H. -G. Ludwig

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (190)353.42 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    J. Klevas · A. Kucinskas · M. Steffen · E. Caffau · H.-G. Ludwig
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    ABSTRACT: Different simplified approaches are used to account for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In certain cases, chemical abundances are derived in 1D NLTE and corrected for the 3D effects by adding 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections (3D+NLTE approach). Alternatively, average <3D> model atmospheres are sometimes used to substitute for the full 3D hydrodynamical models. We tested whether the results obtained using these simplified schemes (i.e., 3D+NLTE, <3D> NLTE) may reproduce those derived using the full 3D NLTE computations. The tests were made using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of the main sequence (MS), main sequence turn-off (TO), subgiant (SGB), and red giant branch (RGB) stars, all at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Our goal was to investigate the role of 3D and NLTE effects on the formation of the 670.8 nm lithium line by assessing strengths of synthetic 670.8 nm line profiles, computed using 3D/1D NLTE/LTE approaches. Our results show that Li 670.8 nm line strengths obtained using different methodologies differ only slightly in most of the models at solar metallicity. However, the line strengths predicted with the 3D NLTE and 3D+NLTE approaches become significantly different at subsolar metallicities. At [M/H]=-2.0, this may lead to (3D NLTE)-(3D+NLTE) differences in the predicted lithium abundance of ~0.46 and ~0.31 dex in the TO and RGB stars, respectively. On the other hand, NLTE line strengths computed with the average <3D> and 1D model atmospheres are similar to those obtained with the full 3D NLTE approach for MS, TO, SGB, and RGB stars, at all metallicities; 3D-<3D> and 3D-1D differences in the predicted abundances are always less than ~0.04 dex and ~0.08 dex, respectively. However, neither of the simplified approaches can reliably substitute 3D NLTE spectral synthesis when precision is required.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years a number of poorly studied chemical elements, such as phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium, have received special attention as important tracers of the Galactic chemical evolution. By exploiting the capabilities of the infrared echelle spectrograph GIANO mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we acquired high resolution spectra of four Galactic dwarf stars spanning the metallicity range between about one-third and twice the solar value. We performed a detailed feasibility study about the effectiveness of the P, S, and Sr line diagnostics in the Y band between 1.03 and 1.10 microm. Accurate chemical abundances have been derived using one-dimensional model atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We computed the line formation assuming LTE for P, while we performed non-LTE analysis to derive S and Sr abundances. We were able to derive phosphorus abundance for three stars and an upper limit for one star, while we obtained the abundance of sulphur and strontium for all of the stars. We find [P/Fe] and [S/Fe] abundance ratios consistent with solar-scaled or slightly depleted values, while the [Sr/Fe] abundance ratios are more scattered (by +/-0.2 dex) around the solar-scaled value. This is fully consistent with previous studies using both optical and infrared spectroscopy. We verified that high-resolution, Y-band spectroscopy as provided by GIANO is a powerful tool to study the chemical evolution of P, S, and Sr in dwarf stars.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    T. Sonoi · R. Samadi · K. Belkacem · H. -G. Ludwig · E. Caffau · B. Mosser
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    ABSTRACT: The space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO$^5$BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen et al. power law, as well as a Lorentzian formulation. We find that the surface effects on modal frequencies depend significantly on both the effective temperature and the surface gravity. We further provide the variation in the parameters related to the surface-effect corrections using their power law as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Scaling relations between these parameters and the elevation (related to the Mach number) is also provided. The Lorentzian formulation is shown to be more robust for the whole frequency spectrum, while the power law is not suitable for the frequency shifts in the frequency range above $\nu_{\rm max}$.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-beta parameter, the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have then employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B > 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (Teff) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection owing to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with Teff < 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The solar photospheric oxygen abundance is still widely debated. Adopting the solar chemical composition based on the "low" oxygen abundance, as determined with the use of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical model atmospheres, results in a well-known mismatch between theoretical solar models and helioseismic measurements that is so far unresolved. We carry out an independent redetermination of the solar oxygen abundance by investigating the center-to-limb variation of the OI IR triplet lines at 777 nm in different sets of spectra with the help of detailed synthetic line profiles based on 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres and 3D non-LTE line formation calculations with NLTETD. The idea is to simultaneously derive the oxygen abundance,A(O), and the scaling factor SH that describes the cross-sections for inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen relative the classical Drawin formula. The best fit of the center-to-limb variation of the triplet lines achieved with the CO5BOLD 3D solar model is clearly of superior quality compared to the line profile fits obtained with standard 1D model atmospheres. Our best estimate of the 3D non-LTE solar oxygen abundance is A(O) = 8.76 +/- 0.02, with the scaling factor SH in the range between 1.2 and 1.8. All 1D non-LTE models give much lower oxygen abundances, by up to -0.15 dex. This is mainly a consequence of the assumption of a $\mu$-independent microturbulence.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: From stellar spectra, a variety of physical properties of stars can be derived. In particular, the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres can be inferred from absorption line analyses. These provide key information on large scales, such as the formation of our Galaxy, down to the small-scale nucleosynthesis processes that take place in stars and supernovae. By extending the observed wavelength range toward bluer wavelengths, we optimize such studies to also include critical absorption lines in metal-poor stars, and allow for studies of heavy elements (Z>38) whose formation processes remain poorly constrained. In this context, spectrographs optimized for observing blue wavelength ranges are essential, since many absorption lines at redder wavelengths are too weak to be detected in metal-poor stars. This means that some elements cannot be studied in the visual-redder regions, and important scientific tracers and science cases are lost. The present era of large public surveys will target millions of stars. Here we describe the requirements driving the design of the forthcoming survey instrument 4MOST, a multi-object spectrograph commissioned for the ESO VISTA 4m-telescope. We focus here on high-density, wide-area survey of stars and the science that can be achieved with high-resolution stellar spectroscopy. Scientific and technical requirements that governed the design are described along with a thorough line blending analysis. For the high-resolution spectrograph, we find that a sampling of >2.5 (pixels per resolving element), spectral resolution of 18000 or higher, and a wavelength range covering 393-436 nm, is the most well-balanced solution for the instrument. A spectrograph with these characteristics will enable accurate abundance analysis (+/-0.1 dex) in the blue and allow us to confront the outlined scientific questions. (abridged)
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering Teff = 6000-11,500 K and logg = 5-6.5 (cgs units) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., logg = 5-9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few per cent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + milli-second pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The solar photospheric abundance of oxygen is still a matter of debate. For about ten years some determinations have favoured a low oxygen abundance which is at variance with the value inferred by helioseismology. Among the oxygen abundance indicators, the forbidden line at 630nm has often been considered the most reliable even though it is blended with a NiI line. In Papers I and Paper II of this series we reported a discrepancy in the oxygen abundance derived from the 630nm and the subordinate [OI] line at 636nm in dwarf stars, including the Sun. Here we analyse several, in part new, solar observations of the the centre-to-limb variation of the spectral region including the blend at 630nm in order to separate the individual contributions of oxygen and nickel. We analyse intensity spectra observed at different limb angles in comparison with line formation computations performed on a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. The oxygen abundances obtained from the forbidden line at different limb angles are inconsistent if the commonly adopted nickel abundance of 6.25 is assumed in our local thermodynamic equilibrium computations. With a slightly lower nickel abundance, A(Ni)~6.1, we obtain consistent fits indicating an oxygen abundance of A(O)=8.73+/-0.05. At this value the discrepancy with the subordinate oxygen line remains. The derived value of the oxygen abundance supports the notion of a rather low oxygen abundance in the solar hotosphere. However, it is disconcerting that the forbidden oxygen lines at 630 and 636nm give noticeably different results, and that the nickel abundance derived here from the 630nm blend is lower than expected from other nickel lines.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a new powerful tool for observing the Sun at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. These capabilities can address a broad range of fundamental scientific questions in solar physics. The radiation observed by ALMA originates mostly from the chromosphere - a complex and dynamic region between the photosphere and corona, which plays a crucial role in the transport of energy and matter and, ultimately, the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Based on first solar test observations, strategies for regular solar campaigns are currently being developed. State-of-the-art numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere and modeling of instrumental effects can help constrain and optimize future observing modes for ALMA. Here we present a short technical description of ALMA and an overview of past efforts and future possibilities for solar observations at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths. In addition, selected numerical simulations and observations at other wavelengths demonstrate ALMA's scientific potential for studying the Sun for a large range of science cases
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Space Science Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of the TOPoS (Turn Off Primordial Stars) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0<=[Ca/H]< -2.1 and 7.12<=A(C)<=8.65. For star SDSS J1742+2531 we were able to detect three FeI lines from which we deduced [Fe/H]=-4.80, from four CaII lines we derived [Ca/H]=-4.56, and from synthesis of the G-band we derived A(C)=7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3sigma) upper limit of [Fe/H]< -5.0 and measure the Ca abundance, with [Ca/H]=-5.0, and carbon, A(C)=6.90. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li)<1.8 for both stars. Our measured carbon abundances confirm the bimodal distribution of carbon in CEMP stars, identifying a high-carbon band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. (Abridged)
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O I] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O I] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Aims. We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Methods. We used high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D LTE abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects. Results. We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants studied here is minor, which leads to very small 3D-1D abundance corrections (< -0.01 dex). On the contrary, IR OH lines are strongly affected by convection and thus the abundance corrections for these lines are significant, 3D-1D ~ -0.2 ... -0.3 dex. These abundance corrections do indeed bring the 1D LTE oxygen abundances of EMP red giants obtained using IR OH lines into better agreement with those determined from the [O I] 630 nm line.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A calibration of the mixing-length parameter in the local mixing-length theory (MLT) is presented for the lower part of the convection zone in pure-hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs. The parameterization is performed from a comparison of 3D CO5BOLD simulations with a grid of 1D envelopes with a varying mixing-length parameter. In many instances, the 3D simulations are restricted to the upper part of the convection zone. The hydrodynamical calculations suggest, in those cases, that the entropy of the upflows does not change significantly from the bottom of the convection zone to regions immediately below the photosphere. We rely on this asymptotic entropy value, characteristic of the deep and adiabatically stratified layers, to calibrate 1D envelopes. The calibration encompasses the convective hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the effective temperature range 6000 < Teff (K) < 15,000 and the surface gravity range 7.0 < log g < 9.0. It is established that the local MLT is unable to reproduce simultaneously the thermodynamical, flux, and dynamical properties of the 3D simulations. We therefore propose three different parameterizations for these quantities. The resulting calibration can be applied to structure and envelope calculations, in particular for pulsation, chemical diffusion, and convective mixing studies. On the other hand, convection has no effect on the white dwarf cooling rates until there is a convective coupling with the degenerate core below Teff ~ 5000 K. In this regime, the 1D structures are insensitive to the MLT parameterization and converge to the mean 3D results, hence remain fully appropriate for age determinations.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Gaia-ESO Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopic data for about 10^5 stars using FLAMES at the VLT. UVES high-resolution spectra are being collected for about 5000 FGK-type stars. These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO 2nd internal release and will be part of its 1st public release of advanced data products. The final parameter scale is tied to the one defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. A set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each methodology is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted-medians of those from the individual methods. The recommended results successfully reproduce the benchmark stars atmospheric parameters and the expected Teff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for Teff, 0.13 dex for log g, and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for Teff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g, and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is of key importance to constrain the different candidates for intra-cluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a large range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D LTE atmospheric models together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = $-0.78\pm0.07$ and $[\alpha/{\rm Fe}]=0.34\pm0.03$ in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but the inclusion of NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behaviour of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence for an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen is a powerful tracer element of Galactic chemical evolution. Unfortunately, only a few oxygen lines are available in the ultraviolet-infrared stellar spectra for the reliable determination of its abundance. Moreover, oxygen abundances obtained using different spectral lines often disagree significantly. In this contribution we therefore investigate whether the inadequate treatment of convection in 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres used in the abundance determinations may be responsible for this disagreement. For this purpose, we used VLT CRIRES spectra of three EMP giants, as well as 3D hydrodynamical CO$^5$BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres, to investigate the role of convection in the formation of infrared (IR) OH lines. Our results show that the presence of convection leads to significantly stronger IR OH lines. As a result, the difference in the oxygen abundance determined from IR OH lines with 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres may reach -0.2 ... -0.3 dex. In case of the three EMP giants studied here, we obtain a good agrement between the 3D LTE oxygen abundances determined by us using vibrational-rotational IR OH lines in the spectral range of 1514-1626 nm, and oxygen abundances determined from forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in previous studies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) The abundances of alpha-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-alpha galaxies and extragalactic HII regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. The measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. We find <A(S)>NLTE=6.11+/-0.04 for M 4, <A(S)>NLTE=7.17+/-0.02 for NGC 2477, and <A(S)>NLTE=7.13+/-0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE=6.43+/-0.03 and A(S)LTE=6.94+/-0.05. Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another alpha-element, Mg, in the same star, while the low NLTE value is consistent with Si and Ca. The S abundances in our sample of stars in clusters imply that the clusters are chemically homogeneous for S within 0.05 dex.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000?K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0?Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40?km s?1 ≤v tan ≤ 60?km s?1. They are likely thick disk 10-11?Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v tan ~ 155?km s?1 and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0?Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    E. Caffau · M. Steffen · P. Bonifacio · H. -G. Ludwig · L. Monaco · G. Lo Curto · I. Kamp
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement of isotopic ratios provides a privileged insight both into nucleosynthesis and into the mechanisms operating in stellar envelopes, such as gravitational settling. In this article, we give a few examples of how isotopic ratios can be determined from high-resolution, high-quality stellar spectra. We consider examples of the lightest elements, H and He, for which the isotopic shifts are very large and easily measurable, and examples of heavier elements for which the determination of isotopic ratios is more difficult. The presence of 6Li in the stellar atmospheres causes a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li 670.7 nm doublet which can only be detected in spectra of the highest quality. But even with the best spectra, the derived $^6$Li abundance can only be as good as the synthetic spectra used for their interpretation. It is now known that 3D non-LTE modelling of the lithium spectral line profiles is necessary to account properly for the intrinsic line asymmetry, which is produced by convective flows in the atmospheres of cool stars, and can mimic the presence of 6Li. We also discuss briefly the case of the carbon isotopic ratio in metal-poor stars, and provide a new determination of the nickel isotopic ratios in the solar atmosphere.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomische Nachrichten
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    ABSTRACT: We present a critical review of the construction of 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on modeling challenges. We discuss the basic physical processes which give rise to the effects which set 3D models apart from 1D standard models. We consider elemental abundances derived from molecular features, and the determination of the microturbulence with 3D models. The examples serve as illustration of the limitations inherent to 1D, however, also to 3D modeling. We find that 3D models can provide constraints on the microturbulence parameter, and predict substantial corrections for abundances derived from molecular species.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union

Publication Stats

2k Citations
353.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2009-2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007-2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005-2010
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1998
    • Australian Astronomical Observatory
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1994-1998
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics (ITAP)
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany