A Skálová

Charles University in Prague, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic

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Publications (130)276.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This article reports an unusual case of aggressive extraocular sebaceous carcinoma located on the scalp with subsequent usurpation of the bone and penetrating through the bone and meninges to the brain in a 56-year-old man affected by Muir-Torre syndrome. Microscopically, the sebaceous neoplasm was located in the middle to deep dermis without any connection to the epidermis and showed a multinodular growth with neoplastic nodules with a central comedo-type necrosis separated from each other by fibrovascular stroma. The nodules were composed of varying proportions of mature sebaceous cells and atypical basaloid cells with high degree of atypia, including high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism, macronucleoli, atypical mitoses, and necrosis. The neoplasm was totally removed. Histopathological examinations of the recurrent lesion showed identical morphological features and, in addition, signs of the tumors growing through the periosteum were noted. In the final excision specimen, both the dura mater and the brain tissue were infiltrated by the sebaceous carcinoma. The diagnosis of Muir-Torre syndrome was confirmed by molecular genetic investigation that revealed an identical germline mutation in MSH2 gene in several family members, some of whom had colorectal tumors.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Dermatopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features, therapeutic strategies, and prognosis for acinic cell carcinoma of the major and minor salivary glands are critically reviewed. We explore histopathologic, histochemical, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical aspects and discuss histologic grading, histogenesis, animal models, and genetic events. In the context of possible diagnostic difficulties, the relationship to mammary analog secretory carcinoma is probed and a classification is suggested. Areas of controversy or uncertainty, which may benefit from further investigations, are also highlighted.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde
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    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with the standardized incidence rate of < 1:100000 person-years. Viral status of NPC in these non-endemic Eastern European regions is currently unknown. In a retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of EBV and HPV in 62 NPC cases. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization (ISH) for EBV encoded small RNA 1 (EBER1). HPV status was examined with p16 immunohistochemistry, DNA ISH and DNA polymerase chain reaction. Sixty-one studied cases showed non-keratinizing morphology and one was keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Only one NPC with non-keratinizing morphology was scored as p16-positive (nuclear and cytoplasmic staining ≥ 70% of tumor cells). This case was positive for high-risk HPV by ISH and the DNA PCR confirmed the presence of HPV18 type. At the same time, this case was found negative for EBV. Remaining sixty-one cases that were scored as p16-negative were all found HPV-negative by ISH and the DNA PCR. EBV was detected in 85.5% (53/62) of cases and 9 cases were EBV-negative, including the case of keratinizing NPC. In contrast with previous reports on the prevalence of EBV-positivity in Caucasian patients with NPC, the majority of patients coming from this non-endemic region show EBV-positivity; therefore, they may be candidates for novel EBV-targeting therapies. Conversely, HPV-positive NPC is very rare and HPV does not seem to play a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of NPC in these Eastern European populations.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neoplasma
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    ABSTRACT: ETV6 gene abnormalities are well described in tumor pathology. Many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported in a variety of epithelial and hematological malignancies. In salivary gland tumor pathology, however, the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation is specific for mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), and has not been documented in any other salivary tumor type. The present study comprised a clinical and molecular analysis of 25 cases morphologically and immunohistochemically typical of MASC. They all also displayed the ETV6 rearrangement as visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization but lacked the classical ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript by standard reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In 4 cases, the classical fusion transcript was found by more sensitive, nested reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Five other cases harbored atypical fusion transcripts as detected by both standard and nested reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, fluorescent in situ hybridization with an NTRK3 break-apart probe was also performed; rearrangement of NTRK3 gene was detected in 16 of 25 cases. In 3 other cases, the tissue was not analyzable, and in 2 further cases analysis could not be performed because of a lack of appropriate tissue material. Finally, in the 4 remaining cases whose profile was NTRK3 split-negative and ETV6 split-positive, unknown (non-NTRK) genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). In looking for possible fusion partners, analysis of rearrangement of other kinase genes known to fuse with ETV6 was also performed, but without positive results. Although numbers were small, correlating the clinico-pathologic features of the 4 ETV6-X fusion tumors and 5 MASC cases with atypical fusion transcripts raises the possibility of that they may behave more aggressively.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The American journal of surgical pathology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most common intra-oral salivary gland malignancy. The vast majority of PLGAs harbor a PRKD1 E710D hotspot somatic mutation or somatic rearrangements of PRKD1, PRKD2 or PRKD3. Given the kinase domain homology among PRKD1, PRKD2 and PRKD3, we sought to define whether PLGAs lacking PRKD1 somatic mutations or PRKD gene family rearrangements would be driven by somatic mutations affecting the kinase domains of PRKD2 or PRKD3. Methods and results: DNA was extracted from 8 microdissected PLGAs lacking PRKD1 somatic mutations or PRKD gene family rearrangements. Samples were thoroughly centrally reviewed, microdissected and subjected to Sanger sequencing of the kinase domains of PRKD2 and PRKD3 genes. None of the PLGAs lacking PRKD1 somatic mutations or PRKD gene family rearrangements harbored somatic mutations in the kinase domains of PRKD2 or PRKD3 genes. Conclusion: PLGAs lacking PRKD1 somatic mutations or PRKD gene family rearrangements are unlikely to harbor somatic mutations in the kinase domains of PRKD2 or PRKD3. Further studies are warranted to define the driver genetic events in this subgroup of PLGAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Histopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Glandular odontogenic cyst (sialo-odontogenic cyst) (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst. Its clinical significance lies in its tendency to recur, and histopathological features which mimic those of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MC). Molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) have the potential to identify genetic abnormalities that are specific to MC and thus avoid this diagnostic pitfall. This report describes three cystic lesions of the jaws with a differential diagnosis of GOC and MC. One occurred in the mandibular premolar area of a 49-year-old woman and was diagnosed as GOC. The second developed in the maxilla of a man aged 39 in association with an impacted second premolar tooth. This was initially diagnosed as dentigerous cyst, but after recurrence 6 years later, the diagnosis was revised to GOC. The third occurred in the left retromolar area of a 30-year-old woman 5 years after the extraction of the left mandibular third molar; a diagnosis of GOC was favoured after two incisional biopsies, but a third showed unequivocal, invasive MC which had infiltrated nerves and bone. Morphologically, the only distinguishing feature was the so-called epithelial sphere, whorl or plaque-like thickening, which was identified in both GOC but not in the MC. FISH confirmed the above diagnoses by demonstrating a MAML2 rearrangement in the MC, but in neither of the GOC. While histopathology may reliably distinguish between GOC and MC, the presence of the specific MAML2 rearrangement in the latter clinches the diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Oral Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Some human neoplasms stimulate lymphangiogenesis through the over-production of vascular endothelial growth factors C/D (VEGF-C/D). Previously little attention has been paid to the mechanisms of lymphogenous spread of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). The current study investigates the presence of lymphatic network and the role of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in its formation. The retrospective study was performed in 20 (12 females and 8 males) patients diagnosed with SACC. For the evaluation of VEGF-C/D immunoreactivity, semiquantitative histoscore was calculated as a sum of positive tumor cell score (range 0-3) and staining intensity (range 0-3). Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was determined as the number of D2-40 positive lymphatic capillaries present at "hot spots". Moreover, the values of histoscores were calculated in surrounding normal parotid parenchyma and compared to those counted in tumors. LVD in the tumor center (iLVD), in its periphery (pLVD), and in healthy gland were identified. VEGF-C/D expression, iLVD and pLVD were higher in SACC than in normal gland. The VEGF-C/D score correlated neither with pLVD nor with iLVD. High iLVD values were associated with poor survival. The authors present the first study demonstrating the existence of lymphatic vessels in SACC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pathology - Research and Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Sebaceous carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly rare neoplasm. Little is known about the behavior and prognosis of this type of breast cancer. We report clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of breast carcinoma with prominent (at least 50%) sebaceous differentiation. The tumors occurred in four women, aged 25-66, and were composed of cords, lobules and solid sheets of tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation, comprising 50-90% of the tumor mass. The second component consisted of cells with non-vacuolated cytoplasm, present mostly around the periphery of the lobules, or which formed separate tumor sheets with no evidence of sebaceous differentiation and were indistinguishable from a classical ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, three tumors expressed hormone receptors; all cases were HER2-negative and had retained expression of the DNA mismatch repair proteins. Three patients had axillary lymph node metastases, and two patients had distant metastases: one in the liver, lung and bones, and one in the mediastinal and supraclavicular lymph nodes. One patient died 28 months after diagnosis, indicating that mammary sebaceous carcinoma is a potentially aggressive neoplasm. In contrast to extraocular cutaneous sebaceous carcinomas, mammary sebaceous carcinoma is probably unrelated to Muir-Torre syndrome. It should be differentiated from morphologically similar but biologically distinct lipid-rich carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
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    ABSTRACT: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described entity of malignant salivary gland tumors that histologically resembles mammary secretory carcinoma (SC) of the breast. MASC was earlier often categorized as an unusual variant of salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) or adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC). According to the literature, MASC is most often found in the major salivary glands, and it has been suggested to metastasize more often than AciCC. Here, we present the first case of MASC occurring in minor salivary glands of the hard palate, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Diagnosis was based on histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings and on a specific translocation of the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12p13. Differential diagnosis excluded AciCC, ADCC, cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Radiological, resection, and immunohistological findings are presented with radiological and clinical pictures. In our patient, neck dissection was not performed, and during the 18-month follow-up no recurrence or metastasis was found. Despite all the MASC cases described in the literature, standardized treatment protocols are still lacking.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: This review concentrates on the most important developments since the WHO classification of 2005. In particular, the identification of specific translocations is revolutionising the way salivary tumours are considered and will have a major impact on future diagnostic practice. This is true so far in four malignancies: mammary analogue secretory, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic and hyalinising clear cell carcinomas. In each, the gene rearrangement is found in 80 % or more of cases. Two 2014 publications have added further possible candidates with molecular abnormalities to the list (cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary glands and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma), but these findings have yet to be confirmed by other investigators. The advances in molecular pathology have also allowed re-evaluation of the morphology; for example, it is now realised that the histological spectrum of hyalinising clear cell carcinoma includes intracellular mucin in over half of cases, as well as tumours with only scanty clear cells. In a separate development, it is now proposed that salivary duct carcinoma can be subdivided along molecular lines, in ways analogous to breast cancer, suggesting new therapeutic prospects in an otherwise highly aggressive malignancy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland (CAMSG) are low-grade carcinomas arising most often in oral cavity and oropharynx, respectively. Controversy exists as to whether these tumors represent separate entities or variants of one spectrum, as they appear to have significant overlap, but also clinicopathologic differences. As many salivary carcinomas harbor recurrent translocations, paired-end RNA sequencing and FusionSeq data analysis was applied for novel fusion discovery on two CAMSGs and two PLGAs. Validated rearrangements were then screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 60 cases. Histologic classification was performed without knowledge of fusion status and included: 21 CAMSG, 18 classic PLGA, and 21 with "mixed/indeterminate" features. The RNAseq of 2 CAMSGs showed ARID1A-PRKD1 and DDX3X-PRKD1 fusions, respectively, while no fusion candidates were identified in two PLGAs. FISH for PRKD1 rearrangements identified 11 additional cases (22%), two more showing ARID1A-PRKD1 fusions. As PRKD2 and PRKD3 share similar functions with PRKD1 in the diacylglycerol and protein kinase C signal transduction pathway, we expanded the investigation for these genes by FISH. Six additional cases each showed PRKD2 and PRKD3 rearrangements. Of the 26 (43%) fusion-positive tumors, there were 16 (80%) CAMSGs and 9 (45%) indeterminate cases. A PRKD2 rearrangement was detected in one PLGA (6%). We describe novel and recurrent gene rearrangements in PRKD1-3 primarily in CAMSG, suggesting a possible pathogenetic dichotomy from "classic" PLGA. However, the presence of similar genetic findings in half of the indeterminate cases and a single PLGA suggests a possible shared pathogenesis for these tumor types.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) of salivary glands is a tumorous lesion of salivary glands, with clinical presentation of a slow-growing mass characterized by a combination of histological features some of which are reminiscent of mammary fibrocystic disease. SPA is mostly unifocal, but rarely may be multifocal and/or bilateral. Recurrences have been reported in up to 19% of cases. Although originally considered pseudoneoplastic, the occurrence of “dysplasia” and carcinoma in situ of ductal epithelium, and recent evidence of clonality suggest a possible neoplastic nature. Herein we describe, for the first time, two cases of SPA in two sisters (7 and 33 years old). The younger patient experienced multiple recurrences. This is the first report of familial occurrence of SPA, suggesting a possible genetic background.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Pathology - Research and Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic adenoma is morphologically characterized as biphasic tumour, including epithelial and mesenchymal components. At present its epithelial origin is accepted. Pluripotent unicellular theory is the most plausible tumorigenesis theory. According this theory, the steam cell is the origin for renewal of mature salivary gland tissue as well as for tumour growth. This cell is the basis for epithelial as well as mesenchymal tumour components. Bcl-2 (b-cell lymphoma 2) gene is the steam cell marker that protects cell against apoptosis. In retrospective study, the authors followed up immunoexpression and distribution of bcl-2 oncoprotein in single cell population of 24 primary pleomorphic adenomas. Bcl-2 positivity was detected in 95.8% pleomorphic adenomas (91.7% in epithelial and 62.5% in mesenchymal components). The most intensive immunostaning was found in the outer cells of well differentiated excretory duct resembling formations. The cells of the inner layer were always negative. Week to moderate reaction was present in cells at periphery of excretory-like ductal formations as well as in "intermediate" cells in some unstructured solid regions. The majority of mesenchymal cells were negative, minority showed week to moderate positivity, only occasionally with strong immunoreaction. The occasional foci of squamous cell metaplasia were bcl-2 negative. The study confirmed the pluripotent unicellular theory. Authors consider bcl-2 gene as the key element in pleomorphic adenoma genesis, in cooperation with other antiapoptotic mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Otorinolaryngologie a Foniatrie
  • H. Hellquist · A. Skalova
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last 25 years it has become more and more evident that salivary gland pathology is by far the subject within head and neck pathology that causes most diagnostic challenges and problems for general pathologists. During courses the author has given, consultants and trainees alike have expressed the lack of a comprehensive, useful book on salivary gland pathology. Such a book needs to be broad and to illustrate almost every variant of all tumor entities. Another important feature to incorporate is the newly gained knowledge about genetics in salivary gland tumors, a knowledge that has emerged during the last 3-4 years only (and is growing continuously). A mapping of the immunophenotypes of salivary gland tumors is neither available today and will greatly benefit in routine diagnostic work.
    No preview · Book · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: There is a subgroup among head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, which is etiologically linked to the infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). In recent studies, HPV related squamous cell carcinomas have been placed in a separate group because of their different epidemiology, distinctive histopathological characteristics, therapeutic response and clinical outcome. The reported prevalence of high-risk HPV in head and neck tumors varies in different studies. This fact occurs mainly due to the absence of a widely accepted consensus for HPV detection in head and neck malignancies. We present a methodological algorithm for detection of biologically relevant HPV infection: a combination of an immunohistochemical staining of the p16 protein - a surrogate marker for a transforming HPV infection, and a molecular genetic identification of HPV DNA by three different polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The study group consisted of 41 patients with a tumor in head and neck region. A verification of detection of biologically relevant HPV infection has been performed in 10 available samples using an alternative approach, which comprised the detection of RNA transcript of HPV by reverse transcription followed by PCR (RT-PCR), and further in situ hybridization (ISH) with a commercial high-risk HPV probe. We have found a high correlation between HPV DNA detection using triple-PCR approach and strong diffuse positivity of the p16 protein (correlation coefficient 0.94) and have confirmed the validity of this algorithm. In 94 % of HPV related squamous cell carcinomas HPV type 16 was detected. In one case HPV type 33 was identified. That is in agreement with earlier published data. A more appropriate alternative method for the detection of biologically relevant- transforming HPV infection seems to be RT-PCR, which proved 100 % agreement with the original methodological approach of p16 determination and PCR status. Interpretation of the ISH has been complicated by frequent nonspecific staining of the sample and its routine usage in the diagnostic algorithm of our laboratory is currently not feasible.Keywords: HPV - squamous cell carcinoma - head and neck tumors - p16.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Ceskoslovenska patologie

Publication Stats

2k Citations
276.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992-2015
    • Charles University in Prague
      • • Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen
      • • Department of Pathology (3. LF)
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2005
    • University of Surrey
      Guilford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993-2004
    • Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen
      Pilsen, Plzeňský, Czech Republic
  • 2002-2003
    • Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň
      Pilsen, Plzeňský, Czech Republic
  • 1992-1999
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Pathology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland