Giuseppe Banfi

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (286)703.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Motor imagery (M.I.) is a cognitive process in which movements are mentally evoked without overt actions. Behavioral and fMRI studies show a decline of explicit M.I. ability (e.g., the mental rehearsal of finger oppositions) with normal ageing: this decline is accompanied by the recruitment of additional cortical networks. However, none of these studies investigated behavioral and the related fMRI ageing modifications in implicit M.I. tasks, like the hand laterality task (HLT). To address this issue, we performed a behavioral and fMRI study: 27 younger subjects (mean age: 31 years) and 29 older subjects (mean age: 61 years) underwent two event-related design fMRI experiments. In the HLT, participants were asked to decide whether a hand rotated at different angles was a left or right hand. To test the specificity of any age related difference in the HLT, we used a letter rotation task as a control experiment: here subjects had to decide whether rotated letters were presented in a standard or a mirror orientation. We did not find any group difference in either behavioral task; however, we found significant additional neural activation in the elderly group in occipito-temporal regions: these differences were stronger for the HLT rather than for the LRT with group by task interactions effects in right occipital cortices. We interpret these results as evidence of compensatory processes associated with ageing that permit a behavioral performance comparable to that of younger subjects. This process appears to be more marked when the task specifically involves motor representations, even when these are implicitly evoked.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Behavioural brain research
  • Jincheng Xu · Giovanni Lombardi · Wei Jiao · Giuseppe Banfi
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    ABSTRACT: Background Osteoporosis and postmenopausal bone loss pose a huge social and economic burden worldwide. Regular exercise and physical activity are effective interventions for maximizing or maintaining peak bone mass and preventing bone loss in the elderly; however, most recommendations are addressed to the general public and lack specific indications for girls and women, the segment of the population most at risk for developing osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was to summarize current evidence for the effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on bone status in girls and women, and to explore whether specific exercise programs exist for improving or maintaining bone mass or bone strength in females. Methods The PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2009, updated to 22 June 2015, using the following groups of search terms: (i) ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’; and (ii) ‘bone’, ‘bone health’, ‘bone strength’, ‘bone structure’, ‘bone metabolism’, ‘bone turnover’, and ‘bone biomarkers’. Searches and screening were limited to systematic reviews or meta-analyses of studies in females and published in English. Our final analysis included 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Results Combined-impact exercise protocols (impact exercise with resistance training) are the best choice to preserve/improve bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. Peak bone mass in young girls can be improved with short bouts of school-based high-impact plyometric exercise programs. Whole-body vibration exercises have no beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal or elderly women. Conclusions and Implications Lifelong exercise, specific for age, is an effective way to sustain bone health in girls and women.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Sports Medicine
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    Giuseppe Banfi · Giuseppe Lippi
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    ABSTRACT: The essential contribution that the preanalytical phase plays to the reliability of the total testing process and the quality of diagnostic information is now clear to most laboratory professionals. The recent release of the 2015 STARD guidelines has further contributed to catalyze the attention on this topic, also emphasizing the importance of preanalytical activities in the quality of diagnostic studies. Nevertheless, the familiarity of many scientists and clinicians with extra-analytical issues remains vague, at best. The role and active involvement of experts or national and international organizations of laboratory medicine has propelled the generation of a consistent literature, culminating in robust and sizeable recommendations aimed to define best practice criteria for accurate and appropriate handling of biological specimens before analysis. Such a huge scientific effort has been paralleled by a number of technological advances in the materials used for drawing blood and in the procedures for collection, transport, centrifugation, separation and storage of biological materials. The high degree of complexity and heterogeneity in the preanalytical phase is mainly attributable to the analysis of different biological fluids (e.g., whole blood, serum, plasma, urine), less frequently used biological materials such as saliva, hairs, stools, and even of specimens necessitating special preparations (i.e., nucleic acids, supernatants or cell cultures). Additional sources of vulnerability emerge from the use of different procedures and materials for collection of biological specimens.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem cell International
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    ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity has been recognized, by the World Health Organization as the fourth cause of death (5.5 % worldwide). On the contrary, physical activity (PA) has been associated with improved quality of life and decreased risk of several diseases (i.e., stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, malignancies). Bone turnover is profoundly affected from PA both directly (load degree is the key determinant for BMD) and indirectly through the activation of several endocrine axes. Several molecules, secreted by muscle (myokines) and adipose tissues (adipokines) in response to exercise, are involved in the fine regulation of bone metabolism in response to the energy availability. Furthermore, bone regulates energy metabolism by communicating its energetic needs thanks to osteocalcin which acts on pancreatic β-cells and adipocytes. The beneficial effects of exercise on bone metabolism depends on the intermittent exposure to myokines (i.e., irisin, IL-6, LIF, IGF-I) which, instead, act as inflammatory/pro-resorptive mediators when chronically elevated; on the other hand, the reduction in the circulating levels of adipokines (i.e., leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin) sustains these effects as well as improves the whole-body metabolic status. The aim of this review is to highlight the newest findings about the exercise-dependent regulation of these molecules and their role in the fine regulation of bone metabolism.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Endocrine
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    ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid system (which includes fatty acid derivatives, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes) is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including bone metabolism in which it regulates the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as differentiation of their precursors. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides a useful animal model for bone research since zebrafish bones develop rapidly and are anatomically similar to mammalian bones. Putative orthologues and paralogs of endocannabinoid genes have recently been identified in zebrafish, demonstrating the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) receptors with affinity to endocannabinoid ligands. To identify therapeutic molecules potentially useful in bone-related diseases, we evaluated the in vivo effects of exposure to long-chain fatty acid amides in adult zebrafish. Using a well-established zebrafish scale model, we found that anandamide and N-linoleoylethanolamine are able to stimulate bone formation by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity in physiological conditions. In addition, they prevent the alteration of bone markers in a prednisolone-induced osteoporosis model in adult zebrafish scales, whereas their esterified forms do not. These data suggest that long-chain fatty acid amides are involved in regulating bone metabolism in zebrafish scales and that the CB2 receptor is a key mediator in this process.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmacological Research
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the neural correlates of voluntary motor control in 24 adult Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) patients. We examined whether imagination and the execution of the same voluntary movement - finger oppositions with either hand - were associated with specific patterns of activation. We also explored whether these patterns correlated with the severity of the syndrome, as measured by the YGTSS scale for motor tics. The presence of brain morphometric abnormalities was also assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Crucial to our experiment was the manipulation of the presence of an explicit motor outflow in the tasks. We anticipated a reduction in the ticking manifestation during the explicit motor task and brain activation differences between GTS patients and 24 age/gender-matched normal controls. The anticipated differences were all evident in the form of hyperactivations in the GTS patients in the premotor and prefrontal areas for both motor tasks for both hands; however, the motor imagery hyperactivations also involved rostral pre-frontal and temporo-parietal regions of the right hemisphere. The BOLD responses of the premotor cortices during the motor imagery task were significantly correlated with the YGTSS scores. In contrast, no significant brain morphometric differences were found. This study provides evidence of a different neurofunctional organisation of motor control between adult patients with GTS and healthy controls that is independent from the actual execution of motor acts. The presence of an explicit motor outflow in GTS mitigates the manifestation of tics and the need for compensatory brain activity in the brain regions showing task dependent hyperactivations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on mechanical low back pain (MLBP) rehabilitation, the secular (i.e., long-term) trend, and the distribution of interventions studied. Methods: All included RCTs were extracted from all Cochrane systematic reviews focusing on rehabilitation therapies for MLBP, and two independent reviewers screened and analyzed the information on interventions. Results: After removal of duplicates, the data set consisted of 196 RCTs published between 1961 and 2010. The number of RCTs published increased consistently over time: 2 trials (1% of the total) were published in 1961–1970, 10 (5%) in 1971–1980, 41 (21%) in 1981–1990, 68 (35%) in 1991–2000, and 75 (38%) in 2001–2010. The intervention of interest in the majority of RCTs was exercise therapy (115/399; 29%), followed by spinal manipulation therapies (60/399; 15%). Conclusion: The number of RCTs focusing on MLBP has risen over time; of all interventions studied, exercise therapy has attracted the most research interest.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Physiotherapy Canada
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Amino Acids
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and osteoprotegerin plasma concentrations in patients affected by disc herniation, the most common epiphenomenon of disc degenerative diseases, and in a matched cohort of healthy subjects and whether the expression of these markers was associated to a polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene. For this case-control study, 110 consecutive cases affected by lumbar disc herniation (confirmed by MRI) and 110 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Subjects affected by any other pathology were excluded. RANKL and osteoprotegerin were measured in plasma by immunoassays. The difference in these markers between cases and controls was assessed by t test. The correlation between osteoimmunological markers concentrations, anthropometrical variables, and the expression of the pathology was statistically assessed (Pearson's test) along with the association (Fisher's exact test) with the vitamin D receptor gene genotype, determined elsewhere. Despite comparable osteoprotegerin concentrations, cases, altogether or grouped for gender, express lower RANKL and, consequently, RANKL-to-osteoprotegerin ratio. While in cases RANKL and osteoprotegerin concentrations were independent from age and BMI, in controls they increased with age. Disc herniation was strongly associated with RANKL and the presence of the F allele of the VDR gene. Whether vertebral bone changes precede or follow cartilage deterioration in intervertebral disc degeneration is not known. Our results suggest a reduced bone turnover rate, associated to a specific genetic background, in patients affected by lumbar disc herniation which could be one of the favoring factors for disc degeneration.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Spine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that endurance and even recreational cycling may stimulate bone resorption; however, little is known about cartilage response to endurance cycling exercise. We investigated effort-dependent changes in bone turnover and cartilage biomarkers in blood and urine samples from elite cyclists during a 3-week stage race. Whole blood and urine samples were collected the day before the start of the race, at mid and end-race for serum and urinary CTx-I, NTx-I, PINP, COMP (only in serum), and CTx-II analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The values were corrected for plasma volume or creatinine excretion, respectively, and correlated with power output (corrected for body weight) and net energy expenditure. Bone marker concentrations in both serum and urine were slightly but significantly decreased. Among the cartilage degradation markers, only CTx-II was decreased, while COMP remained unchanged. The changes in bone and cartilage turnover indexes were correlated with the indexes of physical effort and energy consumption. Strenuous physical effort, in the absence of mechanical loading, slows bone metabolism and only minimally affects cartilage turnover. Since changes in plasma and urine volume, which normally occur in exercising athletes, can mask these effects, biomarker concentrations need to be corrected for shifts in plasma volume and urinary creatinine for correct interpretation of the data.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: the aim of this systematic literature review is to report clinical outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) used as a revision surgery following failure of the primary implant due to rotator cuff insufficiency. a systematic review was performed using the following key words: revision, shoulder, rotator cuff deficiency, outcome assessment, treatment outcome, complications. Studies eligible for inclusion in the review were clinical trials investigating patients in whom a primary shoulder arthroplasty implant with an incompetent rotator cuff was replaced with a reverse shoulder prosthesis. nine articles were identified and further reviewed. The results refer to a total of 226 shoulders that were treated with RSA as revision surgery. The patients in the studies had a mean age ranging from 64 to 72 years and the longest follow-up was 3.8 years. Improvements in function and reduction of pain were shown by many studies, but the mean Constant score ranged from 44.2 to 56. High complication rates (of up to 62%) were recorded, and a mean reoperation rate of 27.5%. RSA as revision surgery for patients with rotator cuff deficiency is a valid option, and often the only solution available, but it should be limited to elderly patients with poor function and severe pain. level IV, systematic review of level I-IV studies.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the progressive destruction of bone tissue due to the uncontrolled proliferation of the immunoglobulins. The detection of bone turnover markers (BTMs) may represent a non-invasive method to assess the bone involvement and to predict the risk of bone morbidity. This systematic review evaluates clinical utility of changes in BTMs levels in MM patients and their prognostic role. We searched Medline, Embase, WOS and Scopus. All eligible articles were examined and the risk of bias was evaluated. Results about PICP, PINP, ICTP, OC, CTX, NTX, RANKL and OPG were extracted. Weighted mean difference, risk ratio and hazard ratio were pooled. Thirty studies and more than 2500 patients were included in this systematic review. The majority of them (50%) used ELISA to quantify BTMs, 10 of them used RIA and only 4 did not report the information regarding the type of immunoassays. In MM patients, the concentration of NTX and ICTP increased, instead the concentrations of BAP and OC lowered when compared to healthy subjects. High levels of ICTP were predictive of bone events (RR 1.18) and they were associated to poor survival (HR 1.08). Most of the included studies were considered at high risk of bias, in fact the reporting of the results was often incomplete. Between-studies heterogeneity was high. BTMs measurement may be very useful in the management of MM patients, especially to evaluate the bone disease progression. They could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of bone events and to opt for more appropriate therapy; nevertheless their high biological and analytical variability limit their implementation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
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    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Pancreas

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Pancreas
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the FokI polymorphism (rs2228570) in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and conventional risk factors were associated with spine disorders in the Italian population, but without gender analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-seven patients (149 males, 118 females) with lumbar spine disorders were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 254 (127 males, 127 females) asymptomatic controls were enrolled. The exposure to putative risk factors was evaluated and FokI polymorphism was detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An association between lumbar spine pathologies and higher than average age; overweight; family history; lower leisure physical activity; smoking habit; higher number of hours/day exposure to vibration and more sedentary or intense physical job demand was observed in male patients. In contrast, in females, only higher age, overweight, family history and lower leisure physical activity were risk factors. FF genotype was a 2-fold risk factor to develop discopathies and/or osteochondrosis concomitant with disc herniation for both gender patients, while heterozygous Ff was protective for females only. In males only ff genotype was protective for discopathies and/or osteochondrosis and F allele was a 2-fold risk factor for hernia; discopathies; discopathies and/or osteochondrosis. Sex-related differences in voluntary behaviors, exposure to environmental risks and genetic background could be crucial for a gender-differentiated management of patients with spine disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term effects of glucocorticoid treatment in humans induce bone loss and increase the risk of fracture in the skeleton. The pathogenic mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) are still unclear. The GIOP and its effects have been reproduced in several animal models including Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryo. The treatment of adult fish with prednisolone (PN) has shown a dose-dependent decrease of mineralized matrix in the scales. Large resorption lacunae are characterized by single TRAP-positive cells which migrate to the margin of the scale merging into a multinucleated structures. The treatment with PN of cultured scales did not increase TRAP activity suggesting that the massive presence of osteoclasts in the resorption sites could be likely the result of a systemic recruitment of monocyte-macrophage precursors. We observed that treatment with PN induced a significant decrease of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in scale scleroblasts if compared with untreated controls. Then, we investigated the total mineral balance under prednisolone treatment using a time-dependent double live staining. The untreated fish fully repaired the resorption lacuna induced by prednisolone, whereas treated fish failed. The presence of osteoclast resorption fingerprints on new matrix suggested that the osteoclast activity counterbalances the osteodepositive activity exerted by scleroblasts. The treatment with PN in association with alendronate (AL) has surprisingly resulted in a significant decrease of TRAP activity and increase of ALP compared to PN-treated fish in biochemical and histological assays confirming the action of alendronate against GIOP in fish as well in humans. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Experimental Pathology
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    Giovanni Lombardi · Giuseppe Banfi

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinica Chimica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: E-cadherin accumulates in hypoxic bone metastasis opposite to primary carcinoma.•HIF-1 and PPARγ cooperate in inducing E-cadherin under hypoxia in metastatic cells.•Wwox regulates HIF-1α phosphorylation and nuclear translocation.•Hypoxia plus Wwox prevent HIF-1α degradation via HDM2 forming a regulatory loop.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The advantages of simultaneous bilateral procedures in joint arthroplasty have been widely described for in total joint replacements of both the hip and the knee. In contrast, unicompartmental knee arthroplasties, despite their effectiveness in pain relieving and functional improvement, are underinvestigated in these terms. The purpose of this study is to assess the possible benefits and risks of bilateral simultaneous knee replacements, in comparison with unilateral procedures. Methods: A total of 567 surgery reports of bilateral simultaneous (220) or unilateral (347) unicompartmental knee arthroplasties were analysed to collect study parameters. Information like the onset of complications and need for revisions were recorded by phone interview (at least two years after surgery). All surgeries were performed by the same orthopaedic surgeon, assisted by the same anesthesiologist. Results: Complication and revision rates, as well as the length of hospital stay were similar between the two study groups, while blood and haemoglobin losses, and consequently the use of transfusion of allogeneic and autologous blood units, were higher in the simultaneous bilateral group. Conclusions: Simultaneous bilateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasties could significantly reduce, if both joints are affected, the length of hospital stay and, therefore, patient management costs. At the same time, they do not lead to more frequent revisions or complications. The higher transfusion of allogeneic blood units could be reduced to unilateral surgery levels by the application of currently available protocols of autologous blood reinfusion.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Orthopaedics

Publication Stats

3k Citations
703.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1987-2015
    • University of Milan
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health
      • • Department of Biomedical Science
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1997-2014
    • San Raffaele Scientific Institute
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004-2013
    • Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy