George L King

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (141)1037.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal fibroblast function underlies poor wound healing in patients with diabetes; however, the mechanisms that impair wound healing are poorly defined. Here, we evaluated fibroblasts from individuals who had type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 years or more (Medalists, n = 26) and from age-matched controls (n = 7). Compared with those from controls, Medalist fibroblasts demonstrated a reduced migration response to insulin, lower VEGF expression, and less phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), but not p-ERK, activation. Medalist fibroblasts were also functionally less effective at wound closure in nude mice. Activation of the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ) was increased in postmortem fibroblasts from Medalists, fibroblasts from living T1D subjects, biopsies of active wounds of living T1D subjects, and granulation tissues from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes-induced PKCD mRNA expression was related to a 2-fold increase in the mRNA half-life. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ or expression of a dominant-negative isoform restored insulin signaling of p-AKT and VEGF expression in vitro and improved wound healing in vivo. Additionally, increasing PKCδ expression in control fibroblasts produced the same abnormalities as those seen in Medalist fibroblasts. Our results indicate that persistent PKCδ elevation in fibroblasts from diabetic patients inhibits insulin signaling and function to impair wound healing and suggest PKCδ inhibition as a potential therapy to improve wound healing in diabetic patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps (CSII) may improve HbA1c and quality of life relative to the use of multiple daily injections (MDI) in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet there is limited information about the relationship of CSII to mortality. The 50-Year Medalist Study provides a unique opportunity to investigate in 944 individuals with more than 50 y of T1D (mean duration = 53 y, HbA1c = 7.1%, age = 65 y, age at onset = 11 y, daily insulin dose = 0.43 u/kg; 59% use CSII, 49% for 10 y or longer).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D (disease duration ≥ 50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist -C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist -C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage. We propose miR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Cell Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is one postulated pathway by which diabetes produces cardiac and other systemic complications. Our aim was to determine which metabolic parameters are associated with circulating fibrosis-related biomarkers transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP). We used linear regression to determine the cross-sectional associations of diverse metabolic parameters, including fasting glucose, fasting insulin, body mass index, fatty acid binding protein 4, and non-esterified fatty acids, with circulating levels of TGF-β (n = 1559) and PIIINP (n = 3024) among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Among the main metabolic parameters we examined, only fasting glucose was associated with TGF-β (P = 0.03). In contrast, multiple metabolic parameters were associated with PIIINP, including fasting insulin, body mass index, and non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.001, respectively). These associations remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment, except the association between BMI and PIIINP. Isolated hyperglycemia is associated with higher serum concentrations of TGF-β, while a broader phenotype of insulin resistance is associated with higher serum PIIINP. Whether simultaneous pharmacologic targeting of these two metabolic phenotypes can synergistically reduce the risk of cardiac and other manifestations of fibrosis remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
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    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Clinical observations showed a correlation between accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes and high plasmatic level of IL-18, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-18 enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules contributing to atherosclerotic plaque formation and instability. Previous studies indicated that protein kinase C (PKC)-β inhibition prevented macrophage-induced cytokine expression involved in diabetic (DM) atherosclerotic plaque development. However, the role of PKC-β activation on IL-18/IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP) pathway causing endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion in diabetes has never been explored. Methods and results: Apoe(-/-) mice were rendered DM and fed with western diet containing ruboxistaurin (RBX), a PKC-β inhibitor. After 20 weeks, atherosclerotic plaque composition was quantified. Compared with non-diabetic, DM mice exhibited elevated atherosclerotic plaque formation, cholestoryl ester content and macrophage infiltration, as well as reduced IL-18BP expression in the aorta which was prevented with RBX treatment. Endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages were exposed to normal or high glucose (HG) levels with or without palmitate and recombinant IL-18 for 24 h. The combined HG and palmitate condition was required to increase IL-18 expression and secretion in macrophages, while it reduced IL-18BP expression in EC causing up-regulation of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and monocyte adhesion. Elevated VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adherence were prevented by siRNA, RBX, and IL-18 neutralizing antibody. Conclusion: Our study unrevealed a new mechanism by which PKC-β activation promotes EC dysfunction caused by the de-regulation of the IL-18/IL-18BP pathway, leading to increased VCAM-1 expression, monocyte/macrophage adhesion, and accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation in diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cardiovascular Research
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes is rising dramatically among Asians, with increased consumption of the typical Western diet as one possible cause. We explored the metabolic responses in East Asian Americans (AA) and Caucasian Americans (CA) when transitioning from a traditional Asian diet (TAD) to a typical Western diet (TWD), which has not been reported before. This 16-week randomized control pilot feasibility study, included 28AA and 22CA who were at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Eight weeks of TAD were provided to all participants, followed by 8 weeks of isoenergy TWD (intervention) or TAD (control). Anthropometric measures, lipid profile, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers were assessed. While on TAD, both AA and CA improved in insulin AUC (−960.2 µU/mL×h, P = 0.001) and reduced in weight (−1.6 kg; P<0.001), body fat (−1.7%, P<0.001) and trunk fat (−2.2%, P<0.001). Comparing changes from TAD to TWD, AA had a smaller weight gain (−1.8 to 0.3 kg, P<0.001) than CA (−1.4 to 0.9 kg, P = 0.001), but a greater increase in insulin AUC (AA: −1402.4 to 606.2 µU/mL×h, P = 0.015 vs CA: −466.0 to 223.5 µU/mL×h, P = 0.034) and homeostatic static model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (AA: −0.3 to 0.2, P = 0.042 vs CA: −0.1 to 0.0, P = 0.221). Despite efforts to maintain isoenergy state and consumption of similar energy, TAD induced weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity in both groups, while TWD worsened the metabolic profile. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379548
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index ≥25.0 or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) three times a day for eight weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred and twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs. 2.21 vs. 2.13 mm; P < 0.0001), clinical attachment loss (6.11 vs. 6.06 vs. 5.98 mm; P < 0.0001), and bleeding on probing (16.2 vs. 13.2 vs. 14.6%; P = 0.005) showed significant reductions after the test-meal period, and these improvements persisted until the follow-up period. Body weight (P < 0.0001), HbA1c (P < 0.0001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.038) levels showed improvement after the test-meal period; they returned to baseline levels after the follow-up period. In conclusion, treatment with a high-fiber, low-fat diet for eight weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Nutrition Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE We characterize and correlate endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) with lack of vascular complications in Joslin's Medalist Study in patients with type 1 diabetes for 50 years or longer.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSEPC and CPC levels were ascertained by flow cytometry and compared among Medalists (n = 172) with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 84 of 162), neuropathy (n = 94 of 165), diabetic nephropathy (DN; n = 18 of 172), cardiovascular disease (CVD; n = 63 of 168), age-matched controls (n = 83), type 2 diabetic patients (n = 36), and younger type 1 diabetic patients (n = 31). Mitogens, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative markers were measured in blood or urine. Migration of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Medalists and age-matched controls were compared.RESULTSMedalists' EPC and CPC levels equaled their nondiabetic age-matched controls, were 10% higher than younger type 1 diabetic patients, and were 20% higher than age-matched type 2 diabetic patients. CPC levels were 15% higher in Medalists without CVD and nephropathy than those affected, whereas EPC levels were significantly higher in those without peripheral vascular disease (PVD) than those with PVD. Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) levels were higher in Medalists with CVD, DN, and DR than those not affected and their controls. IGF-I levels were lower in Medalists and correlated inversely with CPC levels. Additionally, cultured PBMCs from Medalists migrated more than nondiabetic controls.CONCLUSIONS Normal levels of EPC and CPC in the Medalists, unlike other groups with diabetes, especially those without CVD, support the idea that endogenous factors exist to neutralize the adverse effects of metabolic abnormalities of diabetes on vascular tissues.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Vascular dysfunction is a major contributor to diabetes complications. It is also the primary physiologic cause of erectile dysfunction and considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in males over age 40. A cohort of individuals with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes, Joslin Medalists, have low rates of small but not large vessel complications. This study aims to identify the prevalence and longitudinal association of sexual dysfunction (SD) with CVD in Joslin Medalists.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Description and association of self-assessment of SD in males of the Medalist cohort by self-reported sexual problems with CVD. SD is validated through the use of the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF).RESULTSOf 301 males in the Medalist Study, 69.8% reported a history of SD. Unadjusted risk factors included elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P = 0.02), elevated BMI (P = 0.03), higher total cholesterol (P = 0.02), lower HDL (P < 0.01), and increased levels of interleukin-6 (P = 0.03). SD was independently associated with CVD (age-, HbA1c-, and BMI-adjusted OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.0-3.5]). In adjusted analyses, retinal, neural, and renal complications were not associated (P > 0.05) with SD. Current report of SD (IIEF score ≤17) in a subset of Medalists was significantly correlated with self-reported longitudinal SD.CONCLUSIONSSD in those with extreme-duration type 1 diabetes is independently associated with CVD, representing a large vessel pattern. The findings suggest that SD may predict CVD in those with type 1 diabetes of long duration. These individuals have also been found to be relatively free of microvascular complications.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation, induced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin II (AngII), inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt/eNOS by decreasing p-Tyr-IRS2 in endothelial cells. PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) reduced insulin-induced p-Tyr-IRS2 by 46% ± 13% and similarly, phosphorylation of Akt/eNOS. Site-specific mutational analysis showed that PMA increased serine phosphorylation at three sites on IRS2 (303, 343, and 675), which affected insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2 at 653, 671, and 911 (p-Tyr-IRS2) and p-Akt/eNOS. Specific PKCβ2 activation decreased p-Tyr-IRS2 and increased the phosphorylation of two serine sites (303 and 675) on IRS2 that were confirmed in cells overexpressing single point mutants of IRS2 (S303A or S675A) containing PKCβ2-dominant negative, or selective PKCβ inhibitor. AngII induced phosphorylation only on Ser 303 of IRS2 and inhibited insulin-induced p-Tyr911 of IRS2 and p-Akt/eNOS, which were blocked by an antagonist of AngII, receptor I, losartan, or overexpression of single mutant S303A of IRS2. Increases of p-Ser303 and p-Ser675 and decreases in p-Tyr911 of IRS2 were observed in vessels of Zucker fatty insulin resistant vs. lean rats. Thus, AngII or PKCβ activation can phosphorylate Ser303 and Ser675 in IRS2 to inhibit insulin-induced p-Tyr911 and its anti-atherogenic actions (p-Akt/eNOS) in endothelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts.Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center.ResultsAA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (-0.9% ± 1.6%, -0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044).Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Diabetes Educator
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Loss of insulin action in the endothelium can cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Hyperglycemia and elevated fatty acids induced by diabetes mellitus can activate protein kinase C-β isoforms and selectively inhibit insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway to inhibit the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and metabolic actions. Objective: To demonstrate that overexpressing protein kinase C-β2 isoform in endothelial cells can cause selective insulin resistance and exacerbate atherosclerosis in the aorta. Methods and results: Protein kinase C-β2 isoform was overexpressed in endothelial cells using a promoter of vascular endothelial cell cadherin. These mice were cross-bred with apoE-/- mice [Tg (Prkcb)apoE-/-]. On a Western diet, Tg(Prkcb)apoE-/- and apoE-/- mice did not differ in systemic insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipid, or blood pressure. Insulin action in endothelial cells and femoral artery from Tg(Prkcb)apoE-/- mice was impaired by ≈40% with respect to Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation, and leukocyte-endothelial cell binding increased in cultured lung endothelial cells from Tg(Prkcb)apoE-/- mice compared with that from apoE-/- mice. Basal and angiotensin-stimulated big endothelin-1 levels were elevated in Tg(Prkcb)apoE-/- mice compared with apoE-/- mice. The severity of atherosclerosis in the aorta from Tg(Prkcb)apoE-/- mice increased by ≈70% as measured by en face fat staining and plaque content of the number of smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Conclusions: Specific protein kinase C-β2 activation in the endothelial cells caused dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis because of loss of insulin-stimulated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and angiotensin-induced increases in endothelin-1 expression.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although excessive fructose intake is epidemiologically linked with dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, the mechanisms regulating plasma fructose are not well known. Cells transfected with sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SGLT5), which is expressed exclusively in the kidney, transport fructose in vitro; however, the physiological role of this transporter in fructose metabolism remains unclear. To determine whether SGLT5 functions as a fructose transporter in vivo, we established a line of mice lacking the gene encoding SGLT5. Sodium-dependent fructose uptake disappeared in renal brush border membrane vesicles from SGLT5-deficient mice, and the increased urinary fructose in SGLT5-deficient mice indicated that SGLT5 was the major fructose reabsorption transporter in the kidney. From this, we hypothesized that urinary fructose excretion induced by SGLT5 deficiency would ameliorate fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. To test this hypothesis we compared SGLT5-deficient mice with wild-type mice under conditions of long-term fructose consumption. Paradoxically, however, fructose-induced hepatic steatosis was exacerbated in the SGLT5-deficient mice, and the massive urinary fructose excretion was accompanied by reduced levels of plasma triglycerides and epididymal fat but fasting hyperinsulinemia compared with fructose-fed wild-type mice. There was no difference in food consumption, water intake, or plasma fructose between the two types of mice. No compensatory effect by other transporters reportedly involved in fructose uptake in the liver and kidney were indicated at the mRNA level. These surprising findings indicated a previously unrecognized link through SGLT5 between renal fructose reabsorption and hepatic lipid metabolism.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Christian Rask-Madsen · George L King
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with diabetes, atherosclerosis is the main reason for impaired life expectancy, and diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy are the largest contributors to end-stage renal disease and blindness, respectively. An improved therapeutic approach to combat diabetic vascular complications might include blocking mechanisms of injury as well as promoting protective or regenerating factors, for example by enhancing the action of insulin-regulated genes in endothelial cells, promoting gene programs leading to induction of antioxidant or anti-inflammatory factors, or improving the sensitivity to vascular cell survival factors. Such strategies could help prevent complications despite suboptimal metabolic control.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Cell metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Willow bark extract (WBE) is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and has been traditionally used for treating fever, pain and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Caenorhabditis elegans. WBE prevented oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity of HUVECs and death of C. elegans. WBE dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes, heme oxygenase-1, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier and catalytic subunits, and p62, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HUVECs. In the nematode C. elegans, WBE increased the expression of the gcs-1::green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter, a well-characterized target of the Nrf2 ortholog SKN-1, in a manner that was SKN-1-dependent. WBE increased intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2, and activity of an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter plasmid in HUVECs. WBE-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes, and increased GSH levels in HUVECs were reduced by Nrf2 and p38 small interfering (si)RNAs, and by the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580. Nrf2 siRNA reduced the cytoprotective effect of WBE against oxidative stress in HUVECs. Salicin, a major anti-inflammatory ingredient of WBE, failed to activate ARE-luciferase activity, while a salicin-free WBE fraction showed intensive activity. WBE induced antioxidant enzymes and prevented oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 independently of salicin, providing a new potential explanation for the clinical usefulness of WBE.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To correlate changes between VEGF expression with systemic and retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in rodent models of obesity induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Methods: Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein levels were assessed by RT-PCR and VEGF ELISA, respectively. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CD11b/c positive cell ratio were used as systemic inflammatory markers. Retinal expression of Nox2, Nox4, and p47phox mRNA levels were measured as oxidative stress markers. TNF-α, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL1β, and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were used as retinal inflammatory markers. Results: Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein expression increased in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF(fa/fa)) rats and streptozotosin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, after two months of disease, but not in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were elevated in insulin resistant and diabetic rats. Some oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and IL1-β) were upregulated in the retina of ZDF(fa/fa) and STZ diabetic rats after 4 months of disease. In contrast, activation of NF-κB in the retina was observed in high fat fed nondiabetic and diabetic cis-NF-κB(EGFP) mice, ZF, ZDF(fa/fa), and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conclusions: Only persistent hyperglycemia and diabetes increased retinal VEGF expression. Some markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were elevated in the retina and systemic circulation of obese and insulin resistant rodents with and without diabetes. Induction of VEGF and its associated retinal pathologies by diabetes requires chronic hyperglycemia and factors in addition to inflammation and oxidative stress.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • Akira Mima · Weier Qi · George L King
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes results in vascular changes and dysfunction, and vascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. There has been a continual increase in the number of diabetic nephropathy patients and epidemic increases in the number of patients progressing to end-stage renal diseases. To identify targets for therapeutic intervention, most studies have focused on understanding how abnormal levels of glucose metabolites cause diabetic nephropathy, which is of paramount importance in devising strategies to combat the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, less studied than the systemic toxic mechanisms, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia might inhibit the endogenous vascular protective factors such as insulin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor. In this review, we highlight the importance of enhancing endogenous protective factors to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Seminars in Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-B1) is a highly pleiotropic cytokine whose functions include a central role in the induction of fibrosis. To investigate the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of TGF-B1 are positively associated with incident heart failure (HF). The hypotheses were tested using a two-phase case-control study design, ancillary to the Cardiovascular Health Study - a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Cases were defined as having an incident HF event after their 1992-1993 exam and controls were free of HF at follow-up. TGF-B1 was measured using plasma collected in 1992-1993 and data from 89 cases and 128 controls were used for analysis. The association between TGF-B1 and risk of HF was evaluated using the weighted likelihood method, and odds ratios (OR) for risk of HF were calculated for TGF-B1 as a continuous linear variable and across quartiles of TGF-B1. The OR for HF was 1.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.26-2.81) for each nanogram increase in TGF-B1, and the OR for the highest quartile (compared to the lowest) of TGF-B1 was 5.79 (95% CI 1.65-20.34), after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein, platelet count and digoxin use. Further adjustment with other covariates did not change the results. Higher levels of plasma TGF-B1 were associated with an increased risk of incident heart failure among older adults. However, further study is needed in larger samples to confirm these findings.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signaling and its effect on renal endothelial dysfunction and glomerulopathy. We studied the expression and signaling of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on glomerular endothelial cells and the novel finding of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of c-Raf at Ser259 and its inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) phospho-c-Raf(Ser338) and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Mice overexpressing protein kinase C (PKC)β2 in endothelial cells (EC-PKCβ2Tg) were established. Ang II and GLP-1 actions in glomerular endothelial cells were analyzed with small interfering RNA of GLP-1R. PKCβ isoform activation induced by diabetes decreased GLP-1R expression and protective action on the renal endothelium by increasing its degradation via ubiquitination and enhancing phospho-c-Raf(Ser338) and Ang II activation of phospho-Erk1/2. EC-PKCβ2Tg mice exhibited decreased GLP-1R expression and increased phospho-c-Raf(Ser338), leading to enhanced effects of Ang II. Diabetic EC-PKCβ2Tg mice exhibited greater loss of endothelial GLP-1R expression and exendin-4-protective actions and exhibited more albuminuria and mesangial expansion than diabetic controls. These results showed that the renal protective effects of GLP-1 were mediated via the inhibition of Ang II actions on cRaf(Ser259) and diminished by diabetes because of PKCβ activation and the increased degradation of GLP-1R in the glomerular endothelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Diabetes

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,037.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991-2015
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      • • Section on Vascular Cell Biology
      • • William P. Beetham Eye Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991-2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2006
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-1996
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States