[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies is one of the risks to which travelers are exposed when going abroad. During the summer of 2012, a rabid dog died in an International Military Transit Camp in Afghanistan, leading to a public health investigation briefly reported here. The lessons learned from this episode are that such investigations are complex and that information for travelers needs to be improved.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Travel Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The French military forces had to modify their epidemiological surveillance systems at the time of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. The aim of this article was to present an evaluation of the different systems used.
Two influenza surveillance systems are usually used in the French forces: one permanent (Surveillance épidémiologique des armées or SEA) and one seasonal (Système militaire d'observation de la grippe or SMOG). The pandemic required the implementation of a daily surveillance system (Surveillance quotidienne--SQ), which aimed to monitor disrupted activity owing to 2009 A(H1N1) influenza. The qualitative evaluation of these three systems during the period from September 2009 to February 2010 was performed using 11 criteria based on the list defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta.
Although it included only 30 sentinel units vs. 320 for the other systems, the SMOG system was the best-performing system in terms of relevance, feasibility, efficacy, quality of data, usefulness, acceptability, efficiency and cost/benefits/costs ratio. The SQ proved very expensive in terms of logistics.
The SQ did not bring any significant advantage compared with the weekly surveillance schemes. In the eventuality of another similar episode, influenza surveillance could be significantly improved by using the SMOG system extended to more units for better geographical coverage.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · The European Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of food-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) in the French armed forces from 1999 to 2009.
FBDOs are reported to the military epidemiological surveillance system, which concerns all active military personnel. Investigation reports published from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed.
Among the 180 FBDOs reported, 48.3% occurred overseas. The mean reporting rate was 2.4 outbreaks p.100,000 in France and 26.7 p.100,000 overseas, reaching to 39.3 p.100,000 in Africa. Digestive symptoms were predominant among cases. Laboratory analyses on cases were positive in 29.4% of FBDOs. The most frequently isolated agents were shigella (15.4%). Laboratory analyses on food samples were positive in 18.9% of outbreaks, the most frequently isolated agent being Clostridium perfringens (15.7%). Only 7 FBDOs were documented by concordant analyses in both patients and food samples.
The reporting rate was much higher among military deployed overseas, which can be the consequence of a lack of hygiene due to operational imperatives and the consumption of local food which does not meet safety standards. In operational settings, laboratory evidence may be difficult to obtain and a timely epidemiological investigation in some cases proves valuable to identify the likely vehicle of infection and to guide targeted intervention measures.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · The Journal of infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of novel A(H1N1) virus influenza, detected in Mexico in April 2009, spread worldwide in 9 weeks. The aim of this paper is to present the monitoring results of this influenza outbreak among French armed forces.
The period of monitoring by the Military Influenza Surveillance System (MISS) was 9 months, from May 2009 to April 2010.
The main monitored events were acute respiratory infection (ARI), defined by oral temperature ≥38.5 °C and cough, and laboratory-confirmed influenza. Weekly incidence rates were calculated by relating cases to the number of servicepersons monitored.
In continental France, the incidence of ARI increased from September 2009, with a weekly maxima of 401 cases per 100,000 in early December 2009 according to MISS. Estimations of the incidence of consultations which could be related to novel A(H1N1) influenza ranged from 48 to 57 cases per 100,000.
The trends observed by MISS are compatible with French national estimations. The incidence of consultations which could be related to A(H1N1) influenza at the peak of the epidemic (194 cases per 100,000) was much lower than the national estimate (1321 cases per 100,000). This may be due to servicepersons who consulted in civilian facilities and were not monitored. Other explanations are the healthy worker effect and the younger age of the military population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the face of the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic, in October 2009 the French military health service (SSA) initiated a large vaccination campaign with Pandemrix(®) vaccine in the military forces. The aim of this study was to describe vaccine adverse events (VAE) reported during this campaign.
VAE and the number of people vaccinated were surveyed by the SSA Epidemiological network across all military forces during the campaign, from October 2009 to April 2010. For each case, a notification form was completed, providing patient and clinical information. Three types of VAE were considered: non-serious, serious and unexpected.
There were 315.4 reported VAE per 100,000 vaccinations. Vaccination and VAE incidence rate peaks coincided with influenza epidemic peak in early December. The number of injected doses was 49,138, corresponding to a 14.5% vaccination coverage among military personnel, and 155 VAE were reported, including 5 serious VAE (1 Guillain-Barre syndrome, 2 malaises and 1 convulsive episode). Most VAE were non-serious (97.1%). Among these, 6 cases of local, rapidly regressive paresthesia were observed.
The military VAE surveillance system constitutes the only observatory on benign VAE in France. The reporting rate was much higher after the pandemic vaccine than after the seasonal vaccine, which may be a reflection of stimulated reporting. This report provides a useful description of VAE among military personnel during a mass emergency vaccination program, showing that the tolerance of the pandemic vaccine appeared acceptable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
An outbreak of A(H1N1) virus influenza, detected in Mexico during April 2009, spread around the world in nine weeks. French armed forces had to adapt their epidemiological surveillance systems to this pandemic. Our aim was to present surveillance results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of A(H1N1) virus influenza, detected in Mexico during April 2009, spread around the world in nine weeks. French armed forces had to adapt their epidemiological surveillance systems to this pandemic. Our aim was to present surveillance results.
There are two influenza surveillance systems in French armed forces: one permanent throughout the year and one seasonal, the Military influenza surveillance system (SMOG). The pandemic threat led to an early reactivation of SMOG, before the initiation of a daily surveillance system specifically dedicated to A(H1N1) influenza.
In metropolitan France, the increase of respiratory infections was observed as of September 2009, with a maximum of 401 cases for 100,000 at the beginning of December according to SMOG. The estimated rate of consultations related to A(H1N1) influenza ranged between 46 and 65 cases for 100,000. For military units operating outside of metropolitan France, a peak of incidence was observed in August (400 cases for 100,000).
The trends observed by influenza military surveillance networks were compatible with French ones. Concerning French forces in operations, the increase of incidence observed in August was the consequence of the influenza outbreak in the Southern hemisphere. Estimations of consultations rate related to A(H1N1) influenza, ranged between 127 and 194 cases for 100,000 at the beginning of December, lower than the national rate (1321 cases for 100,000), a consequence of the age pyramid in the military population.