. The study investigates the existence or not of an association between haptoglobin genotypes and prevalence of diabetic microangiopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetic microangiopathy. We included 206 type 2 diabetic patients (<5 years duration) categorized into two groups according to the presence or absence of diabetic microvascular complications. The cases of interest were diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy identified during clinical and or laboratory examination. In addition, 114 age- and sex-matched individuals were selected to serve as a control group. Haptoglobin genotyping was done using an amplification gel electrophoresis. The frequency of haptoglobin phenotype 2-1 in diabetic patients was 70/206 (33.9%) as compared with 54/114 (47.3%) in nondiabetics (P = 0.01). However, the frequency of haptoglobin phenotype 2-2 was greater in diabetics (126/114, 61.1%) than in those without diabetes (56/114, 49.1%; P = 0.02). Patients with diabetic microangiopathy; however, did not differ significantly between haptoglobin phenotype groups. Haptoglobin phenotype 2-2 is considered to be a major susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetic patients. Moreover, haptoglobin phenotype 2-1may be good prognostic factors for the development of diabetes mellitus.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · North American Journal of Medical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma and allergies in addition to demanding social costs-the economic community, one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world is considered. In the last decade in Iran despite the positive developments in many areas of health records into categories based asthma and allergy international standards, less attention has been paid. Improving the quality of care system, identifying groups at risk of asthma and allergies, control plan, prevention and assessment of asthma and allergies due to possible that when allergy and asthma information registration system and create the complete and timely data to be collected. Considering now an efficient national system of registration allergy and asthma that can meet the health needs can no need for this study was felt. This study, study-the comparison was done in the years 2010-2011. In this research, using library resources, information networks and consultations with experts inside the country gathered on the main axis and branches of national registration system, asthma and allergies in American countries-Australia and England were examined and given economic conditions, cultural and geographical themes for our records system, the axes were proposed objectives, structure, data elements, standard registration process? Data and classification systems are given. The proposed model for national registration system, asthma and allergies in the country is shown in a table. In this table the proposed system based on six main "targets", "structure", "data elements", "data collection process," "registration criteria" and "classification system" is designed. The results and recommendations to the International Institute for asthma and allergies, reduction in low registers, and can increase the quality of the proposed model, including advantages in comparison with the existing system of the country noted.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Acta Informatica Medica
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Three organotin(IV) complexes, Ph2Sn(mstsc) (1), Me2Sn(mstsc) (2) and Bu2Sn(mstsc) (3), have been synthesized from reaction of R2SnCl2 (R = Ph, Me and Bu) with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H2mstsc). The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 2 and 3 have been also confirmed by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of spectral and structural data thiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate dianionic ligand and coordinates to tin through phenolic oxygen, the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur atoms. The metal coordination geometry for 2 and 3 is described as distorted square pyramid and the crystal lattices are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bands. On the basis of 119Sn NMR data, coordination number of tin retains five in solution. The in vitro antibacterial activity of ligand and its complexes has been evaluated against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Complex 2 exhibited good activity along with the standard antibacterial drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the synthesized compounds against Jurkat cells were evaluated by the standard WST-1 assay. The activity decreases in the order 3 > 1 > 2 = H2mstsc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Molecular Structure
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Influenza is a respiratory infection that annually affects 5-15% of the global population. Influenza A/H1N1 is the most virulent human pathogens that results in a more severe disease and was first reported in 2009. The aim of this study was to investIgAte the epidemiology of influenza A/H1N1 in patients referring to several hospitals in North of Iran during 2009-2011. Materials and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on patients with symptoms of influenza using Real-Time PCR analysis. Results: The patients included 572 (41.97%) male and 791 (58.03%) female. The prevalence of influenza A/H1N1 was seen more in patients aged 21-30 (25%) years. In this study, 205 patients (15.4%) were diagnosed with influenza A/H1N1 including 94 (54.85%) male and 111 (54.15%) female. Influenza A/H1N1-associated death was seen in five patients (2.44%). Conclusion: Influenza A viruses are constantly evolving by mutation or by reassortment. The influenza virus evolves rapidly, and new strains quickly replace the older once, therefore, new vaccines should be developed for immunization against new strains of influenza.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The association between HER2 Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism and cancer is controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate this polymorphism in patients with ovarian cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of 107 patients and 130 healthy women. HER2 gene polymorphism was assessed by PCR-RFLP. No significant difference was observed in genotype and allele frequency between patient and control groups according to HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism. The disease stage, age, and histological type were also not associated with the polymorphism. Our data showed that HER2 Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism was not significantly associated with onset, histological type, age, and stage of ovarian cancer in Iranian patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem. The prevalence of HBV infection varies throughout regions of the world. More than 350 million people live with chronic HBV infection and many different clinical symptoms are associated with it. Long-term complications of HBV infection lead to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, 0.5-1.2 million death occurs every year. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment could reduce such complications. This study intended to investigate the correlation of serum concentrations of HBVDNA and HBeAg with liver enzymes. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of 146 chronic hepatitis B patients were studied. They referred to RaziTeaching Hospital, Qaemshahr, from 2007 to 2009. The subjects were assessed regarding HBV-DNA, HBeAg and ALT enzymes. The patients’ serum was extracted and Real Time PCR test was performed using HBV RG Kit (Nov in Gene). Afterwards, the patients’ medical records were studied and the data was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test in SPSS. Results: From the total of 146 patients, 94 were found negative HBeAg and 52 were HBeAg positive. No correlation was seen between HBV-DNA level and AST enzyme, while there was a significant relationship between HBV-DNA level and ALT enzyme. Conclusion: ALT enzyme is a reliable indicator for severity of liver involvement even in negative HBeAg stages and hidden period of the disease. Hence, the serum levels of HBV-DNA and ALT should be measured in such individuals before developing liver cirrhosis and thereby starting immediate antiviral therapy.
    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2013

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013