[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The "gold standard" for assessing mucosal immunity after vaccination with poliovirus vaccines consists in measuring virus excretion in stool after challenge with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This testing is time and resource intensive, and development of alternative methods is a priority for accelerating polio eradication. We therefore evaluated circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immunity to poliovirus vaccine.
199 subjects, aged 10 years, and previously immunized repeatedly with OPV, were selected. Subjects were assigned to receive either a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), bivalent OPV (bOPV), or no vaccine. Using a micro-modified whole blood-based ELISPOT assay designed for field setting, circulating poliovirus type-specific IgA- and IgG-ASCs, including gut homing α4β7+ ASCs, were enumerated on days 0 and 7 after booster immunization. In addition, serum samples collected on days 0, 28 and 56 were tested for neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. Stool specimens were collected on day 28 (day of bOPV challenge), and on days 31, 35 and 42 and processed for poliovirus isolation.
An IPV dose elicited blood IgA- and IgG-ASC responses in 84.8 to 94.9% of subjects, respectively. In comparison, a bOPV dose evoked corresponding blood ASC responses in 20.0 to 48.6% of subjects. A significant association was found between IgA- and IgG-ASC responses and serum neutralizing antibody titers for poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 (p<0.001). In the IPV group, α4β7+ ASCs accounted for a substantial proportion of IgA-ASCs and the proportion of subjects with a positive α4β7+ IgA-ASC response to poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 was 62.7%, 89.8% and 45.8%, respectively. A significant association was observed between virus excretion and α4β7+ IgA- and/or IgG-ASC responses to poliovirus type 3 among immunized children; however, only a weak association was found for type 1 poliovirus.
Our results suggest that virus-specific blood ASCs, especially for type 3 poliovirus, can serve as surrogate of mucosal immunity after vaccination. Further studies are needed to evaluate the duration of such memory responses and to assess the programmatic utility of this whole blood-based mucosal ASC testing for the polio eradication program.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was originally developed to enumerate antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and has subsequently been adapted for various applications, including the detection cytokine-secreting cells. Owing to its exceptionally high sensitivity, the ELISPOT has proven to be especially useful for detecting discrete populations of active cells (e.g., antigen-specific cells). Because of its versatility, the ELISPOT assay is used for a wide range of applications, including clonal analyses of immune responses after vaccination or after immunotherapy. Here we describe standard protocols for the detection of human ASCs specific to virtually any vaccine antigen after enrichment of circulating plasmablasts. In addition, a protocol is described for the measurement of mucosal ASC responses after prior immunomagnetic enrichment of mucosally derived blood lymphocytes. The protocols described allow rapid (∼6-8 h) detection of specific ASCs in small (1-2 ml) samples of blood and can be performed in resource-poor settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, and to determine its minimum effective dose. The overall rates of cutaneous "take" reaction and humoral and cellular immunogenicity in CJ-50300 vaccinees were 100% (123/123), 99.2% (122/123), and 90.8% (109/120), respectively, and these rates did not differ significantly between the conventional-dose and the low-dose CJ-50300 (1.0x10(8) and 1.0x10(7) plaque-forming units/mL, respectively) (P>0.05 for each). No serious adverse reaction was observed. However, one case of possible generalized vaccinia occurred in the conventionally dosed group [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00607243].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sublingual locus has recently received great attention as a delivery site for various immunotherapies, including those that induce allergen-specific tolerance, and for vaccines that generate protective immunity. To further understand the immune functions of the human sublingual mucosa, we characterized the distribution of various immunocytes therein by immunohistochemistry. We identified professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), including Langerhans cells (LCs) and macrophages. CD1a + and langerin + LCs were further found to be distributed in the basal and supra-basal layers of the epithelium, and macrophages were identified in the lamina propria. HLA-DR + cells were observed in both the epithelium and the lamina propria, which mirrors the tissue distribution of LCs and macrophages within these tissues. CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T cells were found to be distributed along the basal layer of the epithelium and also in the lamina propria. Although B cells, plasma cells, and Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) were only occasionally observed in the human sublingual mucosa in the absence of inflammation, they did show enrichment at inflammatory sites. Hence, we have further elucidated the immune cell component distribution in human sublingual mucosa.