Gang Zhao

East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (274)711.15 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a double planetary system around the evolved intermediate-mass star HD 47366 from precise radial-velocity measurements at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, Xinglong Station, and Australian Astronomical Observatory. The star is a K1 giant with a mass of 1.81+-0.13M_sun, a radius of 7.30+-0.33R_sun, and solar metallicity. The planetary system is composed of two giant planets with minimum mass of 1.75^{+0.20}_{-0.17}Mjup and 1.86^{+0.16}_{-0.15}Mjup, orbital period of 363.3^{+2.5}_{-2.4} d and 684.7^{+5.0}_{-4.9} d, and eccentricity of 0.089^{+0.079}_{-0.060} and 0.278^{+0.067}_{-0.094}, respectively, which are derived by a double Keplerian orbital fit to the radial-velocity data. The system adds to the population of multi-giant-planet systems with relatively small orbital separations, which are preferentially found around evolved intermediate-mass stars. Dynamical stability analysis for the system revealed, however, that the best-fit orbits are unstable in the case of a prograde configuration. The system could be stable if the planets were in 2:1 mean-motion resonance, but this is less likely considering the observed period ratio and eccentricity. A present possible scenario for the system is that both of the planets have nearly circular orbits, namely the eccentricity of the outer planet is less than ~0.15, which is just within 1.4sigma of the best-fit value, or the planets are in a mutually retrograde configuration with a mutual orbital inclination larger than 160 degree.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Herbig-Haro (HH) objects associated with newly born stars are typically characterized by two high Mach number jets ejected in opposite directions. However, HH 110 appears to only have a single jet instead of two. Recently, Kajdi et al. measured the proper motions of knots in the whole system and noted that HH 110 is a continuation of the nearby HH 270. It has been proved that the HH 270 collides with the surrounding mediums and is deflected by 58°, reshaping itself as HH 110. Although the scales of the astrophysical objects are very different from the plasmas created in the laboratory, similarity criteria of physical processes allow us to simulate the jet deflection in the HH 110/270 system in the laboratory with high power lasers. A controllable and repeatable laboratory experiment could give us insight into the deflection behavior. Here we show a well downscaled experiment in which a laser-produced supersonic-jet is deflected by 55° when colliding with a nearby orthogonal side-flow. We also present a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation with the Euler program, LARED-S, to reproduce the deflection. Both are in good agreement. Our results show that the large deflection angle formed in the HH 110/270 system is probably due to the ram pressure from a flow-flow collision model. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Single electrode materials capable of both electric double-layer and Faradic redox-based pseudo capacitance can be used for fabrication of high performance supercapacitors in an easy way and thus are highly desirable in the energy storage field. This contribution reports a new kind of such materials based on alkylated graphene materials (CnrGO, n is the carbon number of their alkyl side chains) having different alkyl side chains (n = 4, 8, and 16). These materials were prepared via esterification of KOH-treated GO with the corresponding alkyl bromides in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst. More importantly, water was used as the reaction medium, and thus endowing the preparation method an eco-friend feature. The so-prepared graphene materials displayed chain length-dependent specific surface area and the population of residue CO functionalities, and thus affording vast differences in their supercapacitor behaviors. C4rGO, the product having butyl side chains, showed the best supercapacitor performance with a capacitance up to 242.2 F g−1 at a scan rate of 100 mV s−1 and a good cycling stability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Carbon
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    ABSTRACT: Redox-active graphene materials are highly desirable for the production of high performance supercapacitors. Following our previous work that found that alkylated graphene nanosheets are a new kind of such material, we report here that the simple replacement of alkyl side chains with partially fluorinated alkyl chains further improves their capacitive electrode performance. In this work, one partially fluorinated graphene material (pFAG) was prepared by the reaction of KOH-pretreated graphene oxide with 2-perfluorohexylethyl bromide in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst. Compared with the graphene material modified with octyl side chains (AG), pFAG possesses a larger amount of residual oxygen functionalities, which is favorable to endow the material with a redox-active nature and achieve a larger faradaic capacitance. Moreover, pFAG presented a special self-assembly behavior and formed continuous and large plate-like objects in the solid state. Finally, a supercapacitor electrode was fabricated with pFAG and its performance was compared with the previously reported AG-based electrode in detail. It was found that the pFAG electrode has a much better capacitive performance than that based on AG (218.3 vs. 160.0 F g-1 at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1 by cyclic voltammetry, and 187.0 vs. 118.8 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1 by galvanostatic charge/discharge method). When charge/discharge was carried out at 1 A g-1, the specific capacitance of pFAG-based electrode reached 388.0 F g-1, among the highest values of reported graphene-based electrodes. Furthermore, pFAG electrodes exhibited a good cycling stability. All these demonstrate graphene nanosheets modified with partially fluorinated alkyl chains would be a good way to achieve high performance redox-active electrode materials. This journal is
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon stars are excellent kinematic tracers of galaxies and can serve as a viable standard candle, so it is worthwhile to automatically search for them in a large amount of spectra. In this paper, we apply the efficient manifold ranking algorithm to search for carbon stars from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) pilot survey, whose performance and robustness are verified comprehensively with four test experiments. Using this algorithm, we find a total of 183 carbon stars, and 158 of them are new findings. According to different spectral features, our carbon stars are classified as 58 C-H stars, 11 C-H star candidates, 56 C-R stars, ten C-R star candidates, 30 C-N stars, three C-N star candidates, and four C-J stars. There are also ten objects which have no spectral type because of low spectral quality, and a composite spectrum consisting of a white dwarf and a carbon star. Applying the support vector machine algorithm, we obtain the linear optimum classification plane in the J - H versus H - Ks color diagram which can be used to distinguish C-H from C-N stars with their J - H and H - Ks colors. In addition, we identify 18 dwarf carbon stars with their relatively high proper motions, and find three carbon stars with FUV detections likely have optical invisible companions by cross matching with data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. In the end, we detect four variable carbon stars with the Northern Sky Variability Survey, the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases. According to their periods and amplitudes derived by fitting light curves with a sinusoidal function, three of them are likely semiregular variable stars and one is likely a Mira variable star. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Large sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) general survey is a spectroscopic survey that will eventually cover approximately half of the celestial sphere and collect 10 million spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs. Objects in both the pilot survey and the first year regular survey are included in the LAMOST DR1. The pilot survey started in October 2011 and ended in June 2012, and the data have been released to the public as the LAMOST Pilot Data Release in August 2012. The regular survey started in September 2012, and completed its first year of operation in June 2013. The LAMOST DR1 includes a total of 1202 plates containing 2 955 336 spectra, of which 1 790 879 spectra have observed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 10. All data with SNR ≥ 2 are formally released as LAMOST DR1 under the LAMOST data policy. This data release contains a total of 2 204 696 spectra, of which 1 944 329 are stellar spectra, 12 082 are galaxy spectra and 5017 are quasars. The DR1 not only includes spectra, but also three stellar catalogs with measured parameters: late A,FGK-type stars with high quality spectra (1061 918 entries), A-type stars (100 073 entries), and M-type stars (121 522 entries). This paper introduces the survey design, the observational and instrumental limitations, data reduction and analysis, and some caveats. A description of the FITS structure of spectral files and parameter catalogs is also provided. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We have cross-matched the LAMOST DR2 with the WISE, 2MASS and PPMXL catalogs and obtained a sample of 64 819 FGK metal-poordwarfs with [Fe/H] < -0.7, distances within 2 kpc from the Sun and reliable kinematics (space velocities, angular momenta and eccentricities). With a detection strategy for halo streams provided by Klement et al, nine significant "phase-space overdensities" with stars on very similar orbits are identified from this sample. Among these overdensities, three were previously known and six are new stream candidates. The kinematics and metallicities of these stream candidates are then analyzed; they have typical halo characteristics. We have extracted the most probable members of each halo stream according to their angles with respect to the North Galactic Pole and investigate the distribution of the angular momenta to further verify their existences. Detailed study of elemental abundances for these members based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra from follow-up observations in the near future is of high interest to understand the origin of these streams. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Most Galactic metal-poor stars exhibit enhanced α-abundances (e.g. [Mg/Fe] ∼ +0.4) according to previous studies of stellar chemical compositions. However, a handful of metal-poor stars with large deficiencies in Mg (e.g. [Mg/Fe] ∼ -0.2) show severe departures from this α-enhancement trend. The sub-solar [Mg/Fe] ratios of these anomalous stars indicate that they possess different chemical enrichment histories than the majority of Galactic metal-poor stars. In previous work, we presented a method to select Mg-poor metal-poor stars from low-resolution SDSS spectra based on a spectral matching technique. In this paper, a similar method is applied to low-resolution (R ∼ 1800) LAMOST spectra. Stellar [Mg/Fe] abundances are determined by using stellar parameters delivered by the LAMOST Data Release 2 catalog. From a sample of ∼ 60 000 stars with atmospheric parameters in the range Teff = [5500, 6500] K and [Fe/H] = [-2.4, +0.5], we select 15 candidate Mg-poor metal-poor stars. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared stellar parameters, including temperature, gravity and metallicity, for common stars in the LAMOST DR2 and SDSS DR12/APOGEE datasets. It is found that the LAMOST dataset provides a more well-defined red clump feature than the APOGEE dataset in the Teff versus log g diagram. With this advantage, we have separated red clump stars from red giant stars, and attempt to establish calibrations between the two datasets for the two groups of stars. The results show that there is a good consistency in temperature with a calibration close to the one-to-one line, and we can establish a satisfactory metallicity calibration of [Fe/H]APOGEE = 1.18[Fe/H]LAMOST + 0.11 with a scatter of ~ 0.08 dex for both the red clump and red giant branch samples. For gravity, there is no correlation for red clump stars between the two datasets, and scatters around the calibrations of red giant stars are substantial. We found two main sources of scatter in log g for red giant stars. One is a group of stars with 0.00253 × Teff − 8.67 < log g < 2.6 located in the forbidden region, and the other is the contaminated red clump stars, which could be picked out from the unmatched region where stellar metallicity is not consistent with position in the Teff versus log g diagram. After excluding stars in these two regions, we have established two calibrations for red giant stars, log gAPOGEE = 0.000615 × Teff,LAMOST + 0.697 × log gLAMOST − 2.208 (σ = 0.150) for [Fe/H] > −1 and log gAPOGEE = 0.000874 × Teff,LAMOST+0.588 × log gLAMOST −3.117 (σ = 0.167) for [Fe/H] < −1. The calibrations are valid for stars with Teff = 3800 − 5400 K and log g = 0 − 3.8 dex, and are useful in work aiming to combine the LAMOST and APOGEE datasets in a future study. In addition, we find that an SVM method based on asteroseismic log g is a good way to greatly improve the accuracy of gravity for these two regions, at least in the LAMOST dataset.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Xiao-Wei Liu · Gang Zhao · Jin-Liang Hou
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    ABSTRACT: By the time of this writing, the ongoing LAMOST Galactic surveys have collected approximately 4.5 million stellar spectra with signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 per pixel. This special issue is devoted to early results from the surveys, mostly based on the LAMOST Data Release 1 (DR1; Luo et al., this volume) that contains data secured by May 2013, the end of the first year of regular surveys, although a few studies have made use of data collected in the second year of regular surveys. LAMOST DR1 was released to the Chinese astronomical community and international partners in August 2013 and made public to the whole world in March 2015. Here we briefly review the scope and motivation, data reduction and release, as well as early results of the surveys. As the project advances, one can expect that these surveys will yield an exquisite description of the distribution, kinematics and chemistry of Galactic stellar populations, especially those within a few kpc of the Sun, a robust measurement of the local dark matter density, and, consequently, shed light on how our Galaxy, and other galaxies in general, form and evolve. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method of initiating nuclear fusion reactions in a full plasma environment was suggested, and a proof-of-concept experiment was carried out with the \(\hbox {D}+\hbox {D } \rightarrow \hbox { n}\,+\,^3\)He reaction. In this new approach, two plasma jets generated by high-intensity lasers collide head-on-head. The center-of-mass energy of the nuclei increases accordingly, and therefore, reaction products can be significantly enhanced, especially in the sub-Coulomb barrier ranges. As a result of the fusion reaction, up to \(\sim 7.6\times 10^{5}\) neutrons had been observed. This new type of “plasma collider” could provide an innovative tool to study nuclear reactions under astrophysical conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H]~-4.0 including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with Subaru/HDS. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal-population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba]~-0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an AGB companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperature, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H]~-4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite-plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor with [Fe/H]<-5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ~ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and the high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the "normal" population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy well match the scaled Solar r-process pattern. LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 provides the first detailed measurements of neutron-capture elements among r-II stars at such low metallicity with [Fe/H]<-3.4, and exhibits similar behavior in the abundance ratio of Zr/Eu as well as Sr/Eu and Ba/Eu as other r-II stars.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Due to stellar rotation, the observed radial velocity of a star varies during the transit of a planet across its surface, a phenomenon known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. The amplitude of the RM effect is related to the radius of the planet which, because of differential absorption in the planetary atmosphere, depends on wavelength. Therefore, the wavelength-dependent RM effect can be used to probe the planetary atmosphere. We measure for the first time the RM effect of the Earth transiting the Sun using a lunar eclipse observed with the ESO HARPS spectrograph. We analyze the observed RM effect at different wavelengths to obtain the transmission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere after the correction of the solar limb-darkening and the convective blueshift. The ozone Chappuis band absorption as well as the Rayleigh scattering features are clearly detectable with this technique. Our observation demonstrates that the RM effect can be an effective technique for exoplanet atmosphere characterization. Its particular asset is that photometric reference stars are not required, circumventing the principal challenge for transmission spectroscopy studies of exoplanet atmospheres using large ground-based telescopes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A novel family of dipeptide-based multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salts has been developed as chiral phase-transfer catalysts, which feature ready accessibility and structure modularity, allowing easy fine-tunings of activity. They demonstrated high efficiency in catalyzing the tandem asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular SN 2 reaction between 6 or 7-substituted conjugate enones and malonates, providing synthetically important five or six-membered carbocycles and heterocycles in good yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Chemistry - A European Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Hyper-velocity stars are believed to be ejected out from the Galactic center through dynamical interactions between (binary) stars and the central massive black hole(s). In this paper, we report 19 low mass F/G/K type hyper-velocity star candidates from over one mil- lion stars of the first data release of the LAMOST general survey. We determine the unbound probability for each candidate using a Monte-Carlo simulation by assuming a non-Gaussian proper-motion error distribution, Gaussian heliocentric distance and radial velocity error dis- tributions. The simulation results show that all the candidates have unbound possibilities over 50% as expected, and one of them may even exceed escape velocity with over 90% probabili- ty. In addition, we compare the metallicities of our candidates with the metallicity distribution functions of the Galactic bulge, disk, halo and globular cluster, and conclude that the Galactic bulge or disk is likely the birth place for our candidates.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) are the key elements for probing the weak component in the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) of stellar nucleosynthesis. We performed a detailed analysis of the high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-UV spectra from the archive of HIRES on the Keck telescope, UVES on the VLT, and HDS on the Subaru Telescope, to determine the Pd and Ag abundances of 95 stars. This sample covers a wide metallicity range with -2.6 $\lesssim$ [Fe/H] $\lesssim$ +0.1, and most of them are dwarfs. The plane-parallel LTE MAFAGS-OS model atmosphere was adopted, and the spectral synthesis method was used to derive the Pd and Ag abundances from Pd I {\lambda} 3404 {\AA} and Ag I {\lambda} 3280/3382 {\AA} lines. We found that both elements are enhanced in metal-poor stars, and their ratios to iron show flat trends at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.1. The abundance ratios of [Ag/H] and [Pd/H] are well correlated over the whole abundance range. This implies that Pd and Ag have similar formation mechanisms during the Galactic evolution.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Theoretical analysis indicates that the magnetic field strength is proportional to laser intensity. Such a strong magnetic field offers a new experimental test bed to study laser-plasma physics, in particular, fast-ignition laser fusion research and laboratory astrophysics.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015

Publication Stats

4k Citations
711.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • East China University of Science and Technology
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1999-2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances
      • • Purple Mountain Observatory
      • • Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
      • • National Astronomical Observatories
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011-2014
    • Shandong University
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Earth and Planetary Sciences Department
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Clemson University
      CEU, South Carolina, United States
  • 2003-2014
    • Peking University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • National University of Defense Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
  • 2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2008-2012
    • Shanghai University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2007-2012
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Chemistry
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
    • Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2009
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Division of Theoretical Astronomy
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
    • Xinjiang University
      Hsin-chien, Jiangxi Sheng, China
    • Hebei Normal University
      Chentow, Hebei, China
  • 2006
    • Anhui Normal University
      Wu-hu-shih, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2001
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1998
    • Academia Sinica
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan