[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to investigate whether menstrual cycle length may be considered as a surrogate measure of reproductive health, improving the accuracy of biochemical/sonographical ovarian reserve test in estimating the reproductive chances of women referred to ART.
A retrospective-observational-study in Padua’ public tertiary level Centre was conducted. A total of 455 normo-ovulatory infertile women scheduled for their first fresh non-donor IVF/ICSI treatment. The mean menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the preceding 6 months was calculated by physicians on the basis of information contained in our electronic database (first day of menstrual cycle collected every month by telephonic communication by single patients). We evaluated the relations between MCL, ovarian response to stimulation protocol, oocytes fertilization ratio, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and pregnancy rate in different cohorts of patients according to the class of age and the estimated ovarian reserve.
In women younger than 35 years, MCL over 31 days may be associated with an increased risk of OHSS and with a good OSI. In women older than 35 years, and particularly than 40 years, MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging and may be associated with poor ovarian response, low OSI and reduced fertilization rate. When AMH serum value is lower than 1.1 ng/ml in patients older than 40 years, MCL may help Clinicians discriminate real from expected poor responders. Considering the pool of normoresponders, MCL was not correlated with pregnancy rate while a positive association was found with patients’ age.
MCL diary is more predictive than chronological age in estimating ovarian biological age and response to COH and it is more predictive than AMH in discriminating expected from real poor responders. In women older than 35 years MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging while chronological age remains most accurate parameter in predicting pregnancy.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin‑releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH‑antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic‑pituitary‑axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH‑antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper‑responsive hypothalamic‑pituitary‑axis activity may be affected by ‘low‑gonadotropin‑responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH‑antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP‑treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ‑variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ‑variation from the baseline of the FSH and LH values will be used to further categorize group A patients into subgroups A1‑4, based on respective quartile numbers (Q1‑4). Patients admitted to each of the four subgroups A1‑4, based on their FSH quartile, will be selected at random to receive rLH supplementation (ratio, 1:1) during ovarian stimulation. If the resulting data are able to identify women that may benefit from rLH supplementation during ovarian stimulation, a large part of inconclusive evidence regarding rLH supplementation will be clarified. If patients supplemented with rLH (according to abnormal recovery of hypothalamic‑pituitary‑axis activity after OCP treatment) exhibit an improved ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequent pregnancy rate, the pre‑IVF OCP test could be adopted as a useful tool for improving the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies in poorly‑responding patients.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vulvar cancer (VC) represents about 4% of gynecologic malignancies, its incidence increases with age and peak incidence is found between 70-79 years. In cases of locally advanced disease surgery is often required and radical vulvectomy, with or without mono-bilateral inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy, is standard management. Various devices have been implemented in gynecological surgery in an attempt to minimize or avoid frequent intra/postoperative complications linked to energy use, unfortunately the majority of these devices require monopolar or bipolar energy. Ultracision® represents a unique surgical device capable of performing both cutting and coagulation at different intensities without use of electric energy. The use of Ultracision® in the radical treatment of VC has advantages both in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications responsible for the reduction of surgical time and blood loss, complete tissue removal according to oncological criteria, diminished desensitization of peripheral areas and reduction of wound complications. These advantages have been widely demonstrated and contribute to making Ultracision® a cost-effective option in the routine treatment of patients affected by vulvar cancer especially when considering its safety in cardiopathic patients with implanted pacemaker. If the impressive results achieved in radical vulvar surgery will be confirmed, scalpel use could be proposed as routine for surgery of the routinely in surgical approach of vulvar and perineal area, in both benign and malignant disease.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment of the carotenoid family, is known for its multiple beneficial properties. In this study, the effects of Asta on isolated human sperm were evaluated. Capacitation involves a series of transformations to let sperm acquire the correct features for potential oocyte fertilization, including the generation of a controlled amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cholesterol depletion of the sperm outer membrane, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) process in the head region. Volunteers, with normal spermiogram values, were divided in two separate groups on the basis of their ability to generate the correct content of endogenous ROS. Both patient group (PG) and control group (CG) were analysed for Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC) and non-viable cells (NVC), in the presence or absence of Asta. In addition, the involvement of ROS on membrane reorganization and the presence of Lyn, a Src family kinase associated with lipid rafts, were investigated. Results show that Lyn is present in the membranes of human sperm, mainly confined in midpiece in resting conditions. Following capacitation, Lyn translocated to the head concomitantly with raft relocation, thus allowing the Tyr-P of head proteins. Asta succeeded to trigger Lyn translocation in PG sperm thus bypassing the impaired ROS-related mechanism for rafts and Lyn translocation. In this study, we showed an interdependence between ROS generation and lipid rafts and Lyn relocation leading the cells to undergo the successive acrosome reaction (AR). Asta, by ameliorating PG sperm functioning, may be utilised to decrease male idiopathic infertility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is widely accepted that patients, who are considered poor responders to in vitro fertilization (IVF) benefit from recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH) supplementation during an in vitro fertilization cycle, particularly when gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH)‑antagonist (ant) treatment is used the optimal administration timing and daily dose of rLH remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimal timing of rLH‑supplementation to improve ovarian response, embryo quality, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in infertile, estimated poor responders to IVF, undergoing GnRH‑ant treatment. In addition, the present study aimed to evaluate the optimal daily dose to achieve the same outcomes. A prospective‑randomized‑cross‑matched investigation was performed on 40 patients undergoing a GnRH‑ant‑treatment‑cycle The patients were randomly assigned to either group A (rLH‑75 IU/day) or group B (rLH‑150 IU/day) and further randomized into subgroup A1/B1, in which rLH was administered at recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) administration, and subgroup A2/B2, in which rLH was administered at GnRH‑ant administration. Patients who did not become pregnant during the first cycle (35 patients), were treated a second time, cross‑matched for groups and subgroups. Improved ovarian response, embryo quality and pregnancy rate were achieved by administering rLH at 150 IU/day, starting from GnRH‑ant administration, independently from the total rLH dose administered. Improved endometrial thickness at oocyte retrieval day was achieved by administering rLH at 150 IU from the start of rFSH administration. These data led to the hypothesis that ovarian responses are affected by the timing of administration more than the total‑dose of rLH. The optimal window to administer rLH appears to be the mid‑to‑late follicular phase, despite the fact that rLH‑supplementation in the early‑follicular phase appeared to increase endometrial thickness and to enhance its morphology. Standardization of the optimal daily dose and supplementation timing of rLH may resolve the debate regarding its efficacy in increasing the number of pregnancies and neonatal survival rates.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeon's experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: "acute pain", "chronic pain", "Pfannenstiel incision", "Misgav-Ladach", "Joel Cohen incision", in combination with "Caesarean Section", "abdominal incision", "numbness", "neuropathic pain" and "nerve entrapment". Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To investigate whether antenatal recognition of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal maternal and fetal Doppler values delivered after 34 weeks' gestation is associated with changes in the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
In this retrospective study, we included 313 singleton SGA fetuses and 313 appropriate-for-gestational-age control fetuses born between 34 and 42 weeks' gestation from 2009 to 2012. Small-for-gestational-age fetuses identified before delivery (n = 124), for whom antenatal surveillance was performed until delivery (estimated fetal weight twice weekly and Doppler evaluation of the fetal compartment once weekly), were compared to those not identified at delivery (n = 189). The latter group did not undergo antenatal surveillance for several reasons (women for whom a sonographic evaluation or gynecologic consultation was not performed in the third trimester and incorrect sonographic biometric evaluation in the third trimester). Main outcome measures were mode of delivery, perinatal complications, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The risk of serious fetal complications was assessed by cross-tabulation analysis adjusted for gestational age and degree of SGA.
Prenatally recognized SGA fetuses were smaller and delivered earlier than unrecognized SGA fetuses (P< .05). Fetal acidemia (pH <7.10) was significantly more common in unrecognized SGA fetuses (3.7% versus 0%). Small-for-gestational-age fetuses at or below the 3rd percentile were more commonly recognized prenatally and hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Unrecognized SGA fetuses also had worse fetal outcomes compared to controls (P< .05). Recognized and unrecognized SGA fetuses were born significantly more frequently by cesarean delivery (P < .05). No significant differences in perinatal outcomes were found between recognized SGA deliveries with or without medical induction.
Antenatal recognition of SGA fetuses delivered after 34 weeks' gestation might improve perinatal outcomes. Medical induction of labor did not modify neonatal outcomes among prenatally recognized SGA fetuses.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To assess the effectiveness of inside-out TVT-ABBREVO in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with mean two-year follow-up.
Materials and methods:
Fifty-six women underwent surgery for moderate-severe SUI. The technology used was the TVT-ABBREVO inside-out. Each woman at 12 and 24 months underwent postoperative evaluation by means of urodynamics, Q-tip test, CST, transperineal ultrasonography, and administration of "King's Health Questionnaire" (KHQ).
The mean age of the women was 57.03 +/- 11.1 years (range 42-75). Postoperative urodynamics (12 months follow-up) resulted to be normal in 43/56 patients (76.79%), in 10/56 (17.86%) cases resulted in a considerable improvement of the symptomatology, and only 1/56 (1.78%) case had de novo overactive bladder (OAB), in 2/56 (3.57%) symptomatology unchanged. After administration of the KHQ 43/56 cases (76.79%) had resolution of the symptomatology, 10/56 cases (17.86%) improvement of the symptomatology, and no change in 3/56 cases (5.36%).
In the authors' experience, the TVT-ABBREVO resulted technically simple. The TVT-ABBREVO procedure provides high objective and subjective long-term efficacy, a clinically meaningful improvement in patient quality of life, and an excellent safety profile.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Ovarian cancer is the fourth cause of death from cancer in women worldwide and the majority of its diagnoses is made in an advanced stage of the disease. Several sonographic scoring systems have been created for a better preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant pelvic masses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of the Risk of the Malignancy Index 3 (RMI 3) and the Pelvic Masses Score (PMS).
Materials and methods:
This retrospective study was performed in 55 women admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of University of Udine for surgical exploration of pelvic masses between 2009 and 2012. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both the scores.
PMS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93.8%, a PPV of 70%, and a NPV of 100%, while RMI 3 yielded a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 91%, a PPV of 60%, and a NPV of 97.8%.
The authors found that, in discriminating between benign and malignant pelvic disease, the PMS method was more reliable than RMI3. PMS is a simple scoring system which can be used in clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · European journal of gynaecological oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of foetal spine position in the first and second labour stages to determine the probability of OPP detection at birth and the related obstetrical implications. We conducted an observational-longitudinal cohort study on uncomplicated cephalic single foetus pregnant women at term. We evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound in predicting occiput position at birth, influence of fetal spine in occiput position during labour, labour trend, analgesia request, type of delivery, and indication to CS. The accuracy of the foetal spinal position to predict the occiput position at birth was high at the first labour stage. At the second labour stage, CS (40.3%) and operative vaginal deliveries (23.9%) occurred more frequently in OPP than in occiput anterior position (7% and 15.2%, resp.), especially in cases of the posterior spine. In concordant posterior positions labour length was greater than other ones, and analgesia request rate was 64.1% versus 14.7% for all the others. The assessment of spinal position could be useful in obstetrical management and counselling, both before and during labour. The detection of spinal position, more than OPP, is predictive of successful delivery. In concordant posterior positions, the labour length, analgesia request, operative delivery, and caesarean section rate are higher than in the other combination.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of glucose metabolism on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) in pregnant women.
Material and methods:
Seventy-six women in the first trimester of pregnancy (10-13 weeks) attending the Gynecologic and Obstetric Clinic, University of Sassari, were enrolled and gave early morning urine samples. Groups I, II and III included women with serum glucose values of 65-89 mg/dL, 90-99 mg/dL and 100-125 mg/dL, respectively. Urine GAGs/PGs distribution was determined by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate strips. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was estimated kinetically.
Analysis of urinary GAGs/PGs electrophoretic profiles showed a significant increase in heparan sulfate (HS) excretion (P = 0.017) as well as a reduced chondroitin sulfate (CS) excretion (P = 0.048) in the group II pregnant women compared with the group I, and higher values of the HS/CS ratio in groups II and III compared to group I. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation among fasting blood glucose levels and the relative content of HS, the HS/CS and urinary trypsin inhibitor/CS ratios, and the N-Acetyl-β-glucosaminidase levels.
The assessment of risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus should also take into account fasting blood glucose values of 90-99 mg/dL, as the findings of our study indicated an alteration in the metabolism of GAGs during the early stages of pregnancy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the possible involvement of carbonic anhydrase activation in response to an endometriosis-related increase in oxidative stress. Peripheral blood samples obtained from 27 healthy controls and 30 endometriosis patients, classified as having endometriosis by histological examination of surgical specimens, were analysed by multiple immunoassay and carbonic anhydrase activity assay. Red blood cells (RBC) were analysed for glutathionylated protein (GSSP) content in the membrane, total glutathione (GSH) in the cytosol and carbonic anhydrase concentration and activity. In association with a membrane increase of GSSP and a cytosolic decrease of GSH content in endometriosis patients, carbonic anhydrase significantly increased (P < 0.0001) both monomerization and activity compared with controls. This oxidation-induced activation of carbonic anhydrase was positively and significantly correlated with the GSH content of RBC (r = 0.9735, P < 0.001) and with the amount of the 30-kDa monomer of carbonic anhydrase (r = 0.9750, P < 0.001). Because carbonic anhydrase activation is implied in many physiological and biochemical processes linked to pathologies such as glaucoma, hypertension, obesity and infections, carbonic anhydrase activity should be closely monitored in endometriosis. These data open promising working perspectives for diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis and hopefully of other oxidative stress-related diseases.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Reproductive biomedicine online
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Current evidence about in-vivo effects of HPV cannot definitively clarify the possible negative role of this worldwide common infection in early embryo development. However in-vitro evidence, seems to underline a possible negative effect of HPV in increasing blastocyst apoptosis and in reducing the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells. On these bases we believe that a new scientific approach is necessary to better understand the real role of male and female HPV infection in infertility and early pregnancy development.
English literature review of manuscripts focused on HPV infection and human reproduction was conducted. We performed a critical analysis of evidence and possible bias affecting both in-vivo and in-vitro studies regarding this topic.
The biggest limitation of the in-vivo studies is due to the inappropriate timing of HPV effects evaluation since evidence about in-vitro studies strongly suggests that a large part of HPV negative effects occurs during a very early stage of embryo development. All the efforts of the scientific community to investigate the real role of HPV in human reproduction disorders cannot underestimate the severe BIAS of actual evidence in postulating new hypothesis and research projects which are fundamental to clarify if HPV may be associated with unexplained couples infertility and early miscarriages.
If the relationship between HPV gametes infection and early human reproduction step impairment will be confirmed, the HPV male and couple vaccination may represent a reliable option to improve fertility in some couples affected by infertility actually classified as “idiopathic” but maybe linked to HPV infection.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To show management of patients with breast lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).
This study is the retrospective review of 65 patients, between 1996 and 2012, with isolated LCIS of the breast, evaluated through clinical examination, ultrasound, and mammography at the first examination and follow-up.
In 53 patients (81.54%), clinical examination was negative. In 14/65 (21.54%) cases, ultrasound was positive and led to biopsy. The clusters of tiny calcifications were the predominant mammographic pattern (45 cases, 69.23%). Forty-six patients (70.77%) underwent surgical biopsy after guided stereotactic placement of metallic marker (hook-wire), 12 (18.46%) by stereotactic vacuum biopsy (SVB), 5 (7.69%) by core needle biopsy (CNB) under ultrasound guidance, two (3.08%) patients CNB with clinically palpable nodules. Fourteen (21.54%) women underwent a quadrantectomy or total mastectomy after the first diagnosis; in this latter group follow-up was negative. Among the 51 patients (78.46%) who did not undergo quadrantectomy or total mastectomy, five relapses occurred, respectively, three LCIS and two infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 144 months.
LCIS is a risk factor for invasive carcinoma and should be managed with careful follow-up, but if there is a discrepancy between pathology and imaging, surgical excision is mandatory.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · European journal of gynaecological oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify maternal/pregnancy characteristics, first trimester ultrasound parameters and biochemical indices which are significant independent predictors of large-for-gestational age (LGA)neonates. DESIGN:Observational crosssectional study.
Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Udine.
72 singleton pregnancies presenting for screening for chromosomal abnormalities by nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks.
Linear regression was applied to develop first trimester prediction models for LGA.
Maternal height, parity, smoking, assisted conception and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A were significant independent predictors of LGA. PAPP-A cut-off value expressed in MoM of 1.25 used for the study was chosen to obtain good sensitivity and specificity values.
Prediction for birthweight deviations (LGA) is feasible using data available at the routine 11-14 weeks' examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Systems biology in reproductive medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate DNA fragmentation in single sperm selected by both birefringence and motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) with a single instrument.
Semen samples from 33 normozoospermic subjects.
Birefringence and MSOME to distinguish different categories of sperm: nonbirefringent (category A), birefringent (category B), birefringent with nuclear vacuoles (category C), and birefringent with no nuclear vacuoles (category D). From each semen sample, sperm of any category were selected and further analyzed by TUNEL test.
A total of 660 well-characterized sperm were evaluated for DNA fragmentation.
Category A showed a low percentage of sperm with normal MSOME results (19.4%) and high prevalence of DNA fragmentation (70.3%). Category B had 81.8% normal MSOME results, and in this group 31.8% had fragmentated DNA. Category C showed 31.8% and 92.6% DNA fragmentation in sperm with small and large nuclear vacuoles, respectively. Birefringent sperm with normal MSOME results and no vacuoles showed the lowest percentage of fragmented DNA (2.8%).
Sperm selection by birefringence or MSOME alone had one-third probability to select sperm with fragmented DNA. The lowest percentage of DNA fragmentation was found in birefringent sperm with no nuclear vacuoles and normal MSOME results. We suggest combining both methods using a single microscope and selecting sperm without nuclear vacuoles to get sperm with a higher chance of having intact DNA.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with a history of hypertension in pregnancy are at increased risk of microalbuminuria later in life. Microalbuminuria is a marker of kidney dysfunction frequently related to an inflammatory event. Pregnancy is a dynamic process characterized by immune tolerance, angiogenesis, and hormonal regulation. Menstruation and pregnancy are associated with a physiological inflammation, which is altered in preeclampsia and probably in other hypertensive situations of pregnancy. An imbalance between pro-oxidant factors and the ability to scavenge these factors produces oxidative stress, which has been evaluated in many cells, but leukocytes are the main source of inflammatory cytokines and experimental and clinical evidence support a possible role of aldosterone as a mediator of placental and renal damage mediated by growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and cytokines. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and aldosterone receptor blockers are frequently effective in reducing the risk of progression of cardiovascular and renal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early and certain diagnoses of endometriosis are mandatory to begin the correct treatment and to exclude the risk of endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EOC) and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS).
To assess the immunohistochemical expression of Ber-Ep4, an epithelial antigen, and CD10 in endometriosis.
Forty-eight women underwent laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis and endometriotic samples were recovered for histology. In all surgical specimens Ber-Ep4 and CD10 were searched by an immnohistochemical method. The authors evaluated the correlations among the immunohistochemical positivity and the location of endometriosis.
Most cases (40/48 83.34%) were represented by ovarian endometriotic cyst. Among the eight remaining cases, three (3/48, 6.25%) were pelvic endometriotic lesions, two (2/48, 4.17%) peritoneum of vesico-uterine pouch, one vaginal lesion (2.08%), one salpinx lesion (2.08%), and one inguinal location (2.08%). Ber-Ep4 and CD10 were expressed in 90% and in 100% of the ovarian lesions, respectively. In pelvic lesions Ber-Ep4 and CD10 showed both 66.67% of positivity and had the same pattern in peritoneal, salpinx, vaginal, and inguinal lesions (50%, 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively). Ber-Ep4 was negative in 6/48 (12.5%) cases whereas CDO10 was negative in 2/48 (4.17%) cases of endometriosis. The sensitivity of Ber-Ep4 and CD10 for endometriosis diagnosis were 87.50% and 95.83%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for Ber-Ep4 showed positivity in all cases of endometriosis with typical cubic epithelium, whereas CD10 was positive in 1/2 (50%) atypical case.
Immunohistochemical expression of Ber-Ep4 and CD10 was positive in most cases of endometriosis and was useful in differential diagnosis with mesothelial cysts. Ber-Ep4 was negative in cases of hyperplastic epithelium or cytological atypia; these cases are not well-differentiated and could be optimally treated by surgery and not by hormonal therapy because of the risk of cancer degeneration.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · European journal of gynaecological oncology