Fulgencio Saura-Calixto

Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (90)210.54 Total impact

  • Jara Pérez-Jiménez · M Elena Díaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61 % to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
  • Jara Pérez-Jiménez · M. Elena Díaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Current olive oil production methods generate huge amounts of polluting waste, containing most of the health-related compounds in olive. Here, a new product is obtained from olive after pitting, drying and oil extraction, without generating waste. Its characterization showed the presence, within a single matrix, of more than 90% of the polyphenols present in olive, including hydroyxtyrosols (commonly not transferred to olive oil), dietary fiber, oleic acid and polyalcohols. This product is a potential new functional ingredient, consumption of which may lead to additive and/or synergic activities among its constituents; some of which already have approved health claims. Additionally, the olive oil obtained exhibits profiles of fatty acids and phenolic compounds similar to those of commercial olive oil. The procurement of this potential functional ingredient may represent a new approach to the revalorization of olive that additionally decreases waste.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
  • Jara Pérez-Jiménez · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Macromolecular antioxidants or non-extractable polyphenols are an emerging and ignored fraction of dietary antioxidants that present differential structural and physiological features as compared with the well-known extractable polyphenols. In this study, the macromolecular antioxidant content and profile were determined by the first time for the 24 most consumed fruit and vegetables in four European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain). Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants, made up of hydolysable polyphenols and polymeric proanthocyanidins,, are major contributors (mean value 57%) to the total polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables. Macromolecular antioxidants intake from fruit and vegetable determined in the four countries selected was about 200 mg. Spain had the highest daily per capita macromolecular antioxidants intake from fruit, while the Netherlands had the highest intake derived from vegetables. Future studies of plant food macromolecular antioxidants analysis and of dietary intakes in different populations are needed to elucidate the contribution of these macromolecular antioxidants to the health effects associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and with dietary antioxidant intake.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Food Research International
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    ABSTRACT: An improvement in oxidative status is associated with a reduction in the incidence of several chronic diseases. However, daily intake of antioxidants in Western diets is decreasing. This study evaluates the effect of daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich juice (ARJ) on oxidative status, cardiovascular disease risk parameters, and untargeted plasma and urine metabolomes. Twenty-eight healthy young adults participated in an 8-week clinical trial by drinking 200 mL of ARJ (pomegranate and grape) daily. At the end of the study, the subjects showed a significant decrease (-29 %) in plasma lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde concentration), and a significant increase (+115 %) in plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma and urine metabolomes were also significantly modified and some ions modified in urine were identified, including metabolites of polyphenols, ascorbic acid and biliary acids. No significant changes were observed in lipid profile, inflammation, blood pressure or glycaemia. These results show that incorporating antioxidant-rich beverages into common diets may improve oxidative status in healthy subjects.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
  • Jara Pérez-Jiménez · M. Elena Díaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenol content in plant foods is usually considered as that found in their corresponding aqueous-organic extracts. Nevertheless, polyphenols found in these extracts would correspond only to a fraction of these phytochemicals, the extractable polyphenols (EPP). The extractions leave a residue, commonly neglected, containing an understudied fraction of plant foods polyphenols, the so-called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP). NEPP comprise polyphenols belonging to different classes, such as macromolecular polyphenols or single polyphenols associated with cell wall macromolecules. Although only a minor part of the existing literature on polyphenols in plant foods have dealt with NEPP, the existing data show that they are even more abundant than EPP in many plant foods. The present chapter aims to provide an overview of NEPP in plant foods, including their nature, procedures for their isolation, current analytical methods, content in several foods and extracts, and potential applications.
    No preview · Chapter · Feb 2014
  • Jara Pérez-Jiménez · M Elena Díaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Current research on dietary antioxidants misses the so-called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP), which are not significantly released from the food matrix either by mastication, acid pH in the stomach or action of digestive enzymes, reaching the colon nearly intact. NEPP, not detected by the usual analytical procedures, are made up of macromolecules and single phenolic compounds associated with macromolecules. Therefore, NEPP are not included in food and dietary intake data nor in bioavailability, intervention or observational studies. The present paper aims to provide an overview of dietary NEPP - nature, occurrence in diet, metabolic fate and possible health effects. NEPP are a relevant fraction of dietary polyphenols exerting their main biological action in the colon, where they are extensively fermented by the action of microbiota, giving place to absorbable metabolites. NEPP exhibit different potential health-related properties, in particular in relation to gastrointestinal health, such as increases in antioxidant and antiproliferative capacities, reduction of intestinal tumorigenesis and modification of gene expression, as observed in different animal models. Further research into NEPP may provide a better understanding of the health effects of dietary antioxidants.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Nutrition Research Reviews
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that fiber and phenolic compounds might have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Accordingly, we assessed the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin (PA)-rich dietary fiber [grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF)] on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model. Mice were fed a standard diet (control group) or a 1% (w/w) GADF-supplemented diet (GADF group) for 6 weeks. GADF supplementation greatly reduced intestinal tumorigenesis, significantly decreasing the total number of polyps by 76%. Moreover, size distribution analysis showed a considerable reduction in all polyp size categories [diameter <1mm (65%), 1–2mm (67%) and >2mm (87%)]. In terms of polyp formation in the proximal, middle and distal portions of the small intestine, a decrease of 76, 81 and 73% was observed, respectively. Putative molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis were investigated by comparison of microarray expression profiles of GADF-treated and non-treated mice. We observed that the effects of GADF are mainly associated with the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of genes related to the immune response and inflammation. Our findings show for the first time the efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of GADF against intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, suggesting its potential for the prevention of colorectal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Carcinogenesis
  • Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Most research in the field of dietary polyphenols or phenolic compounds use a chemical approach focusing exclusively polyphenols extracted from plant foods with organic solvents. However, an appreciable part of polyphenols are not extracted with organic solvents and thus are ignored in biological, nutritional and epidemiological studies. Recent reports have shown that these non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) are a major part of total dietary polyphenols and they exhibit a significant biological activity. A physiological approach is proposed on the basis that the bioavailability and health related properties of polyphenols depend on its solubility in intestinal fluids, which is different from their solubility in organic solvents. This article tries to clarify the concept of non-extractable polyphenols, distinguishing between chemical approach and physiological approach and pointing out the main qualitative and quantitative differences between them. It is stressed that literature articles and databases refer only extractable polyphenols. A greater attention to non-extractable polyphenols may fill the current gap in the field of dietary polyphenols.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Javier Zurita · María Elena Díaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Proanthocyanidins (PA) or condensed tannins, a major group of oligomeric and polymeric dietary polyphenols, have an essential role on the organoleptic and health-related properties of plant foods. Their content is usually determined by HPLC analysis of aqueous-organic extracts. However, appreciable amounts of polymeric PA that remain in the residues of extraction usually are not considered for the analysis. A complete quantification of PA requires an additional determination of these non-extractable PA (NEPA). The objective of this work was to develop a new procedure to determine the content of NEPA, based in depolymerization by butanolysis, which yields anthocyanidin monomers and xanthylium compounds. Samples and standard are treated with butanol/HCl with FeCl(3) (100°C, 60 min), and absorbances at 555 nm (anthocyanidins) and 450 nm (xanthylium compounds) are measured in the hydrolysates. NEPA content determined in some plant foods suggests that procedures based just on anthocyanidin concentration overestimate the actual content.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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    Maria Tabernero · Koen Venema · Annet J H Maathuis · Fulgencio D Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolite production and antioxidant released during colonic fermentation of naturally occurring dietary fiber (DF) from two European diets (Mediterranean and Scandinavian) were determined. With this aim, DF and associated components were isolated from both whole diets, as well as from cereals and fruits and vegetables comprising the diets. DF was used as substrate for colonic fermentation in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon, samples were collected, and fermentation metabolites were analyzed. Statistical differences between samples were observed in the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia and in the ratio acetate/propionate/butyrate. Whole grain cereal DF generated a larger amount of propionate than refined flour cereal DF. Fruit and vegetable DF generated higher amounts of butyrate than cereal DF. Most antioxidant compounds were released from DF during in vitro colonic fermentation. It is concluded that different sources of DF may play a specific role in health maintenance mediated by metabolites produced during colonic fermentation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports a study of the concentrations of dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant capacity in fruits (pulp and oil) of a new açaí (Euterpe oleraceae) cultivar—‘BRS-Pará’, with a view to determine the possibility of using it as a source of antioxidants in functional foods or dietary supplements. Results show that ‘BRS-Pará’ açaí fruits has a high content of DF (71% dry matter) and oil (20.82%) as well as a high antioxidant capacity in both defatted matter and oil. ‘BRS-Pará’ Açaí fruits can be considered as an excellent source of antioxidant dietary fiber. Antioxidant capacity of açaí ‘BRS-Pará’ oil by DPPH assay was higher (EC50=646.3g/g DPPH) than extra virgin olive oil (EC50=2057.27g/g DPPH). These features provide açaí ‘BRS-Pará’ fruits with considerable potential for nutritional and health applications.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Food Research International
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    Maria Elena Diaz-Rubio · Jose Serrano · Javier Borderias · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: The technological effect of antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF) from Fucus vesiculosus added to minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) during frozen storage was tested. Fish mince (FM) samples supplemented with 1 and 2% AODF were compared to AODF-free control. Dietary analysis, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols content, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay), and free radical scavenging activity (by ABTS assay), water binding capacity, water holding ability, cooking yield, and sensory analyses were carried out just after freezing and during frozen storage. Samples with 1 and 2% of AODF added had lower lipid oxidation than those without AODF, and the total drip (thaw + cooking) was reduced after 3 months of frozen storage. Fish samples supplemented with 1% AODF did not have a different flavor from the control. Samples supplemented with 2% AODF had a different flavor from the control, but this did not impair palatability.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology
  • M Elena Diaz-Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Beverages are generally not taken into account to determine the intakes of dietary fibre (DF) in diets. Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content was determined in common alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages - ranging from 0.18 g/l in white wine to 9.01 g/l in instant coffee - and their contribution to the DF intake in the Spanish Mediterranean diet was estimated as 2.13 g/person/day. It is concluded that beverages provide an appreciable amount of SDF in the diet, and the omission of its contribution may lead to underestimate DF intakes.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
  • Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: The literature addresses dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidants (AOX) separately as nonrelated compounds. This paper proposes to show that DF and AOX could be approached jointly in nutrition and health studies because around 50% of the total dietary antioxidants, mainly polyphenolics, traverse the small intestine linked to dietary fiber. These antioxidants have received little attention so far. They release the fiber matrix in the colon by the action of the bacterial microbiota, producing metabolites and an antioxidant environment. The content of polyphenols associated with DF in different foods and their potential health-related properties, including animal experiments and human trials, are reviewed. It is concluded that the transportation of dietary antioxidants through the gastrointestinal tract may be an essential function of DF.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • MªElena Díaz Rubio · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Tesis doctoral de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Química Física Aplicada. Fecha de lectura, 15 de abril de 2008 Bibliogr. p.293-321
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Several tropical fruits have been described as natural sources of dietary fibre (DF) and phenolic compounds, associated with different health effects. The aim of this work was to ascertain the DF, phenolic compounds content (including non-extractable polyphenols, mostly associated with DF) and antioxidant capacity in acerola fruits and cashew apples from selected clones. ‘BRS 236’ acerola fruits presented a high antioxidant capacity because of the combination of both extractable polyphenols and l-ascorbic acid (providing together a Folin value of 170 kg−1 g d.m.). ‘CCP 76’ cashew apples contained 28 g kg−1 d.m. of extractable polyphenols and 13 g kg−1 d.m. of ascorbic acid as well as a high amount of non-extractable condensed tannins (52 g kg−1 d.m.). DF content was of 260 g kg−1 d.m. in acerola fruit and of 209 g kg−1 d.m. in cashew apple. Acerola fruits and cashew apple should therefore be considered as new natural sources of DF and phenolic compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · International Journal of Food Science & Technology
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    Sara Arranz · Jose Manuel Silván · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary polyphenols (PP) can be divided into two groups: extractable polyphenols (EPP) or compounds solubilized by aqueous organic solvents, and nonextractable polyphenols (NEPP) or compounds that remain in their corresponding extraction residues. Most studies on food polyphenols and dietary intakes address exclusively EPP. The objective of this work was to determine the actual amount of PP, including NEPP, in food and in a whole diet. HPLC-MS analyses were performed to identify EPP in methanol-acetone extracts and NEPP in the acidic hydrolyzates of their extraction residues in cereals, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. NEPP contents, estimated as hydrolyzable PP plus nonextractable proanthocyanidins (PA), ranged from 880 mg/100 g dry weight in fruits to 210 mg/100 g in cereals and were substantially higher than the contents of EPP. NEPP intake (day/person) in the Spanish diet (942 mg) is higher than EPP intake (258 mg) fruits and vegetables (746 mg) are the major contributors to the total PP intake (1201 mg). Non extractable polyphenols are the major part of dietary polyphenols. The knowledge of intakes and physiological properties of NEPP may be useful for a better understanding of the potential health effects of dietary PP.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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    José Manuel Silván · Francisco J Morales · Fulgencio Saura-Calixto
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    ABSTRACT: There is a methodological and conceptual overlap between coffee melanoidins and dietary fiber. Green Uganda coffee beans were roasted in a range from 8.1 to 21.6% of weight loss to evaluate melanoidins and dietary fiber. Samples were characterized by color, moisture, solubility, water activity, carbohydrates, polyphenols, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and melanoidins content. Hydroxymethylfurfural and chlorogenic acids were also measured as chemical markers of the extent of roasting. Melanoidins rapidly increased from 5.6 (light roasting) to 29.1 mg/100 mg soluble dry matter (dark roasting). A melanoidins-like structure was already present in green coffee that might overestimate up to 21.0% of the melanoidins content as determined by colorimetric methods. However, its contribution is variable and very likely depends on the method of drying applied to green coffee. SDF content (mg/100 mg soluble dry matter) gradually increased from 39.4 in green coffee to 64.9 at severe roasting conditions due to incorporation of neoformed colored structures and polyphenols. Then, SDF progressively turns to a maillardized structure, which increased from 11.0 to 45.0% according to the roasting conditions. It is concluded that the content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber and also that coffee dietary fiber includes melanoidins. A conceptual discussion on a new definition of coffee melanoidins as a type of maillardized dietary fiber is conducted.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of polyphenolic extracts of 18 fresh and dry native non-traditional fruits from Brazil were determined using ABTS, DDPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching methods. The study provides an adaptation of these methods, along with an evaluation of the compounds related to antioxidant potential. The results show promising perspectives for the exploitation of non-traditional tropical fruit species with considerable levels of nutrients and antioxidant capacity. Although evaluation methods and results reported have not yet been sufficiently standardised, making comparisons difficult, our data add valuable information to current knowledge of the nutritional properties of tropical fruits, such as the considerable antioxidant capacity found for acerola – Malpighia emarginata and camu-camu – Myrciaria dubia (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and for puçá-preto – Mouriri pusa (all methods).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Food Chemistry

Publication Stats

7k Citations
210.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1997-2015
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Nutrition and Metabolism
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999-2009
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1992-1995
    • University of Alcalá
      • Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Cómpluto, Madrid, Spain