[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survey of the history and study of the psychical expressions of the oncology patients, the rules of communication ofoncologist and his patient. Personality of oncology patient and a Model of Kübler-Ross, then a decalogue of speaking about the oncology diagnosis. Clinical psychologict as an integral part of the medical team, which brings a supportive care for the oncology patients, then the psychopatological behaviour appears iside a medical team. In the end there are the authentic patients stories with the psychologist commentary.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central diabetes insipidus with an onset in adulthood is very rare. Unlike in children, central diabetes insipidus in adults is more frequently caused by inflammatory processes and neoplastic infiltrations that do not originate from the neuronal tissue than primary neuronal tissue tumours. Rare histiocytic neoplasias (Langerhans cell histiocytosis, xanthogranulomatosis and Erdheim-Chester disease) have a specific affinity to hypothalamus and the pituitary stalk not only in paediatric patients but also when occurring in adults. We describe 3 cases of central diabetes insipidus with an onset in adulthood. Diabetes insipidus was the first sign of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in 2 patients, and it was the first sign of Erdheim-Chester disease in one patient. MR imaging showed pathological infiltration and dilated pituitary stalks in all 3 patients. PET-CT proved useful in differential diagnosis, showing further extracranial pathological changes either on the basis of significant glucose accumulation or on the basis of CT imaging. The Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the first patient has also manifested itself as an infiltration of the perianal area with intensive accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - SUV 8.6 and gingival inflammation indistinguishable from parodontosis. Histology of the perianal infiltrate confirmed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Infiltration of the pituitary stalk disappeared from the MR image after 4 cycles of 2-chlordeoxyadenosin (5 mg/m2 5 consecutive days). The PET-CT of the 2nd patient showed only borderline accumulation of FDG in the ENT area, while simultaneously performed CT imaging showed cystic restructuring of the pulmonary parenchyma and nodulations consistent with pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage identified higher number of CD1 and S100 positive elements, consistent, once again, with pulmonary LCH also affecting pituitary stalk and ear canal. The PET-CT of the third patient showed increased activity in the long bones and ilium near the sacroiliac joint. Biopsy of the focus in the ilium confirmed foam histiocyte infiltration immunochemically corresponding to Erdheim-Chester disease. Additional imaging assessments revealed the presence of further signs of the disease. Pituitary infiltrate biopsy in this patient did not elucidate the diagnosis but resulted in complete panhypopituarism. Central diabetes insipidus in adulthood might be the first sign of so far undiagnosed extracranial disease, in our case of histiocytic neoplasias, and PET-CT has an excellent potential to detect extracranial symptoms of these conditions. Therefore, the high-risk pituitary stalk infiltrate biopsy should always be preceded by comprehensive examination aimed at identification of extracranial manifestations of the pituitary gland diseases.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2004, diabetes insipidus was the first clinical sign of Erdheim-Chester disease in our patient. Following introduction of substitution therapy with adiuretin, the patient had no further health complaints for four years until 2008 when he gradually developed dysarthria and, consequently, movement disorder in the form of mild right hemiparesis. The first CNS CT scan (2004) did not reveal any pathology. The first pathological MRI of the brain in 2006 - thickening of pituitary stalk by pathological infiltration to 4-5 mm. During the following year, further infiltrates were detected in the CNS. The number and size of CNS infiltrates increased gradually on MRIs performed repeatedly up to 2008. Erdheim-Chester disease has become suspected based on PET-CT examination at the end of 2008. CT showed irregular structure of the skeleton with noticeable sclerotic foci in otherwise osteoporotic bone structure; changes were the most evident in the long bones of lower limbs, in the pelvic bones, skull and arms, while only one vertebra was affected from within the entire spine. Finding ofthickened aortic wall (up to 8 mm) as another pathological circumstance was consistent with the Erdheim-Chester disease-associated changes described as coated aorta. CT scan revealed clear fibrotic changes in the area of retroperitoneum. Applied fluorodeoxyglucose has accumulated in the bone foci described on CTscans as well as in the thickened wall ofthe thoracic and abdominal aorta (SUV 3.6). Tc-pyrophosphonate skeleton scintigraphy showed the same bone foci as PET-CT. Full body MRI showed pathological signal from the bone marrow of the above mentioned locations, particularly during STIR imagining, where there was clear abnormal signal corresponding to accumulated histiocytes, the higher signal of which was well-differentiated from the normal bone marrow. Measurement of bone mineral density with DEXA confirmed reduced density in lumbar vertebrae to the average value of - 2.7 SD (the lowest value was -3.1SD). The disease is associated with elevated inflammatory parameters: leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, elevated CRP and fibrinogen levels. Diagnosis was verified following histological assessment ofiliac bone marrow, where focal infiltrations with foamy histiocytes of typical immunophenotype (CD68+, CD1a-, S100-) were confirmed. Treatment was initiated with chemotherapy consisting of 2g/m2 of cyclophosphamide on day 1 and 200 mg/m2 of etoposide IV infusion on days 1-3, and followed by administration of 5 microg/kg of G-CSF and collection of haematopoietic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). PBSC collection was followed by 5-day administration of 5 mg/m2/day of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (Litac) administered to the patient at monthly intervals.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství